Women, Men, and Human Capital Development in the Public Sector: Return on Investments analyzes the gap in wages paid to women and men who work for federal, state, and local governments, factors that contribute to disparities in pay, and organizational strategies for narrowing the gap. The gender gap in wages and status is closing. Changes in public policies and social and organizational changes have facilitated the development of human capital. However many systemic, socio-psychological, and social barriers still limit women's career advancement in the public service. American women earn approximately 80 cents for every dollar earned by men. Women hold less than 30 percent of executive positions in the private sector as well as federal, state and local governments. This study analyzes factors, both legal and illegal, that lead to inequities in the pay and status of men and women. In recent turbulent economic times many organizations have eliminated jobs, facilitated early retirements, and lost employees frustrated by the lack of opportunities for advancement. Proactive organizations prepare for the unexpected by fully developing their human capital. Public policies have been less than effective in closing the wage gap, due in part to American culture and individual women's choices. Women are more likely than men to complete lower levels of education, enter the workforce later in life and occupy lower level positions. For these reasons the gender based wage gap may never close, but, as the author points out, investments in human capital development may facilitate women's career advancement and narrow the gap. The author develops specific strategies for narrowing the wage gap, and explores avenues of implementation.
|Edition description:||New Edition|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)|
About the Author
Bonnie G. Mani is an associate professor of political science at East Carolina University. She is the author of Women, Power, and Political Change.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Barriers and Facilitators to the Advancement of Women in Public Service: What Every Mentor's Protégé Should Know Chapter 2. Women, Men, and Human Capital Development in the Internal Revenue Service: What's the Difference? Chapter 3. Female and Male Veterans and Nonveterans: What's the Latest on their Career Advancement in the Federal Civil Service? Chapter 4. Strategies for Human Capital Development: Employee and Organization Development Chapter 5. Mentors, Protégés, and Individual Development Planning Chapter 6. Developing Leaders to Meet Future Needs Chapter 7. Conclusions