The world is in the grip of what can be loosely characterised as an inter-religious conflict, in which there appears to be a basic bias against Islam and Muslims, as the behaviour of an extreme minority of fundamentalists is indiscriminately attributed to all Muslims world-wide. Based on a careful examination of the Muslim religion, from Islamic and other religious and non-religious perspectives, this study endeavours to correct some of these misapprehensions, with the aim of promoting mutual understanding and peaceful co-existence between different religious groups. Particular reference is made to the situation of religious conflict in Nigeria. The study contends that the schisms and sectarianism within and between the different faiths are aggravated by the failures in religious leadership. It argues there is a need for local, national and international platforms and forums to provide a space for inter-religious, non-sectarian dialogue on an ongoing basis. It proposes that UNESCO should take the lead, by including work on religion in its cultural remit. Professor Yesufu, originally an economist, has held key positions in universities, UNESCO, the International Labour Organisation and UNDP. He has experience of Europe, Africa and South-East Asia.