The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century

by Thomas L. Friedman, Oliver Wyman

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The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century by Thomas L. Friedman, Oliver Wyman

This Independence Day edition of The World is Flat 3.0 includes an an exclusive preview of That Used to Be Us: How America Fell Behind in the World It Invented and How We Can Come Back, by Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum, on sale September 5th, 2011.

A New Edition of the Phenomenal #1 Bestseller

"One mark of a great book is that it makes you see things in a new way, and Mr. Friedman certainly succeeds in that goal," the Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz wrote in The New York Times reviewing The World Is Flat in 2005. In this new edition, Thomas L. Friedman includes fresh stories and insights to help us understand the flattening of the world. Weaving new information into his overall thesis, and answering the questions he has been most frequently asked by parents across the country, this third edition also includes two new chapters--on how to be a political activist and social entrepreneur in a flat world; and on the more troubling question of how to manage our reputations and privacy in a world where we are all becoming publishers and public figures.

The World Is Flat 3.0 is an essential update on globalization, its opportunities for individual empowerment, its achievements at lifting millions out of poverty, and its drawbacks--environmental, social, and political, powerfully illuminated by the Pulitzer Prize--winning author of The Lexus and the Olive Tree.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781429923071
Publisher: Picador
Publication date: 07/24/2007
Sold by: Macmillan
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 672
Sales rank: 274,834
File size: 934 KB

About the Author

Thomas L. Friedman has won the Pulitzer Prize three times for his work at The New York Times, where he serves as the foreign affairs columnist. He is the author of three previous books, all of them bestsellers: From Beirut to Jerusalem, winner of the National Book Award for nonfiction; The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization; and Longitudes and Attitudes: Exploring the World After September 11. In 2005 The World Is Flat was given the first Financial Times and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award, and Friedman was named one of America's Best Leaders by U.S. News&World Report. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland, with his family.

Thomas L. Friedman is an internationally renowned author, reporter, and columnist-the recipient of three Pulitzer Prizes and the author of six bestselling books, among them From Beirut to Jerusalem and The World Is Flat.

He was born in Minneapolis in 1953, and grew up in the middle-class Minneapolis suburb of St. Louis Park. He graduated from Brandeis University in 1975 with a degree in Mediterranean studies, attended St. Antony's College, Oxford, on a Marshall Scholarship, and received an M.Phil. degree in modern Middle East studies from Oxford. After three years with United Press International, he joined The New York Times, where he has worked ever since as a reporter, correspondent, bureau chief, and columnist. At the Times, he has won three Pulitzer Prizes: in 1983 for international reporting (from Lebanon), in 1988 for international reporting (from Israel), and in 2002 for his columns after the September 11th attacks.

Friedman's first book, From Beirut to Jerusalem, won the National Book Award in 1989. His second book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (1999), won the Overseas Press Club Award for best book on foreign policy in 2000. In 2002 FSG published a collection of his Pulitzer Prize-winning columns, along with a diary he kept after 9/11, as Longitudes and Attitudes: Exploring the World After September 11. His fourth book, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (2005) became a #1 New York Times bestseller and received the inaugural Financial Times/Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award in November 2005. A revised and expanded edition was published in hardcover in 2006 and in 2007. The World Is Flat has sold more than 4 million copies in thirty-seven languages.

In 2008 he brought out Hot, Flat, and Crowded, which was published in a revised edition a year later. His sixth book, That Used to Be Us: How American Fell Behind in the World We Invented and How We Can Come Back, co-written with Michael Mandelbaum, was published in 2011.

Thomas L. Friedman lives in Bethesda, Maryland, with his family.

Hometown:

Washington, D.C. area

Date of Birth:

July 20, 1953

Place of Birth:

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Education:

B.A. in Mediterranean Studies, Brandeis University, 1975; M.A. in Modern Middle East Studies, Oxford University, 1978

Read an Excerpt

The World Is Flat [Further Updated and Expanded; Release 3.0]

A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
By Friedman, Thomas L.

Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Copyright © 2007 Friedman, Thomas L.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 9780374292782

Chapter 1 Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that anyone has gone. —Entry from the journal of Christopher Columbus on his voyage of 1492  No one ever gave me directions like this on a golf course before: “Aim at either Microsoft or IBM.” I was standing on the first tee at the KGA Golf Club in downtown Bangalore, in southern India, when my playing partner pointed at two shiny glass-and-steel buildings off in the distance, just behind the first green. The Goldman Sachs building wasn’t done yet; otherwise he could have pointed that out as well and made it a threesome. HP and Texas Instruments hadtheir offices on the back nine, along the tenth hole. That wasn’t all. The tee markers were from Epson, the printer company, and one of our caddies was wearing a hat from 3M. Outside, some of the traffic signs were also sponsored by Texas Instruments, and the Pizza Hut billboard on the way over showed a steaming pizza, under the headline “Gigabites of Taste!” No, this definitely wasn’t Kansas. It didn’t even seem like India. Was this the New World, the Old World, or the Next World? I had come to Bangalore, India’s Silicon Valley, on my own Columbus-like journey of exploration. Columbus sailed with the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa María in an effort to discover a shorter, more direct route to India by heading west, across the Atlantic, on what he presumed to be an open sea route to the East Indies—rather than going south and east around Africa, as Portuguese explorers of his day were trying to do. India and the magical Spice Islands of the East were famed at the time for their gold, pearls, gems, and silk—a source of untold riches. Finding this shortcut by sea to India, at a time when the Muslim powers of the day had blocked the overland routes from Europe, was a way for both Columbus and the Spanish monarchy to become wealthy and powerful.  When Columbus set sail, he apparently assumed the earth was round, which was why he was convinced that he could get to India by going west. He miscalculated the distance, though. He thought the earth was a smaller sphere than it is. He also did not anticipate running into a landmass before he reached the East Indies. Nevertheless, he called the aboriginal peoples he encountered in the new world “Indians.” Returning home, though, Columbus was able to tell his patrons, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, that although he never did find India, he could confirm that the world was indeed round. I set out for India by going due east, via Frankfurt. I had Lufthansa business class. I knew exactly which direction I was going thanks to the GPS map displayed on the screen that popped out of the armrest of my airline seat. I landed safely and on schedule. I too encountered people called Indians. I too was searching for India’s riches. Columbus was searching for hardware—precious metals, silk, and spices—the sources of wealth in his day. I was searching for software, brainpower, complex algorithms, knowledge workers, call centers, transmission protocols, breakthroughs in optical engineering—the sources of wealth in our day. Columbus was happy to make the Indians he met his slaves, a pool of free manual labor. I just wanted to understand why the Indians I met were taking our work, why they had become such an important pool for the outsourcing of service and information technology work from America and other industrialized countries. Columbus had more than one hundred men on his three ships; I had a small crew from the Discovery Times channel that fit comfortably into two banged-up vans, with Indian drivers who drove barefoot. When I set sail, so to speak, I too assumed that the world was round, but what I encountered in the real India profoundly shook my faith in that notion. Columbus accidentally ran into America but thought he had discovered part of India. I actually found India and thought many of the people I met there were Americans. Some had actually taken American names, and others were doing great imitations of American accents at call centers and American business techniques at software labs. Columbus reported to his king and queen that the world was round, and he went down in history as the man who first made this discovery. I returned home and shared my discovery only with my wife, and only in a whisper. “Honey,” I confided, “I think the world is flat.”  How did I come to this conclusion? I guess you could say it all started in Nandan Nilekani’s conference room at Infosys Technologies Limited. Infosys is one of the jewels of the Indian information technology world, and Nilekani, the company’s CEO, is one of the most thoughtful and respected captains of Indian industry. I drove with the Discovery Times crew out to the Infosys campus, about forty minutes from the heart of Bangalore, to tour the facility and interview Nilekani. The Infosys campus is reached by a pockmarked road, with sacred cows, horse-drawn carts, and motorized rickshaws all jostling alongside our vans. Once you enter the gates of Infosys, though, you are in a different world. A massive resort-size swimming pool nestles amid boulders and manicured lawns, adjacent to a huge putting green. There are multiple restaurants and a fabulous health club. Glass-and-steel buildings seem to sprout up like weeds each week. In some of those buildings, Infosys employees are writing specific software programs for American or European companies; in others, they are running the back rooms of major American- and European-based multinationals—everything from computer maintenance to specific research projects to answering customer calls routed there from all over the world. Security is tight, cameras monitor the doors, and if you are working for American Express, you cannot get into the building that is managing services and research for General Electric. Young Indian engineers, men and women, walk briskly from building to building, dangling ID badges. One looked like he could do my taxes. Another looked like she could take my computer apart. And a third looked like she designed it! After sitting for an interview, Nilekani gave our TV crew a tour of Infosys’s global conferencing center—ground zero of the Indian outsourcing industry. It was a cavernous wood-paneled room that looked like a tiered classroom from an Ivy League law school. On one end was a massive wall-size screen and overhead there were cameras in the ceiling for teleconferencing. “So this is our conference room, probably the largest screen in Asia—this is forty digital screens [put together],” Nilekani explained proudly, pointing to the biggest flat-screen TV I had ever seen. Infosys, he said, can hold a virtual meeting of the key players from its entire global supply chain for any project at any time on that supersize screen. So their American designers could be on the screen speaking with their Indian software writers and their Asian manufacturers all at once. “We could be sitting here, somebody from New York, London, Boston, San Francisco, all live. And maybe the implementation is in Singapore, so the Singapore person could also be live here . . . That’s globalization,” said Nilekani. Above the screen there were eight clocks that pretty well summed up the Infosys workday: 24/7/365. The clocks were labeled US West, US East, GMT, India, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Australia. “Outsourcing is just one dimension of a much more fundamental thing happening today in the world,” Nilekani explained. “What happened over the last [few] years is that there was a massive investment in technology, especially in the bubble era, when hundreds of millions of dollars were invested in putting broadband connectivity around the world, undersea cables, all those things.” At the same time, he added, computers became cheaper and dispersed all over the world, and there was an explosion of software—e-mail, search engines like Google, and proprietary software that can chop up any piece of work and send one part to Boston, one part to Bangalore, and one part to Beijing, making it easy for anyone to do remote development. When all of these things suddenly came together around 2000, added Nilekani, they “created a platform where intellectual work, intellectual capital, could be delivered from anywhere. It could be disaggregated, delivered, distributed, produced, and put back together again—and this gave a whole new degree of freedom to the way we do work, especially work of an intellectual nature . . . And what you are seeing in Bangalore today is really the culmination of all these things coming together.” We were sitting on the couch outside Nilekani’s office, waiting for the TV crew to set up its cameras. At one point, summing up the implications of all this, Nilekani uttered a phrase that rang in my ear. He said to me, “Tom, the playing field is being leveled.” He meant that countries like India are now able to compete for global knowledge work as never before—and that America had better get ready for this. America was going to be challenged, but, he insisted, the challenge would be good for America because we are always at our best when we are being challenged. As I left the Infosys campus that evening and bounced along the road back to Bangalore, I kept chewing on that phrase: “The playing field is being leveled.” What Nandan is saying, I thought to myself, is that the playing field is being flattened . . . Flattened? Flattened? I rolled that word around in my head for a while and then, in the chemical way that these things happen, it just popped out: My God, he’s telling me the world is flat! Here I was in Bangalore—more than five hundred years after Columbus sailed over the horizon, using the rudimentary navigational technologies of his day, and returned safely to prove definitively that the world was round—and one of India’s smartest engineers, trained at his country’s top technical institute and backed by the most modern technologies of his day, was essentially telling me that the world was flat—as flat as that screen on which he can host a meeting of his whole global supply chain. Even more interesting, he was citing this development as a good thing, as a new milestone in human progress and a great opportunity for India and the world—the fact that we had made our world flat! In the back of that van, I scribbled down four words in my notebook: “The world is flat.” As soon as I wrote them, I realized that this was the underlying message of everything that I had seen and heard in Bangalore in two weeks of filming. The global competitive playing field was being leveled. The world was being flattened. As I came to this realization, I was filled with both excitement and dread. The journalist in me was excited at having found a framework to better understand the morning headlines and to explain what was happening in the world today. Clearly Nandan was right: It is now possible for more people than ever to collaborate and compete in real time with more other people on more different kinds of work from more different corners of the planet and on a more equal footing than at any previous time in the history of the world—using computers, e-mail, fiber-optic networks, teleconferencing, and dynamic new software. That was what I discovered on my journey to India and beyond. And that is what this book is about. When you start to think of the world as flat, or at least in the process of flattening, a lot of things make sense in ways they did not before. But I was also excited personally, because what the flattening of the world means is that we are now connecting all the knowledge centers on the planet together into a single global network, which—if politics and terrorism do not get in the way—could usher in an amazing era of prosperity, innovation, and collaboration, by companies, communities, and individuals. But contemplating the flat world also left me filled with dread, professional and personal. My personal dread derived from the obvious fact that it’s not only the software writers and computer geeks who get empowered to collaborate on work in a flat world. It’s also al-Qaeda and other terrorist networks. The playing field is not being leveled only in ways that draw in and superempower a whole new group of innovators. It’s being leveled in a way that draws in and superempowers a whole new group of angry, frustrated, and humiliated men and women. Professionally, the recognition that the world was flat was unnerving because I realized that this flattening had been taking place while I was sleeping, and I had missed it. I wasn’t really sleeping, but I was otherwise engaged. Before 9/11, I was focused on tracking globalization and exploring the tension between the “Lexus” forces of economic integration and the “Olive Tree” forces of identity and nationalism—hence my 1999 book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree. But after 9/11, the olive tree wars became all-consuming for me. I spent almost all my time traveling in the Arab and Muslim worlds. During those years I lost the trail of globalization.  Excerpted from The World is Flat by Thomas L. Friedman. Copyright © 2005, 2006, 2007 by Thomas L. Friedman. Published in August 2007 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC. All rights reserved. 
 

Continues...

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Table of Contents


Introduction to the 3.0 Expanded Edition     ix
How the World Became Flat
While I Was Sleeping     3
The Ten Forces That Flattened the World     51
11/9/89
8/9/95
Work Flow Software
Uploading
Outsourcing
Offshoring
Supply-Chaining
Insourcing
In-forming
The Steroids
The Triple Convergence     200
The Great Sorting Out     233
America and the Flat World
America and Free Trade     263
The Untouchables     278
The Right Stuff     308
The Quiet Crisis     337
This Is Not a Test     374
Developing Countries and the Flat World
The Virgin of Guadalupe     403
Companies and the Flat World
How Companies Cope     441
You and the Flat World
Globalization of the Local     477
If It's Not Happening, It's Because You're Not Doing It     489
What Happens When We All Have Dog's Hearing?     515
Geopolitics and the Flat World
The Unflat World     533
The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention     580
Conclusion: Imagination
11/9 Versus 9/11     607
Acknowledgments     637
Index     641

Reading Group Guide

About this Guide

The following author biography and list of questions about The World Is Flat are intended as resources to aid individual readers and book groups who would like to learn more about the author and this book. We hope that this guide will provide you a starting place for discussion, and suggest a variety of perspectives from which you might approach The World Is Flat.

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The World Is Flat 3.9 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 150 reviews.
Bush_Man More than 1 year ago
The book The World is Flat, by Thomas Friedman, is non-fiction, insightful book mainly about the author¿s personal experiences with the leveling of the world¿s communication and information transfer. Friedman explains to the reader through his experiences, a brief history of the 21st Century. He outlines the world¿s flattening into three eras of globalization, ¿Globalization 1.0 was countries globalizing and the dynamic force in Globalization 2.0 was companies globalizing, the dynamic force in Globalization 3.0 ¿ the thing that gives it its unique character ¿ is the newfound power for individuals to collaborate and compete globally (10).¿ He explains the shifting of the world, from being isolated geographically, to a more integrated world that is dependant on the resources and information that countries around the world supply. "It unlocked half the planet and made citizens there our potential partners and competitors (441).¿ The book helps the reader to understand the transition from the age of industry to the age of technology.
To better understand the man behind the book it is important to know about him. He is a very accomplished writer that won the three Pulitzer Prize for commentary for the New York Times, and has written: From Beirut to Jerusalem in 1989, The Lexus and the Olive Tree in 2000, Longitudes and Attitudes: The World in the Age of Terrorism in 2002, and Israel: A Photo biography. Most of which have won awards for best non-fiction or foreign policy. Most of Friedman¿s writings are based off the ideals of globalization, especially The World is Flat.
Thomas Friedman explains, in The World is Flat, how the world has shifted economically as far as the workforce because of the increasing need for math, science and technology as tools for progress, and the ability through technology for the United States to compete globally. Through capitalism companies want to maximize their profits by hiring the most qualified people for the job with the least amount of money. This is the whole concept of outsourcing and why American jobs are leaving the country. In his book he says, ¿This is what I mean when I say the world has been flattened. It is the contemporary convergence of the ten flatteners, creating this new global playing field for multiple forms of collaboration (177).¿
I feel that this is one hundred percent true and that the author did an excellent job of providing many examples and in depth analysis. There are many options that a business owner looks at and the clear choice in every scenario is to hire the smartest people to offer the highest quality product with the lowest labor cost possible. This is shown throughout history that business owners always make the cheapest choice possible, even when it isn¿t morally right. The whole concept of slavery or child labor is to maximize profit, even though we all know it is morally wrong. Outsourcing isn¿t necessarily wrong. It¿s just a smart business decision based on keeping labor costs down and today¿s technology allows companies to employ people across the world as though they were in the same building. Proving my point Friedman explains, ¿Wages and rents in Bangalore are less than one fifth of what they are in those Western capitals (18).¿
Over all, I thought it was a very informative book that gives the reader a different perspective of how the different technologies that we take for granted now, like computers and internet are shaping the world. Ma
Guest More than 1 year ago
As I entered my freshman year of college I was nervous, excited and I was ready to start fresh. My first day my Buiness Professor was talking about the cirrculum and mentioned that we should all take a look at this book. For some reason I took his advice and read this book that is some 600 plus pages'I never read prior to this unless force'.I did it not cause I was forced to but I wanted to learn and that is what Friedman tries getting across IQ,PQ,CQ Chapters. I am only 19 years old but I currently work in a hotel that caters to Multi Million dollar buisness such as EMC Corp and Waters Corp and I got to witness first hand that globalziation indeed is no joke and something we should not take lightly. I often interacted with many people from China,Japan,and India and I often found myself asking them how they felt about Globlization. All of them embraced it because it is a chance for these people to take what they learn bring it home and build on it. Globalization is nothing we should fear it something we should embrace.I also work with three India interns all of them have a work ethic like no other and they have that drive to be better. They could not understand why us americans throw away all the oppurtinutes we have,he told me to ask a child parents what it means to be an engineer or doctor and you will understand why we work everyday to get better. I am now going into my sophmore year of College and you best believe I am going to work study and network more than ever.If I dont I know that someone in China or India is this should be a serious reality check to all young adults. I am not saying stay in and study your life away cause this is where I think these international students lose their edge is with their shyness. Work as Hard as you play is my best advice to all young adults like myself. Great Book Next One is Tipping Point
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AnnieBM More than 1 year ago
In this book Friedman sets up how the world has been and is being flattened in juxtaposition to Columbus' finding that the world is round (Ironically, one can make the case, with Friedman, that Columbus was one who started the flattening process, see 1491 and 1493 by Mann). Bringing together several different historical events and the power of the internet, Friedman shows how the world is changing. He presents many of the benefits as well as the problems. His perspective provides some good resources for thinking about our future directions both as individuals and as a nation. I found the book very insightful.
Pearl_S More than 1 year ago
If you really want to know what is going on with the economy, thus book is an eye opener. Friedman looks at globalization from several different perspectives that gives us pause to think about our ethics and spending habits. Everyone over the age of 13 needs to read this to redesign his or her future.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Overall, an excellent book but could have been condensed.
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What happens when the developing world becomes the developed world as us certainly suggested by Mr. Fruedman? Does it then become a matter of degree?
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Surprisingly valid and thought provocing even several years after being written
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
The book is easy reading and eye opening to the power and trends of globalization in today's society.
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