Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology / Edition 1

Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology / Edition 1

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McGraw-Hill Companies, The

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Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology / Edition 1

Work in the 21st Century is the most current, engaging, and highly regarded text for the industrial and organizational psychology course. Combining leading research, consulting, and over 40 years combined teaching expertise, Frank J. Landy and Jeffrey M. Conte provide students with up-to-date examples and cases that link current research and theory to practical issues in the workplace. Work in the 21st Century continues to emphasize the scientist-practitioner model, showing students the connection between using the tools of science and the practice of I-0 psychology.

The third edition retains a number of themes from the prior, edition that underscore the multifaceted nature of work such as the increase in cross-cultural work, the diversification of workforces, and the growing complexity of the technical and organizational aspects of work. To this edition the authors add authenticity as a theme, with the goal of preparing students for the 21st-century workplace.

Cutting-edge topics and research coverage: includes the Five Factor Theory of Personality, the Big Eight theory of competencies, emotional intelligence, culture and emotions, genetics and job satisfaction, achieving balance between work and nonwork, stress and violence, measuring motivation, integrity testing, entrepreneurship, computer-based assessment, male vs. female leaders, cross-cultural teams, bullying, and more

Modular approach: self-contained sections within chapters provide maximum teaching flexibility

Case studies and high interest boxes: cases and boxes spotlight concrete examples of key issues in work and behavior in various applied settings.

Clear and articulate explanations: engagingprose and interesting examples make the book accessible to a wide range of students.

Appeating and accessible format: four-color design that brings I-O psychology to life and includes the use of newsmaking color photographs and cartoons carefully chosen to illustrate concepts

Ancillaries: Instructor's Manual, Test Bank, Student Study Guide, PowerPoint slides, and Web Resources

Over 480 new references- with more than 80 percent published in 2006 or later to reflect the most current coverage of the rapidly developing field of I-O

Important topics added include socialization and national culture, inclusion, authenticity as a theme in 21st-century work, conditional reasoning and aggressive tendencies, and the increasing role of technology as a workplace stressor

Expanded coverage of critical areas such as international and cross-cultural issues, ethical behavior, personality and work behavior, counter productive work behaviors, entrepreneurial motivation, telecommuting, workplace bullying, and team mental models

Timely examples and applications of I-O psychology principles including the role of I-O psychologists in the safe landing of US Airways flight 1549 in the Hudson River, the Iraq war, and the creation of a green and sustainable society

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780072830224
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 11/28/2003
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 700
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xx

Part 1 Fundamentals

1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? 3

Module 1.1 The Importance of I-O Psychology 4

The Importance of Work in People's Lives 4

The Concept of "Good Work" 5

Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists 7

How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society? 8

What Is I-O Psychology? 8

SIOP as a Resource 12

How This Course Can Help You 12

The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker 14

Module 1.2 The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology 17

The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology 17

1876-1930 18

1930-1964 20

The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologists 24

Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixture 24

What We Call Ourselves 25

The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century 25

A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychology 26

Education and Training 27

Getting into a Graduate Program 27

Module 1.3 Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychology 30

The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Century 30

Cross-National Issues at the Workplace 32

Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You? 34

Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology? 35

Some Theories of Cultural Influence 36

Hofstede's Theory 36

Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influence 40

Module 1.4 The Organization of This Book 43

Themes 43

Parts 44

Resources 44

Case Study 1.1 47

2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology 53

Module 2.1 Science 54

What Is Science? 54

The Role of Science in Society 55

Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research? 56

Module 2.2 Research 58

ResearchDesign 58

Methods of Data Collection 61

Qualitative and Quantitative Research 61

The Importance of Context in Interpreting Research 61

Generalizability and Control in Research 62

Generalizability 62

Case Study 2.1 63

Control 64

Ethical Behavior in I-O Psychology 65

Module 2.3 Data Analysis 68

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 68

Descriptive Statistics 68

Inferential Statistics 70

Statistical Significance 70

The Concept of Statistical Power 71

Correlation and Regression 71

The Concept of Correlation 72

The Correlation Coefficient 72

Multiple Correlation 74

Correlation and Causation 74

Meta-Analysis 75

Micro-, Macro-, and Meso-Research 77

Module 2.4 Interpretation 79

Reliability 79

Test-Retest Reliability 80

Equivalent Forms Reliability 80

Internal Consistency 81

Inter-Rater Reliability 81

Validity 82

Criterion-Related Validity 83

Content-Related Validity 85

Construct-Related Validity 86

Validity and the Law: A Mixed Blessing 88

Part 2 Industrial Psychology

3 Individual Differences and Assessment 93

Module 3.1 An Introduction to Individual Differences 94

Some Background 94

Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychology 95

Identifying Individual Differences 96

Varieties of Individual Differences 97

Module 3.2 Human Attributes 100

Abilities 100

Cognitive Abilities 100

Intelligence as "g" 100

Is "g" Important at Work? 101

Is "g" as Important in Other Countries as It Is in the United States? 102

Can Your Level of "g" Change? 102

The Issue of Retesting and Cognitive Ability 103

Specific Cognitive Abilities beyond "g" 103

Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilities 106

Physical Abilities 106

Sensory Abilities 108

Psychomotor Abilities 108

Personality and Work Behavior 108

The Big Five and Other Models of Personality 110

Case Study 3.1 113

Implications of Broad Personality Models 113

Personality Change over the Life Span 114

Additional Attributes 115

Skills 115

Knowledge 115

Competencies 118

Emotional Intelligence 118

Module 3.3 Foundations of Assessment 121

The Past and the Present of Testing 121

What Is a Test? 123

What Is the Meaning of a Test Score? 123

Test Users and Test Interpretation 124

What Is a Test Battery? 126

Where to Find Tests 126

Administrative Test Categories 126

Speed versus Power Tests 126

Group versus Individual Tests 128

Paper and Pencil versus Performance Tests 128

Testing and Culture 128

International Assessment Practices 131

Module 3.4 Assessment Procedures 133

Assessment Content versus Process 133

Assessment Procedures: Content 133

Cognitive Ability Tests 133

Knowledge Tests 136

Tests of Physical Abilities 136

Psychomotor Abilities 137

Personality 138

Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measures 138

Integrity Testing 142

Emotional Intelligence 144

Individual Assessment 145

Interviews 145

Interview Content 145

Interview Process 148

Assessment Centers 148

Work Samples and Situational Tests 151

Work Sample Tests 151

Situational Judgment Tests 152

Module 3.5 Special Topics in Assessment 157

Incremental Validity 157

Biographical Data 158

Grades and Letters of Recommendation 161

Minimum Qualifications 162

Useless Assessment Practices: Graphology and the Polygraph 162

Drug and Alcohol Testing 163

Computer-Based and Internet Assessment 165

Unproctored Internet Testing 167

Who Is a Candidate? 168

Computer Adaptive Testing 168

Testing and Demographic Differences 169

4 Job Analysis and Performance 173

Module 4.1 A Basic Model of Performance 174

Campbell's Model of Job Performance 174

Typical versus Maximum Performance 178

Criterion Deficiency and Contamination 179

A Broader View 180

Module 4.2 Extensions of the Basic Performance Model 182

Task Performance versus Organizational Citizenship Behavior 182

Causes and Correlates of OCB 184

The Dark Side of Performance: Counterproductive Work Behaviors 186

Causes of and Treatments for CWB 189

OCB and CWB: Two Ends of the Same Continuum? 190

Proactive Work Behavior 190

Adaptive Performance 191

A Brief Recap 193

A Comprehensive Framework for Considering Performance: The "Great Eight" 194

The Case of Expert Performance 194

Types of Performance Measures 197

Module 4.3 Job Analysis: Fundamental Properties and Practices 199

The Uses of Job Analysis Information 199

A Brief History of Job Analysis 202

Types of Job Analysis 203

How Job Analysis Is Done 206

Module 4.4 Job Analysis: Newer Developments 209

Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysis 209

Cognitive Task Analysis 210

The Context of Work 212

Personality-Based Job Analysis 213

A Summary of the Job Analysis Process 215

Computer-Based Job Analysis 216

O*NET 217

Competency Modeling 219

Module 4.5 Job Evaluation and the Law 222

Job Evaluation 222

The Concept of Comparable Worth 223

Job Analysis and Employment Litigation 224

5 Performance Measurement 227

Module 5.1 Basic Concepts in Performance Measurement 228

Uses for Performance Information 228

Relationships among Performance Measures 229

Hands-On Performance Measures 229

Electronic Performance Monitoring 230

Performance Management 233

Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Measurement 234

Module 5.2 Performance Rating-Substance 238

Close-Up on a Rating System 238

Theories of Performance Ratings 240

Focus on Performance Ratings 241

Overall Performance Ratings 241

Trait Ratings 242

Task-Based Ratings 242

Critical Incidents Methods 242

OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratings 243

Structural Characteristics of a Performance Rating Scale 243

Rating Formats 245

Graphic Rating Scales 245

Checklists 245

Behavioral Rating 247

Employee Comparison Methods 248

A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARS 249

Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formats 251

Module 5.3 Performance Rating-Process 252

Rating Sources 252

Supervisors 252

Peers 254

Self-Ratings 254

Subordinate Ratings 256

Customer and Supplier Ratings 256

360 Degree Systems 256

Rating Distortions 257

Central Tendency Error 257

Leniency-Severity Error 257

Halo Error 258

Rater Training 258

Administrative Training 258

Psychometric Training 259

Frame-of-Reference Training 259

The Reliability and Validity of Ratings 259

Reliability 259

Validity 260

Module 5.4 The Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation 261

The Motivation to Rate 261

Goal Conflict 263

Performance Feedback 264

"Destructive" Criticism 265

360 Degree Feedback 266

Performance Evaluation and Culture 268

Performance Evaluation and the Law 270

Performance Evaluation and Protected Groups 273

6 Staffing Decisions 277

Module 6.1 Conceptual Issues in Staffing 278

An Introduction to the Staffing Process 278

The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance 279

Stakeholders in the Staffing Process 281

Line Managers 281

Co-workers 281

Applicants 282

Staffing from the International Perspective 283

Module 6.2 Evaluation of Staffing Outcomes 286

Validity 286

Selection Ratios 287

Prediction Errors and Cut Scores 288

Establishing Cut Scores 289

Utility 290

Til Death Us Do Part? The Concept of Dynamic Validities 291

Fairness 292

Module 6.3 Practical Issues in Staffing 294

A Staffing Model 294

Comprehensive Selection Systems 294

Compensatory Selection Systems 294

Combining Information 295

Statistical versus Clinical Decision Making 295

The Hurdle System of Combining Scores 296

Combining Scores by Regression (The Compensatory Approach) 297

Score Banding 298

Subgroup Norming 299

Selection versus Placement 299

Deselection 301

Number of Decisions to Be Made 301

Large Staffing Projects 301

Small Staffing Projects 303

21st- Century Staffing 304

Module 6.4 Legal Issues in Staffing Decisions 306

Charges of Employment Discrimination 306

Employment Discrimination Outside of the United States 307

Theories of Discrimination 308

Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment 308

Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact 308

Case Study 6.1 310

7 Training and Development 315

Module 7.1 Foundations of Training and Learning 316

Training, Learning, and Performance 317

Training Needs Analysis 318

The Learning Process in Training 321

Trainee Characteristics 321

Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training 323

Principles of Learning 325

Learning Organizations 328

Module 7.2 Content and Methods of Training 331

Training Methods 331

On-Site Training Methods 331

Off-Site Training Methods 333

Distance Learning and Computer-Based Training 334

Training "Critical Thinking" 336

Transfer of Training 337

Module 7.3 Evaluating Training Programs 339

Training Evaluation 339

Training Criteria 340

Utility Analysis 341

Training Evaluation Designs 341

Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Training 344

Module 7.4 Specialized Training Programs 346

Management and Leadership Development 346

Assessment Centers 347

360 Degree Feedback 347

Coaching 348

Informal Training 350

Sexual Harassment Awareness Training 350

Ethics Training 352

Cross-Cultural Training 353

Part 3 Organizational Psychology

8 The Motivation to Work 359

Module 8.1 An Introduction to Motivation 360

The Central Position of Motivation in Psychology 360

A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology 361

Metaphors for Motivation 362

Person as Machine 363

Person as Scientist 363

The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplace 365

Motivation and Performance 365

Motivation and Work-Life Balance 365

Motivation and Attitudes 366

Motivation and Personality 367

Module 8.2 Motivational Theories-Classic Approaches 369

"Person as Machine" Theories 369

An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow's Need Theory 369

An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theory 371

"Person as Scientist" Theories 372

Vroom's VIE Theory 373

Equity Theory 374

Module 8.3 Modern Approaches to Work Motivation 377

Person-as-Intentional Approaches 377

Goal-Setting Theory 377

Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation 381

The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory 383

Action Theory 386

Common Themes in Modern Approaches 388

A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneur 388

Module 8.4 Practical Issues in Motivation 393

Can Motivation Be Measured? 393

Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation 394

Generational Differences and Work Motivation 396

Motivational Interventions 398

Contingent Rewards 398

Job Enrichment 399

ProMES 400

9 Attitudes, Emotions, and Work 403

Module 9.1 Job Satisfaction 404

The Experience of Emotion at Work 404

Job Satisfaction: Some History 405

The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Research 405

An Evolution 407

Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfaction 408

The Measurement of Job Satisfaction 412

Overall versus Facet Satisfaction 412

Satisfaction Questionnaires 413

The Concept of Commitment 415

Forms of Commitment 416

Individual Difference Variables and Commitment 418

A New Focus: Organizational Identification 419

Module 9.2 Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior 423

Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are? 423

The Concept of "Resigned" Work Satisfaction 423

Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotion 426

Dispositions and Affectivity 428

The Time Course of Emotional Experience 429

Genetics and Job Satisfaction 431

The Concept of Core Self-Evaluations 432

Withdrawal Behaviors 434

Module 9.3 Special Topics Related to Attitudes and Emotions 436

Job Loss 436

Telecommuting 439

Work-Family Balance 440

Psychological Contracts 443

Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions from the Cross-Cultural Perspective 444

10 Stress and Worker Well-Being 447

Module 10.1 The Problem of Stress 448

Studying Workplace Stress 448

What Is a Stressor? 450

Common Stressors at Work 451

Physical/Task Stressors 451

Psychological Stressors 452

Consequences of Stress 456

Behavioral Consequences of Stress 456

Psychological Consequences of Stress 458

Physiological Consequences of Stress 460

Work Schedules 460

Shift Work 461

Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules 462

Module 10.2 Theories of Stress 467

Demand-Control Model 467

Person-Environment Fit Model 468

Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress 469

The Type A Behavior Pattern 470

Module 10.3 Reducing and Managing Stress 475

Primary Prevention Strategies 476

Work and Job Design 476

Cognitive Restructuring 477

Secondary Prevention Strategies 477

Stress Management Training 478

Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniques 479

Social Support 479

Tertiary Prevention Strategies 480

Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies 481

Future Work Trends and Challenges to Stress and Stress Management 481

Module 10.4 Violence at Work 484

Stress and Workplace Violence 485

Levels of Violence 486

The Experiential Sequence of Violence 487

The "Typical" Violent Worker 487

Theories of Workplace Violence 488

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 488

The "Justice" Hypothesis 489

A Special Type of Violence: Bullying 491

What Can We Conclude about Workplace Violence? 494

11 Fairness and Diversity in the Workplace 497

Module 11.1 Fairness 498

The Concept of Justice 498

Justice, Fairness, and Trust 500

Approaches to Organizational Justice 503

Distributive Justice 503

Procedural Justice 504

Interactional Justice 506

Deontic Justice 508

Justice versus Injustice 508

Module 11.2 The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptions 511

Performance Evaluation 512

Applicant Perceptions of Selection Fairness 513

A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threat 517

A Model of Applicant Decision Making 518

The Special Case of Affirmative Action 519

Culture and Affirmative Action Programs 523

Module 11.3 Diversity 525

What Does Diversity Mean? 525

The Dynamics of Diversity 526

Group and Multicultural Diversity 528

Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective 529

Leadership and Diversity 532

12 Leadership 535

Module 12.1 The Concept of Leadership 536

Some Conceptual Distinctions 536

Leader Emergence versus Leadership Effectiveness 537

Leader Emergence 537

The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomes 538

Negative Leadership Outcomes: The Destructive Leader 539

Leader versus Manager or Supervisor 541

The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Roles 542

Leader Development versus Leadership Development 544

The Motivation to Lead 546

Module 12.2 Traditional Theories of Leadership 549

The "Great Man" Theories 549

The Trait Approach 550

The "Power" Approach to Leadership 550

The Behavioral Approach 551

The Ohio State University Studies 551

The University of Michigan Studies 553

The Contingency Approach 554

The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom-Yetton Model 555

Module 12.3 New Approaches to Leadership 558

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) 558

Transformational Leadership 560

Authentic Leadership 564

The Charismatic Leader 565

Module 12.4 Emerging Topics and Challenges in Leadership Research 568

Leadership in a Changing Workplace 568

Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different? 570

The Demographics of Leadership 570

The Leadership Styles of Men and Women 572

Personality and Leadership 574

Cross-Cultural Studies of Leadership 576

Leadership in a Diverse Environment 581

Guidelines for Effective Leadership 582

13 Teams in Organizations 585

Module 13.1 Types of Teams 586

Groups and Teams: Definitions 587

Types of Teams 587

Quality Circles 588

Project Teams 589

Production Teams 589

Virtual Teams 591

Module 13.2 Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness 595

Team Inputs 596

Organizational Context 596

Team Task 596

Team Composition 596

Team Diversity 599

Team Processes 600

Norms 601

Communication and Coordination 601

Cohesion 602

Decision Making 603

Team Outputs 605

Module 13.3 Special Issues in Teams 608

Team Appraisal and Feedback 608

ProMES 609

Team Roles 610

Team Development 611

Team Training 613

Cultural Issues in Teams 614

14 The Organization of Work Behavior 617

Module 14.1 The Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Organizations 618

Organizations and People 618

Organization as Integration 621

Theories of Organization 622

Classic Organizational Theory 622

Human Relations Theory 624

Contingency Theories 626

Systems Theory 629

Conclusions about Theories of Organization 632

Module 14.2 Some Social Dynamics of Organizations 635

Climate and Culture 635

A Brief History of Climate and Culture 636

An Integration of Concepts 638

A New Avenue for Exploration: Climate and Culture Strength 640

Organizational Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspective 642

When Cultures Clash 642

An Application of Culture and Climate: Safety 644

The Role of Leaders in Safety 644

Safety Climate and Culture 645

Socialization and the Concept of Person-Organization (P-O) and Person-Job (P-J) Fit 647

Organizational Socialization 647

Positive Consequences of Socialization 650

Socialization and National Culture 652

Socialization and Person-Organization Fit Models 653

Module 14.3 Organizational Development and Change 658

Organizational Change 658

Episodic Change 659

Continuous Change 660

Resistance to Change 662

Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiatives 663

Total Quality Management (TQM) 664

Six Sigma Systems 664

Lean Production Manufacturing 666

Management by Objectives, Matrix Organizations, and Mergers and Acquisitions 668

Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventions 668

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Credits C-1

Name Index I-1

Subject Index I-18

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