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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings / Edition 7

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings / Edition 7

by John D. Ramage


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321364661
Publisher: Longman
Publication date: 02/28/2006
Edition description: REV
Pages: 816
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.06(h) x 1.17(d)

Table of Contents


1. Argument: An Introduction

What Do We Mean by Argument?

Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

The Defining Features of Argument

Argument and the Problem of Truth

A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee

Gordon Adams, Petition to Waive the University Math Requirement (student essay)

2. Reading Arguments

Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers

Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer

Lisa Turner, Playing with Our Food

Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe

Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter

Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument

Strategy 4: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement

Council for Biotechnology Information, Biotech Labeling: Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers

An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information

Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation

3. Writing Arguments

Who Writes Arguments and Why?

Tips for Improving Your Writing Process

Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking

Shaping Your Argument: Classical Argument as a Planning Tool

Discovering Ideas: Two Sets of Exploratory Writing Tasks

Writing Assignments for Chapters 1-3


4. The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons

The Rhetorical Triangle

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument

Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons

Application of This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing

Application of This Chapter's Principles to the Reading of Arguments

5. The Logical Structure of Arguments

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an Argument?

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System

Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support

The Power of Audience-Based Reasons

6. Using Evidence Effectively

General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Data

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence

Gathering Evidence

Writing Assignments for Chapters 4-6

David Langley, “Half-Criminals” or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders (student essay)

7. Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions

Using Images for Emotional Appeal

Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments

8. Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views

One-Sided, Multi-Sided, and Dialogic Arguments

Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument

Marybeth Hamilton, from First Place: A Healing School for Homeless Children (student essay)

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument

Ellen Goodman, Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance

Rebekah Taylor, A Letter to Jim (student essay)

Writing Assignments for Chapters 7 and 8

9. Conducting Visual Arguments

Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument

Drug Enforcement Administration, A Single Hit of Ecstasy (advocacy advertisement)

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings

The Genres of Visual Argument

Constructing Your Own Visual Argument

Leah Johnson, Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future? (student poster)

Using Information Graphics in Arguments

Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument

Writing Assignments for Chapter 9


10. An Introduction to the Types of Claims

An Overview of the Types of Claims

How Knowledge of Claim Types Will Help You Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments

*Aaron Friedman, All That Noise for Nothing

11. Categorical and Definition Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y

An Overview of Categorical Arguments

Simple Categorical Arguments

An Overview of Definitional Arguments

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments

Conceptual Problems of Definition

Kinds of Definitions

Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument

Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument

Writing a Definitional Argument

Writing Assignment for Chapter 11

Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument


*Mike Adams, Experiment Shows Medical Doctors to Be Glorified Drug Dealers, Easily Manipulated by Drug Companies

Kathy Sullivan, Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board (student essay)

Charles Krauthammer, This Isn't a Legal Matter, This Is War

*Eugene Volokh, You Can Blog, But You Can’t Hide

12. Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y

An Overview of Causal Argument.

The Nature of Causal Arguing

Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms

Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another

Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments

Writing Your Causal Argument

Writing Assignment for Chapter 12

Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument


Daeha Ko, The Monster That Is High School (student essay)

United Way, Kids Who Do Not Participate... (advocacy advertisement)

*Olivia Judson, Different but (Probably) Equal

*Carlos Macios, The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It! (student writer)

13. Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y

An Overview of Resemblance Arguments

Arguments by Analogy

Arguments by Precedent

Writing a Resemblance Argument

Writing Assignment for Chapter 13

Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument


Megan Matthews, Whales Need Silence (student essay)

*Matthew Miller, It Shouldn’t Take a Disaster to Help America’s Blameless

Sven Van Assche, Knock! Knock! (political cartoon)

Susan Brownmiller, from Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape

14. Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X is Right (Wrong)

An Overview of Evaluation Arguments

Criteria-Match Structure of Evaluation Arguments

Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument

An Overview of Ethical Arguments

Two Major Ethical Systems

Conducting an Ethical Argument

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments

Writing an Evaluation Argument

Writing Assignment for Chapter 14

Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument


Sam Isaacson, Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community? (student essay)

Tiffany Anderson, A Woman's View of Hip Hop (student essay)

*Mike Luckovich, The Military’s Raising the Enlistment Age (political cartoon)

*Geoffrey Johnson, Marking Earth Day Inc.

*David Holcberg, Human Organs for Sale?

15. Proposal Arguments: “We Should (Should Not) Do X”

An Overview of Proposal Arguments

The Structure of Proposal Arguments

Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments

Developing a Proposal Argument

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements

Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument

Using the “Stock Issues” Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument

Writing a Proposal Argument

Writing Assignment for Chapter 15

Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument


Laurel Wilson, A Proposal to Provide Tips for Hosts at Stone's End (student essay)

Mark Bonicillo, A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States (MLA-style student research paper)

*Center for Children’s Health and the Environment, More Kids Are Getting Brain Cancer. Why? (advocacy advertisement)

*Maia Szalavitz, Let a Thousand Licensed Poppies Bloom


16. Finding and Evaluating Sources

Formulating a Research Question

Understanding Differences in the Kinds of Sources

Finding Books: Searching Your Library's Online Catalog

Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web

Reading Your Sources Rhetorically

Taking Effective Notes

Evaluating Sources

Understanding the Rhetoric of Web Sites

National Resources Defense Council, Spread of Active Sonar Threatens Whales. (web page)

17. Using, Citing, and Documenting Sources

Using Sources for Your Own Purposes

Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags

Working Sources into Your Own Prose

Avoiding Plagiarism

Understanding Parenthetical Citation Systems with Bibliographies

Understanding MLA Style

Understanding APA Style

Megan Matthews, Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales (student research paper)


Appendix 1: Informal Fallacies

The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument

An Overview of Informal Fallacies

Fallacies of Pathos

Fallacies of Ethos

Fallacies of Logos

Appendix 2: The Writing Community: Working in Groups

From Conflict to Consensus: How to Get the Most Out of the Writing Community

Forming Writing Communities: Skills and Roles

Group Project: Holding a “Norming Session” to Define “Good Argumentative Writing”

Bloody Ice

RSS Should Not Provide Dorm Room Carpets

Sterling Hall Dorm Food

ROTC Courses Should Not Get College Credit

Legalization of Prostitution

A Classroom Debate


An Overview of the Anthology

Guide Questions for the Analysis and Evaluation of Arguments

Finding Soldiers: The Volunteer Army, Recruitment, and the Draft

*Donald Rumsfeld, New Model Army

*Philip Carter and Paul Gastris, The Case for the Draft

*Anna Quindlen, Uncle Sam and Aunt Samantha

*Tim Dickinson, The Return of the Draft

*Louis Caldera, Military Service

*Weapons of Mass Instruction (advertisement)

*Kathryn Roth-Douquet, Military Service Can Open the Eyes of Country’s Elite

*Matt Carmody, I Need You (political cartoon)

*David L. Englin, Military Misconceptions

Responses to Terrorism: Public Safety and Civil Liberties

John Ashcroft, Testimony to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary

*Deborah Pearlstein, Rights in an Insecure World

*Michelle Malkin, Racial Profiling: A Matter of Survival

*Wayne Stayskal, Civil Liberties Groups Resist Government (political cartoon)

*Patricia J. Williams, To See or Not to See

*Arsalan Iftikhar, Losing Liberties

*Michael Levine, The Case for Torture

*McQ, Situational Ethics and the Arguments for Torture

The United States as Sole Superpower

George W. Bush, Graduation Speech at West Point

Richard Falk, The New Bush Doctrine.

John J. Miller, Our 'Next Manifest Destiny'

*Michael Krepon, Weapons in Heaven: A Radical and Reckless Option

*Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space, Keep Space for Peace (poster)

*Samuel Huntington, The Great American Myth

Environmental Friendliness Versus Market Freedom: The Case of the Sport Utility Vehicle

John Bragg, “The American Dream: Why Environmentalists Attack the SUV”

Henry Payne and Diane Katz, “Gas and Gasbags…or, the Open Road and Its Enemies

Keith Bradsher, “Gimme an SUV—ASAP: Teenagers Are the Next Big Market for Sport-Utility Vehicles—and the Consequences Could Be Deadly”

*, “Environmental Double Standards For Sport Utility Vehicles”

*Arianna Huffington, “Road Outrage: How Corporate Greed and Political Corruption Paved the Way for the SUV Explosion”

*Paul Roberts, “Running Out of Oil—and Time”

*Thomas L. Friedman, “As Toyota Goes…”

*Khalil Bendib, “Oil and War” (political cartoon)

Wal-Mart and the Public Good

*Floyd J. McKay, “Wal-Mart Nation: The Race to the Bottom”

*Robert B. Reich, “Don’t Blame Wal-Mart”

*Liza Featherstone, “Down and Out in Discount America”

*Pankaj Ghemawat and Ken A. Mark, “The Price is Right”

*New York Times, “The Wal-Martization of America”

*Steve Maich, “Why Wal-Mart Is Good”

*David Horsey, “A New World to Conquer” (political cartoon)

Biotech Agriculture and the Ethics of Food Production

*Jonathan Rauch, “Will Frankenfood Save the Planet?”

Miguel A. Altieri and Peter Rosset, “Ten Reasons Why Biotechnology Will Not Ensure Food Security, Protect the Environment, and Reduce Poverty in the Developing World”

*“Monsantoland” (poster)

Gregory A. Jaffe, “Lessen the Fear of Genetically Engineered Crops”

Froma Harrup, “Food Industry Should Modify Its Stance on Altered Food”, “What Is the FDA Trying to Feed Us?” (poster)

*Gerald D. Coleman, “Is Genetic Engineering the Answer to Hunger?”

The Cultural Debate on Stem Cell Research and Cloning

Richard Hayes, “It’s Worth Copying Canada’s Model for Cloning Legislation”

Robert A. Weinberg, “Of Clones and Clowns”

Judith Levine, “What Human Genetic Modification Means for Women”

*Jean Swenson, “Embryonic Stem Cell Fairy Tales”

*Mario M. Cuomo, “Not on Faith Alone”

Mona Charen, “Stem Cell Simplicities”

*Charles Krauthammer, “Expand Stem Cells Ethically”

In Search of Perfection: Steroids, Bionic Athletes, and Designer Children

*Michael Dillingham, “Steroids, Sports, and the Ethics of Winning”

*Rick Collins, “Steroids and Sports: A Provocative Interview with Norm Fost, M.D.”

*Ellis Cashmore, “Doping Scandal: Stop Testing and Legalize All Drugs”

*Carl Elliott, “This Is Your Country on Drugs”

*William Saletan, “The Beam in Your Eye: If Steroids Are Cheating, Why Isn’t LASIK?”

*George Neumayr, “The New Eugenics”

*Michael J. Sandel, “What’s Wrong with Enhancement”

Marriage and Family in the New Millennium

Patrick Fagan and Jennifer Garrett, Restoring a Culture of Marriage: Good News for Policymakers from the Fragile Families Survey

Alternatives to Marriage Project, Statement Regarding Hearing on Welfare and Marriage Issues

Andrew Sullivan, Here Comes the Groom: A (Conservative) Case for Gay Marriage

*Jeff Kemp and Harvey Drake, Jr., “Marriage Still Matters to Washington’s Children”

*Froma Harrop “Gay, Straight: What’s the Deal?”

Hila Colman, “Who Needs a Husband?”

*Myrna Blyth, “The Hearth Defended: A Review of Home-Alone America: The Hidden Toll of Day Care, Wonder Drugs, and Other Parent Substitutes by Mary Eberstadt”

*Lynne K. Varner, “Moms on the Front Lines of America’s Culture Wars”

The Media and Public Responsibility: What Counts as News and Who Decides?

*Sydney H. Schanberg, “Not a Pretty Picture”

*Floyd J. McKay, “Digital Technology in the Age of Terror”

*Mark Bowden, “News Judgment and Jihad”

*Daniel Okrent, “No Picture Tells the Truth. The Best Do Better than That”

*William Powers, “The Massless Media”

*Amy Goodman and David Goodman “Why Media Ownership Matters: The More You Watch, the Less You Know”

*Jack Rosenthal, “What to Do When News Grows Old Before Its Time”

*Amotz Asa-El, “Too Narrow a Focus”

Gender and Technology in Advertising

Haloid Xerox, This is Automatic Xerography?

FedEx Express, Like Magellan, Grady Has Pioneered a Global Network

FedEx Express, Maria Hates Computers

Technology Review, Try MIT’s Magazine of Innovation

Siemens Corporation, Spacious Corner Office, Redefined

Internet Controversies: Blogs, Hate Sites, and Spam

*Daniel W. Drezner and Henry Farrell, “Web of Influence”

*Nicholas D. Kristof, “Death by a Thousand Blogs”

*Jeff Chu, “You Wanna Take This Online?”

*Adey Bryant, “Sarah, It’s That Bloke . . .” (political cartoon)

Kenneth Lake, “Hate Speech Conviction Outlaws Email”

Lawrence J. Magid, “Internet’s Hate Sites Can Be Hidden, but They Can’t Be Ignored”

*Sarah Gordon, “Distributing Viruses”



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