The poorest 46 percent of humankind have 1.2 percent of global income.
Their purchasing power per person per day is less than that of $2.15 in the US in 1993; 826 million of them do not have enough to eat. One-third of all human deaths are from poverty-related causes: 18 million annually, including 12 million children under five.
At the other end, the 15 percent of humankind in the 'high-income economies' have 80 percent of global income. Shifting 1 or 2 percent of our share toward poverty eradication seems morally compelling. Yet the prosperous 1990s have in fact brought a large shift toward greater global inequality, as most of the affluent believe that they have no such responsibility.
Thomas Pogge's book seeks to explain how this belief is sustained. He analyses how our moral and economic theorizing and our global economic order have adapted to make us appear disconnected from massive poverty abroad. Dispelling the illusion, he also offers a modest, widely sharable standard of global economic justice and makes detailed,
realistic proposals toward fulfilling it.
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About the Author
Thomas W. Pogge is Associate Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University
Table of Contents
I Some Cautions About Our Moral Judgements.
II Four Easy Reasons to Ignore World Poverty.
III Defending Our Acquiescence in World Poverty.
IV Does Our New Global Economic Order Really Not Harm the Poor?.
V Responsibilities and Reforms.
Chapter 1: Human Flourishing and Universal Justice.
1.1 Social Justice.
1.3 Justice in First Approximation.
1.4 Essential Refinements.
1.5 Human Rights.
1.6 Specification of Human Rights and Responsibilities for their Realization.
Chapter 2: How Should Human Rights be Conceived?.
2.1 From Natural Law to Rights.
2.2 From Natural Rights to Human Rights.
2.3 Official Disrespect.
2.4 The Libertarian Critique of Social and Economic Rights.
2.5 The Critique of Social and Economic Rights as ‘Manifesto Rights'.
2.6 Disputes about Kinds of Human Rights.
Chapter 3: Loopholes in Moralities.
3.1 Types of Incentives.
3.3 Social Arrangements.
3.4 Case 1: The Converted Apartment Building.
3.5 Case 2: The Homelands Policy of White South Africa.
3.6 An Objection.
3.8 Fictional Histories.
3.9 Puzzles of Equivalence.
Chapter 4: Moral Universalism and Global Economic Justice.
4.1 Moral Universalism.
4.2 Our Moral Assessment of National and Global Economic Orders.
4.3 Some Factual Background about the Global Economic Order.
4.3.1 The Extent of World Poverty.
4.3.2 The Extent of Global Inequality.
4.3.3 Trends in World Poverty and Inequality.
4.4 Conceptions of National and Global Economic Justice Contrasted.
4.5 Moral Universalism and David Miller's Contextualism.
4.6 Contextualist Moral Universalism and John Rawls's Moral Conception.
4.7 Rationalizing Divergent Moral Conceptions Through a Double Standard.
4.8 Rationalizing Divergent Moral Conceptions Without a Double Standard.
4.9 The Causal Role of Global Institutions in the Persistence of Severe Poverty.
Chapter 5: The Bounds of Nationalism.
5.1 Common Nationalism - Priority for the Interests of Compatriots.
5.2 Lofty Nationalism - The Justice-for-Compatriots Priority.
5.3 Explanatory Nationalism - The Deep Significance of National Borders.
Chapter 6: Achieving Democracy.
6.1 The Structure of the Problem Faced by Fledgling Democracies.
6.2 Reducing the Expected Rewards of Coups d'Etat.
6.3 Undermining the Borrowing Privilege of Authoritarian Predators.
6.3.1 The Criterial Problem.
6.3.2 The Tit-For-Tat Problem.
6.3.3 The Establishment Problem.
6.4 Undermining the Resource Privilege of Authoritarian Predators.
Chapter 7: Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty.
7.1 Institutional Cosmopolitanism Based on Human Rights.
7.2 The Idea of State Sovereignty.
7.3 Some Main Reasons for a Vertical Dispersal of Sovereignty.
7.3.1 Peace and Security.
7.3.2 Reducing Oppression.
7.3.3 Global Economic Justice.
7.4 The Shaping and Reshaping of Political Units.
Chapter 8: Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend.
8.1 Radical Inequality and Our Responsibility.
8.2 Three Grounds of Injustice.
8.2.1 The Effects of Shared Social Institutions.
8.2.2 Uncompensated Exclusion from the Use of Natural Resources.
8.2.3 The Effects of a Common and Violent History.
8.3 A Moderate Proposal.
8.4 The Moral Argument for the Proposed Reform.
8.5 Is the Reform Proposal Realistic?.