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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, MLA Update Edition / Edition 10

Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, MLA Update Edition / Edition 10


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900134586518
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/29/2016
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 608
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

John Ramage received his BA in philosophy from Whitman College and his Ph.D. in English from Washington State University. He served for over thirty years on the faculties of Montana State University and Arizona State University. In addition to his teaching duties, which included both graduate and undergraduate courses in writing and rhetoric, literary theory and modern literature, Dr. Ramage served as a writing program administrator overseeing writing across the curriculum and composition programs and writing centers. At Arizona State university, he was the founding executive director of the university's Division of Undergraduate Academic Services, responsible for academic support services campus-wide.

In addition to the Writing Arguments Dr. Ramage was the co-author of the textbooks Form and Surprise in Composition, and Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing. He was also the lead author for Argument in Composition, and the sole author of Rhetoric: A User's Guide, and Twentieth Century American Success Rhetoric: How to Construct a Suitable Self. He is currently writing a book about political rhetoric.

John C. Bean is an emeritus professor of English at Seattle University, where he held the title of “Consulting Professor of Writing and Assessment.” He has an undergraduate degree from Stanford (1965) and a Ph.D. from the University of Washington (1972). He is the author of an internationally used book on writing across the curriculum--Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, 2nd edition (Jossey-Bass, 2011). He is also the co-author of the Allyn and Bacon Guide to Writing as well as two other influential composition textbooks–Writing Arguments and Reading Rhetorically. He has published numerous articles on writing and writing-across-the-curriculum as well as on literary subjects including Shakespeare and Spenser. His current research interests focus on pedagogical strategies for teaching undergraduate research including quantitative literacy, disciplinary methods of inquiry and argument, and the problem of “transfer of learning” as students move through and across a curriculum. A concomitant research interest is the development of institutional assessment strategies that promote productive faculty conversations about teaching and learning. In 2001, he presented a keynote address at the first annual conference of the European Association of Teachers of Academic Writing at the University of Groningen. He has delivered lectures and conducted workshops on writing-across-the-curriculum throughout the United States and Canada as well as for universities in Germany, Bangladesh, Ghana, and Zambia. In 2010 his article “Messy Problems and Lay Audiences: Teaching Critical Thinking within the Finance Curriculum” (co-authored with colleagues from finance and economics) won the 2009 McGraw-Hill — Magna Publications Award for the year’s best “scholarly work on teaching and learning.”

June Johnson is an associate professor of English, Director of Writing Studies, and Writing Consultant to the University Core at Seattle University. She has a B.A. in English and an M.A. in Education from Stanford and an M.A. in English from Mills College. After chairing the English department of a preparatory school in Los Angeles and working as a development editor in educational publishing, she earned her Ph.D. from the University of Washington. At Seattle University, she supervises the teaching of first-year academic writing seminars as well as teaches these courses and advanced argument and composition theory in the Writing Studies minor . Her research areas include global studies, reflective writing, first-year composition, writing transfer, argumentation, and Rogerian communication–subjects on which she conducts workshops at Seattle University and at institutions around the country. She has published articles in American Studies on women’s writing about the West in the nineteenth century. She is the co-author (with John Bean) of the The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Writing, a text known for its foundation in writing-across-the-curriculum pedagogy and its useful introduction to academic writing and co-author (also with John Bean) of Writing Arguments, and she authored Global Issues, Local Arguments, 3rd edition (Pearson, 2014), an argument reader and rhetoric with a civic literacy focus that provides a cross-curricular introduction to global problems.

Table of Contents


1 Argument: An Introduction

What Do We Mean by Argument?

Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel

Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate

Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit

JUAN LUCAS (STUDENT), “An Argument Against Banning Phthalates”

A student opposes a ban on a chemical that makes toys soft and flexible.

The Defining Features of Argument

Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims

Argument Is Both a Process and a Product

Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion

Argument and the Problem of Truth


2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring

Finding Issues to Explore

Do Some Initial Brainstorming

Be Open to the Issues All around You

Explore Ideas by Freewriting

Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping

Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

Reading Texts Rhetorically

Genres of Argument

Authorial Purpose and Audience

Determining Degree of Advocacy

Reading to Believe an Argument’s Claims

JAMES SUROWIECKI, “The Pay Is Too Damn Low”

An American journalist argues for an increased federally mandated minimum wage combined with government policies to promote job growth and ensure a stable safety net for the poor.

Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe

Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer’s Views

Reading to Doubt

Thinking Dialectically

MICHAEL SALTSMAN, “To Help the Poor, Move Beyond ‘Minimum’ Gestures”

The chief economist for the Employment Policy Institute opposes an increased minimum wage, arguing that it does nothing for the jobless poor and will in fact lead to increased joblessness.

Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking


Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay


TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?”

Examining articles by Surowiecki, Saltsman, and others, a student narrates the evolution of her thinking as she researches the issue of minimum wage.


3 The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons

The Classical Structure of Argument

Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument

Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question

How to Identify an Issue Question

Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument

Pseudo-Arguments: Committed Believers and Fanatical Skeptics

A Closer Look at Pseudo-Arguments: The Lack of Shared Assumptions

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons

What Is a Reason?

Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses


Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements

4 The Logical Structure of Arguments

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an


Formal Logic versus Real-World Logic

The Role of Assumptions

The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme

The Power of Audience-Based Reasons

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System

Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument

Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes

Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games

CARMEN TIEU (STUDENT), “Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls”

A student argues that playing violent video games helps girls gain insight into male culture.

The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing” Structure of Classical Argument


A Note on the Informal Fallacies

Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s Details

5 Using Evidence Effectively

Kinds of Evidence

The Persuasive Use of Evidence

Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence

Establish a Trustworthy Ethos

Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from Original Data

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence

Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence

Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision

Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence

Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence

Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence


Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument

6 Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions

Use Concrete Language

Use Specific Examples and Illustrations

Use Narratives

Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations

Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments

Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos

Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and kairos

How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos


Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons

7 Responding to Objections and Alternative Views

One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments

Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument

Summarizing Opposing Views

Refuting Opposing Views

Strategies for Rebutting Evidence

Conceding to Opposing Views

Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy

TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage”

A student writer refutes three arguments against increasing the minimum wage.

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument

Creating a Dialogic Argument with a Delayed Thesis

ROSS DOUTHAT, “Islam in Two Americas”

A conservative columnist asks readers to explore aspects of American identity that suggest that Muslims should not build a community center near Ground Zero.

Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument

A More Open-Ended Approach: Rogerian Communication

Rogerian Communication as Growth for the Writer

Rogerian Communication as Collaborative Negotiation

Writing Rogerian Communication

COLLEEN FONTANA (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article ‘They Never Learn’ ”

Using the strategies of Rogerian argument, a student writes an open letter about the problem of gun violence on college campuses to an advocate of minimal gun control laws and more guns.


Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Rogerian Letter


LAUREN SHINOZUKA (STUDENT), “The Dangers of Digital Distractedness” (A Classical Argument)

Using the classical argument form, a student writer argues that being a skilled digi-tal native also “harms us by promoting an unproductive habit of multitasking, by dehumanizing our relationships, and by encouraging a distorted self-image.”

MONICA ALLEN (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article ‘High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap’ ” (RogerianCommunication)

Using the strategies of Rogerian communication, a student writer skeptical about charter schools initiates dialogue with a charter school advocate on ways to improve education for low-income and minority students.


8. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically

Thinking Rhetorically about a Text

Questions for Rhetorical Analysis

Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis


Writing for the conservative magazine National Review, Kathryn Jean Lopez argues against the emerging practice of egg donation enabled by new reproductive technology.

Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”


Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis

Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis

Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis


ELLEN GOODMAN, “Womb for Rent—For a Price”

Columnist Ellen Goodman explores the ethical dilemmas created when first-world couples “outsource” motherhood to third-world women.

ZACHARY STUMPS (STUDENT), “A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman’s ‘Womb for Rent—For a Price’ ”

A student analyzes Ellen Goodman’s rhetorical strategies in “Womb for Rent,” emphasizing her delayed-thesis structure and her use of language with double meanings.

9 Analyzing Visual Arguments

Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument

Use of Type

Use of Space or Layout

An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements

Use of Color

Use of Images and Graphics

An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings

An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images

The Genres of Visual Argument

Posters and Fliers

Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements


Web Pages

Constructing Your Own Visual Argument

Guidelines for Creating Visual Arguments

Using Information Graphics in Arguments

How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories

Using a Graph to Tell a Story

Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument


Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Data 207


10 An Introduction to the Types of Claims

The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development

Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example

Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes

Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes

Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments

Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments

An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument

ALEX HUTCHINSON, “Pounding Pills: Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Doing More Harm Than Good”

Writing for an outdoor sports magazine targeting health and fitness enthusiasts, a journalist reviews the scientific literature against daily multivitamins and other supplements.

11 Definition and Resemblance Arguments

What Is at Stake in a Categorical Argument?

Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims

The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way

Types of Categorical Arguments

Simple Categorical Arguments

Definition Arguments

Resemblance Argument Using Analogy

Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent

Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)

The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments

Overview of Criteria-Match Structure

Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument

Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition

Creating Criteria Using an Operational Definition

Conducting the Match Part of a Definition Argument

Idea-Generating Strategies for Creating Your Own Criteria-Match


Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term

Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition

Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Definition Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument


ARTHUR KNOPF (STUDENT), “Is Milk a Health Food?”

A student argues that milk, despite its reputation for promoting calcium-rich bones, may not be a health food.

ALEX MULLEN (STUDENT), “A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does ‘Stealing’ Mean in a Digital Environment?”

A student argues that his act of piracy—downloading a film from a file- sharing torrent site—is not stealing because it deprives no one of property or profit.

LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD, “College Football—Yes, It’s a Job”

The Editorial Board of the Los Angeles Times supports a court decision that scholarship football players at Northwestern University are “paid employees” of the university and therefore have the right to unionize.

12 Causal Arguments

An Overview of Causal Arguments

Kinds of Causal Arguments

Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument

Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another

First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly

Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning

Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim

Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments

Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Causal Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument


JULEE CHRISTIANSON (STUDENT), “Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong: Culture Rather Than Biology Explains the Underrepresentation of Women in Science and Mathematics” (APA-format research paper)

A student writer disagrees with Harvard president Lawrence Summers’s claim that genetic factors may account for fewer women than men holding professorships in math and science at prestige universities.

DEBORAH FALLOWS, “Papa, Don’t Text: The Perils of Distracted Parenting”

Linguist Deborah Fallows argues in The Atlantic that by texting and talking on cell phones instead of interacting with their young children adults are jeopardizing their children’s language learning.

CARLOS MACIAS (STUDENT), “‘The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!’—The Credit Card Industry’s Role in Causing Student Debt”

A student writer examines the causes of college students’ credit card debt and puts the blame on the exploitive practices of the credit card industry.

13 Evaluation and Ethical Arguments

An Overview of Categorical Ethical Evaluation Arguments

Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument

Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations

Developing Your Criteria

Making Your Match Argument

Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim

Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument

Consequences as the Base of Ethics

Principles as the Base of Ethics

Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments

Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument

Exploring Ideas 290

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing an Evaluation Argument

Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument

Critiquing an Ethical Argument


LORENA MENDOZA-FLORES (STUDENT), “Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School”

A physics major critiques her former high school for marginalizing its growing numbers of Hispanic students.

CHRISTOPHER MOORE (STUDENT), “Information Plus Satire: Why The Daily Show and The Colbert Report Are Good Sources of News for Young People”

A student favorably evaluates The Daily Show and The Colbert Report as news sources by arguing that they keep us up to date on major world events and teach us to read the news rhetorically.

JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, “Three Genetic Parents—For One Healthy Baby”

Lawyers specializing in medical research argue that mitochondrial replacement (which enables a child to inherit DNA from three parents) “might be a way to prevent hundreds of mitochondrial-linked diseases, which affect about one in 5, people.”

SAMUEL AQUILA, “The ‘Therapeutic Cloning’ of Human Embryos”

A Catholic archbishop finds therapeutic cloning “heinous,” despite its potential health

benefits, “because the process is intended to create life, exploit it, and then destroy it.”

14 Proposal Arguments

The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments

Practical Proposals versus Policy Proposals

Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument

Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments

Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim

Developing a Proposal Argument

Convincing Your Readers that a Problem Exists

Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal

Convincing Your Readers that the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs

Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal

The “Claim Types” Strategy

The “Stock Issues” Strategy

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements

Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument

Exploring Ideas

Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake

Organizing a Proposal Argument

Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement

Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech

Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument


MEGAN JOHNSON (STUDENT), “A Proposal to Allow Off-Campus Purchases with a University

Meal Card”

A student writes a practical proposal urging her university’s administration to allow off-campus use of meal cards as a way of increasing gender equity and achieving other benefits.

IVAN SNOOK (STUDENT), “Flirting with Disaster: An Argument Against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms” (MLA-format research paper)

A student writer and Marine veteran returned from combat duty in Iraq argues that women should not serve in combat units because the inevitable sexual friction undermines morale and endangers soldiers’ lives.


An organization devoted to saving bees calls for support for a moratorium on the use of certain chemical pesticides that are deadly to bees.

SANDY WAINSCOTT (STUDENT), “Why McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat” (speech with PowerPoint slides)

A student proposes the end of subsidies for cheap meat for the benefit of both people’s health and the environment.

MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN HUIS, “The Six-Legged Meat of the Future”

Two Dutch entomologists argue that insects are a nutritious and tasty form of protein and less environmentally harmful than cattle, pigs, or chickens.


15 Finding and Evaluating Sources

Formulating a Research Question Instead of a “Topic”

Thinking Rhetorically about Kinds of Sources

Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to Your Question

Approaching Sources Rhetorically

Finding Sources

Conducting Interviews

Gathering Source Data from Surveys or Questionnaires

Finding Books and Reference Sources

Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News Sources

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web

Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources

Reading with Rhetorical Awareness

Evaluating Sources

Taking Purposeful Notes


16 Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument

Using Sources for Your Own Purposes

Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism

Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism

Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism

Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation




Punctuating Quotations Correctly

Quoting a Complete Sentence

Quoting Words and Phrases

Modifying a Quotation

Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage

Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation

Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage

Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags

Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations

Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response

Avoiding Plagiarism

Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly

Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism

Conclusion 374

17 Citing and Documenting Sources

The Correspondence between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works

MLA Style

In-Text Citations in MLA Style

Works Cited List in MLA Style

Works Cited Citation Models

MLA-Style Research Paper

APA Style

In-Text Citations in APA Style

References List in APA Style

References Citation Models

APA-Style Research Paper


Appendix Informal Fallacies

The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument

An Overview of Informal Fallacies

Fallacies of Pathos

Fallacies of Ethos

Fallacies of Logos


The Future of Food and Farming

ARTHUR L. CAPLAN, “Genetically Modified Food: Good, Bad, Ugly”

A professor of bioethics defends genetic engineering but takes the biotech companies to task for their mismanagement of the technology.

ROBIN MATHER, “The Threats from Genetically Modified Foods”

A food columnist outlines the concerns about and consequences of using GMOs.

MICHAEL LE PAGE, “Wrong-Headed Victory”

A writer argues that when biotech companies fight labelling efforts they only fuel consumer suspicion and delay promising research.

JOHN HAMBROCK, “Harley, I’m Worried About Gene Transfer” (editorial cartoon)

A cartoonist imagines how GMO plants might cross-pollinate with unmodified strains.

JOE MOHR, “Monsanto’s Reasons for Fighting GMO Labeling? It Loves You”

A cartoonist satirizes the biotech companies’ arguments against labelling of GM foods.

CAITLIN FLANAGAN, “Cultivating Failure”

A journalist questions the value of school gardens as an educational tool, focusing particularly on the effects for Hispanic and low-income students.

BONNIE HULKOWER, “A Defense of School Gardens and Response to Caitlin Flanagan’s ‘Cultivating Failure’ in The Atlantic”

A marine scientist and environmental planner performs a rhetorical analysis of Flanagan and refutes her claims.

TOM PHILPOTT, “Thoughts on The Atlantic’s Attack on School Gardens”

A food and agriculture columnist reflects on school gardens as a teaching tool, and disagrees with Flanagan’s conclusions.

JESSE KURTZ-NICHOLL, “Atlantic Gets It Wrong!: School Gardens Cultivate Minds Not Failure

A former high school teacher with a Master’s in Public Health disputes Flanagan’s claims about access to healthy food and the need for food education.

Higher Education: How and Why We Learn Matters

REBECCA MEAD, “Learning by Degrees”

A New Yorker staff writer acknowledges the appeal of skipping college to pursue financial success, but also questions economic advancement as the sole reason for attending college.

KEN SAXON, “What Do You Do with a B.A. in History?

An entrepreneur and leader in the nonprofit sector speaks to freshmen at UC Santa Barbara about the value of a liberal arts education.

AARON BADY, “The MOOC Moment and the End of Reform”

A postdoctoral fellow interrogates the hype surrounding MOOCs and the wisdom of integrating them into a university education.

SCOTT NEWSTOK, “A Plea for ‘Close Learning’ ”

An English professor argues for the value of face-to-face interactive learning.

DAVE BLAZEK, “Melissa Misunderstands Massive Open Online Courses” (editorial cartoon)

A cartoonist humorously illustrates one of the drawbacks of MOOCs.

CHRISSIE LONG, “The Changing Face of Higher Education: The Future of the Traditional University Experience”

Recognizing that the traditional classroom won’t disappear, a writer argues for the benefits and transformative potential of MOOCs, particularly, the opportunities they offer learners in developing countries.

Immigration in the Twenty-First Century

FATEMEH FAKHRAIE, “Scarfing It Down”

A media critic argues that coverage of countries’ attempts to ban the wearing of hijab distorts the issue by labeling it a religious freedom issue and by leaving out the voices of the women themselves.


A professor at Harvard Divinity School addresses Muslim women’s varying reasons for wearing hijab.

MADELINE ZAVODNY, “Unauthorized Immigrant Arrivals Are on the Rise, and That’s Good News”

An economics professor reads the number of illegal immigrants as an economic index and argues for reforms for immigrant workers’ visas over governmental spending on increased border security.

CHIP BOK, “Processing Undocumented Children” (editorial cartoon)

An editorial cartoonist comments on the difference in the handling of undocumented children in 2 and in 2014.


The executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies details the flaws he sees in the DREAM Act and other amnesty legislation.

LEE HABEEB AND MIKE LEVEN, “Immigration, America’s Advantage”

A columnist and a businessman team up to advocate for the benefits of maintaining an immigrant workforce.


A Roman Catholic priest and philosophy professor asks anti-immigration groups to see the human face of undocumented immigrants and to support a path to amnesty.

LOS ANGELES TIMES, “Young, Alone, and in Court”

The editors of the Los Angeles Times argue for a multinational, humanitarian response to the issue of child migrants and a better process for handling unaccompanied children in the U.S. immigration system.

NATIONAL REVIEW, “Border Crisis in Texas”

The editors of the National Review blame the Obama administration’s amnesty policies for the surge in illegal-immigrant children.

Millennials Entering Adulthood

KATHRYN TYLER, “The Tethered Generation”

A writer analyzes how technology has affected the way Millennials work and communicate, and proposes management strategies for employers.

ERIN BURNS, “Millennials and Mentoring: Why I’m Calling Out ‘Bullpucky!’ on Generational Differences and Professional Development”

A young professional refutes the assumption that her generation requires “special handling” in the workplace.

AMERICA, “Generation S”

The editors of a Catholic weekly magazine argue that the spirit of service instilled in the current generation of students should be modeled by all Americans.

RAFFI WINEBURG, “Lip Service Useless for Millenials”

A recent graduate reflects on the challenges facing Millennials as they enter the workforce and calls for more constructive treatment of them.

KAY S. HYMOWITZ, “Where Have the Good Men Gone?”

The author of Manning Up: How the Rise of Women Has Turned Men into Boys claims that too many men in their twenties have succumbed to a new kind of extended adolescence.

EVE TUSHNET, “You Can Go Home Again”

A writer challenges the stigma faced by young adults who move back in with their parents.

Choices for a Sustainable World

MARK A. DELUCCHI AND MARK Z. JACOBSON, “Meeting the World’s Energy Needs Entirely with Wind, Water, and Solar Power”

A research scientist and an engineering professor propose a combination of wind, water, and solar power as the best alternative to fossil fuels, and explain how the transition can be made quickly and cost effectively.

ASHUTOSH JOGALEKAR, “Vaclav Smil: ‘The Great Hope for a Quick and Sweeping Transition to Renewable Energy Is Wishful Thinking”

A science blogger uses Vaclav Smil’s research to argue that substantial obstacles still stand in the way of the widespread conversion to renewable energy.

U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, “The U.S. Energy Story in Numbers: Energy Supply and Disposition by Type of Fuel, 1975–2010”

Statistics gathered by a U.S. agency tell a wealth of stories about U.S. energy production and consumption.

ROBERTY BRYCE, “The Real Energy Revolution Shrinking Carbon Dioxide Emissions? It’s Fracking”

A writer from a conservative think tank maintains that fracking has enabled the United States to make greater strides than other nations in reducing its emissions, and at a lower cost.

ABRAHM LUSTGARTEN, “Fracking: A Key to Energy Independence?”

An investigative journalist questions the speed with which the U.S. and other nations have embraced fracking.

JASON POWERS, “The Problem Is the Solution: Cultivating New Traditions Through


An activist argues that developing a sustainable approach to using resources is critical to the survival of a culture.

VANDANA SHIVA, “The Soil vs. the Sensex”

An environmental activist sets the interests of the small farmer against those of the Sensex, India’s stock exchange.

Digital Literacies

AN INTERVIEW WITH SHERRY TURKLE, Digital Demands: The Challenges of Constant


In an interview on PBS’s Frontline, scholar and researcher Sherry Turkle suggests that constant connectivity may make us more lonely and less inclined to find stillness or think deeply about “complicated things.”

ALISON GOPNIK, “Diagnosing the Digital Revolution: Why It’s So Hard to Tell if It’s Really

Changing Us”

A professor and expert in child learning and development suggests that claims for the negative impact of technology on young people may be overstated.

MARY ANN HARLAN, “Deconstructing Digital Natives”

In this scholarly article, a teacher and librarian makes the distinction between tech-nological savvy and digital literacy.

SUSAN NIELSEN, “An Internet ‘Eraser’ Law Would Hurt, Not Help, Oregon Teens”

A journalist argues that allowing teens to erase past web indiscretions teaches them that they can behave poorly without forethought or consequence.

GARY VARVEL, “Meet Jack” (editorial cartoon)

A cartoonist humorously demonstrates the consequences of sharing too much on social media.

ADRIENNE SARASY, “The Age of the Selfie: Taking, Sharing Our Photos Shows Empowerment, Pride”

A high school journalist argues in her student newspaper that selfies can be empowering and help to redefine standards of beauty.

ROBERT WILCOX, “The Age of the Selfie: Endless Need to Share Tears Society’s Last Shred of Decency”

In the same student newspaper, a student editor argues that oversharing through selfies goes beyond narcissism and may actually be dangerous.

AASHIKA DAMODAR, “The Rise of ‘Great Potential’: Youth Activism against Gender-Based Violence”

An anti-trafficking activist analyzes the potential of social media as a tool for activism, arguing that it is most effective when combined with offline action.

Argument Classics

GARRETT HARDIN, “Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Aid That Does Harm”

An ecologist argues against foreign aid and open borders, promoting wider understanding of the “tragedy of the commons” and stimulating new thinking about the causes of poverty and ways to combat it.

RACHEL CARSON, “The Obligation to Endure”

A marine biologist and writer exposes the subtle, insidious dangers of the pesticide DDT, and in so doing helps launch the environmental movement.

E. O. WILSON, “Apocalypse Now/Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister”

A biologist and secular humanist attempts to bridge the gap between science and religion, asking Christians and environmentalists to come together to save the multitude of species threatened by climate change.

MARGARET SANGER, “The Morality of Birth Control”

A pioneer of the birth control movement seeks to redefine what is “moral” when considering access to birth control and assessment of the consequences.

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