ISBN-10:
0131823825
ISBN-13:
9780131823822
Pub. Date:
06/11/2003
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers / Edition 5

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers / Edition 5

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Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers / Edition 5

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers, Fifth Edition, provides an anthology of readings that represents various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines such as humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780131823822
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 06/11/2003
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 668
Product dimensions: 5.94(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.22(d)

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PREFACE:

Preface

TO OUR READERS IN APPRECIATION

In preparing the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers, we listened closely to students and instructors who had used the third edition, and we followed their advice. As requested, we reworked the first part of the book. We added a new student essay to Chapter 2, rearranged Chapters 3 and 4, and made extensive revisions to Chapter 5, "Writing Research Papers." We have also made changes to the second half of the book. A number of the readings are new, and in Chapter 12, we have introduced a new topic. To the readers who suggested these changes, we say "thank you" for helping us strengthen this book.

ORGANIZATION AND APPROACH

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers serves two functions. It explains how to use reading sources as idea banks for college papers, and it teaches fundamental academic writing strategies: reading, paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting, organizing, drafting, revising, editing, synthesizing, analyzing, researching, and developing arguments. It also provides an anthology of readings in the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences which contains articles representing various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines. These articles, along with the accompanying instructional apparatus, help develop students' abilities to think critically and reason cogently as they read, compose, and revise. The activities and questions that accompany each reading encourage students to approach academic writing as a process: to preview the source, set reading goals, and ponder thegeneral topic before reading; to annotate the text and think critically while reading; and to reflect on the source and identify information content, form, organization, expository and stylistic features, and rhetorical elements after reading. Students are also shown how to draw on annotations, notes, and preliminary writing to produce first drafts of academic essays and how to revise essays at the drafting stage as well as later in the writing process. Additional activities help students to use ideas from different sources to produce synthesis essays and research papers.

Chapter 1 presents active reading strategies that help students engage the ideas in academic texts and incorporate them in their own writing by paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting. Chapter 2 presents the writing process, including analyzing the assignment, planning, organizing, drafting, revising, and editing. In addition, Chapter 2 examines essay structures, from the introduction and thesis statement through the body of the essay to its conclusion, and teaches students to write essays of response to a source. Chapter 3 focuses on essays that draw on two or more sources, including compare-and-contrast essays and synthesis. Chapter 4 covers essays of argumentation, analysis, and evaluation, with the special attention to literary analysis; and Chapter 5 focuses on library research strategies and writing research papers. In the eight succeeding chapters, we provide forty-seven reading selections. We have organized the anthology in Chapters 6 through 13 by dividing the academic curriculum into three major fields: the natural sciences and technology, the social sciences, and the humanities. Each chapter in Writing in the Disciplines deals with a topic that is widely studied in the field. For example, the social sciences section has chapters on redefining the American family and social class and inequality. The reading selections help students view each topic from a range of perspectives, and they provide diverse views from experts within the discipline and from journalists and specialists in other academic fields. Most of the articles are written for nonspecialized readers, not for majors in particular fields. We believe these articles, from popular as well as scholarly sources, represent the types of readings many professors assign in introductory and lower-level courses. Psychology professors, for instance, know that first-year students cannot interpret most psychological research reports until they acquire a basic knowledge of the discipline and learn its principles of experimental methodology and statistical analysis. However, first-year students can read summaries and analyses of psychological research written for nonspecialists. For Writing in the Disciplines, we chose readings that might appear on a reserve list as supplements to an introductory-level textbook. We make no assumptions about students' prior knowledge. Our intent is to model first-year-level reading assignments, not to exemplify professional standards within the disciplines.

In the introduction to each of the sections, we characterize the field of study with a discussion of its subdisciplines, methodology, logic, and vocabulary. We then describe writing within the field by examining authors' perspectives, goals, organizational patterns, literary devices, and rhetorical styles. We recognize that there is no absolute standard for categorizing intellectual activities. For example, although we have classified history as a discipline within the humanities, we could as well have placed it within the social sciences, depending on the methodology the historians use. Throughout the book, we not only point out overlaps among disciplines but also capitalize on them in synthesis assignments at the end of each chapter. Despite the imprecision of these categories, we believe that important differences in approaches to scholarship and writing do exist among the three main academic areas. Students who understand these differences will read more critically and write more persuasively.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE FOURTH EDITION

In the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines, we have revised the initial section on academic writing. Chapter 2 contains a new student essay. We have moved argumentation from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4, and in Chapter 4 we have collapsed the material on analysis and evaluation. Chapter 5 has changed dramatically in response to advances in computerized information retrieval systems. Chapter 5 also includes a new research paper written in American Psychological Association (APA) style. In the anthology section, Chapter 6 has been revised to focus on the current controversy over human cloning, and Chapter 12 features a new topic, "Rock Music and Cultural Values." We also added new articles and fiction excerpts to Chapters 7 and 8. We continue to accompany each article with activities and questions that promote critical thinking. Each reading is preceded by a prereading activity and followed by groups of questions that encourage students to grasp information and decide what form, organization, and expository features the author uses. Additional questions ask students to analyze rhetorical concerns, such as the context and the author's purpose (Haas and Flower). As in previous editions, several writing assignments accompany each reading and each topically related chapter.

Finally, we have refined and expanded the guide to documentation and the comparison of the MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA styles in the Appendix.

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Writing in the Disciplines provides a series of collaborative learning activities that require students to work together in groups to clarify and extend their understanding of material presented in Chapters 1 through 5. We have constructed pairs of individual and collaborative exercises for each chapter subsection, so for any particular concept, instructors may assign out-of-class work and follow with in-class collaborative activities. Some instructors may use the collaborative exercises to emphasize points they or their students deem particularly important or problematic.

It is important to prepare students for group work by teaching them the collaborative skills they need in order to work together—requisite social skills, group dynamics, methods of interaction, and strategies for learning from each other as well as from the teacher. Some instructors pair off students at first. Then, when they move the students into groups, they give them time to become acquainted. Another technique is to redefine the groups frequently until everyone in the class has gotten to know each other.

Each of the collaborative exercises in this textbook requires students to divide into work groups. Experiment with different ways of grouping students together. You might allow them to choose their groups, or you might assign them to groups on the basis of working style, personality types, or role. We have found Kenneth Bruffee's methods for conducting collaborative learning groups particularly useful (28-51). The following procedure, which draws heavily on Bruffee's Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, is applicable to all the collaborative exercises in this textbook.

WORKING IN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING GROUPS

  1. Students form groups of five or six by counting off. (Bruffee maintains that groups of five are particularly effective for collaborative activities.)
  2. Each group selects a recorder who will write down the results of the group's deliberation and will eventually report to the entire class.
  3. Each group selects a reader who then reads the collaborative task from the textbook.
  4. Group members attempt to achieve a consensus on the question or issue posed by the collaborative task. All viewpoints should be heard and considered. (Bruffee recommends that instructors refrain from taking part in or monitoring collaborative learning groups. He believes that teacher interference in groups "inevitably destroys peer relations among students and encourages the tendency of well-schooled students to focus on the teacher's authority and interests" 291.)
  5. When a consensus is reached, the recorder reads her or his notes back to the group, and they are revised to make sure they reflect the group's decision. Differences of opinion are also included in the notes.
  6. When all groups have completed the assignment, recorders read their notes to the entire class. The instructor may choose to summarize each group's report on the chalkboard. A discussion involving the entire class may follow.

Other methods of forming and conducting collaborative learning groups will also work with the exercises in Chapters 1 through 5. Although we have had success with Bruffee's technique, we encourage instructors to pick the methods that work best for them and their students. The following resources will be helpful:

Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: NCTLA, 1992.

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson, Karl A. Smith, and E. Holubec. Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction, 1993.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again, in the fourth edition we have relied on the work of many researchers and scholars in composition and reading. We are particularly grateful to Ann Brown, Kenneth Bruffee, Linda Flower, Christina Haas, John Hayes, and Bonnie Meyer. We used pilot versions of Writing in the Disciplines in first-year-level writing courses at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and SUNY at Cortland, and we are indebted to our students for their comments and suggestions. Liam and Maura Kennedy deserve special thanks for their important contributions to Chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hadley Smith would like to acknowledge David Flanagan's and Marlene Kobre's suggestions for articles for Chapters 6, 7, and 8 as well as their collegiality over the years.

At Prentice Hall, Senior English Acquisitions Editor Leah Jewell supervised our project with skill and professionalism. We also appreciate the assistance we received from Company President Phil Miller, and Editorial Assistant Patricia Castiglione. Special thanks to our Senior Production Editor Shelly Kupperman for her expert work and to our meticulous copy editor Diane Garvey Nesin. We are indebted to our reviewers who contributed their ideas and insightful analysis: Jia-Yi Cheng-Levine, Indiana University of PA; Jean H. Wilson, Indiana University of PA; Patricia Coward, Frostburg State University; Phillip Sipiora, University of South Florida; James Allen, College of DuPage; Charles Baker, Indiana University of PA; Chad Beck, North Carolina State University; Peter Stokes, Tufts University; Alma G. Bryant, University of South Florida.

Finally, we are grateful to Liam and Maura Kennedy, Nancy Siegele, and Annie, Colin, and Timm Smith for their patience, support, and understanding.

Mary Lynch Kennedy
William J. Kennedy
Hadley M. Smith

Table of Contents

Prefacexv
Part 1Reading and Writing in the Academic Disciplines1
1Preparing to Write: Active Reading3
Academic Writing: An Introduction3
Active Reading Strategies5
Prereading6
Preview the Source and Derive Questions That Will Help You Set Goals for Close Reading6
Freewrite or Brainstorm to Recall Your Prior Knowledge or Feelings About the Reading Topic7
Close Reading8
Annotate and Elaborate on the Source9
Take Content Notes10
Pose and Answer Questions About the Source11
Postreading15
Review the Source and Your Notes15
Compose Paraphrases and Summaries and Record Quotations That May Be Useful at a Later Date16
2Writing an Essay in Response to a Source: An Illustration of the Writing Process37
The Reading-Writing Process37
Personal Response in Academic Writing40
Active Reading Strategies for Response Essays41
Analyze the Assignment41
Elaborate on Reading Sources43
Planning45
Formulating a Thesis46
Organizing46
Drafting50
Planning Individual Paragraphs52
Using Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries54
Writing Introductory Paragraphs54
Writing Conclusions57
Preparing Lists of References or Works Cited57
Titling the Essay58
Revising the Preliminary Draft59
Revising Ideas62
Revising Organization63
Revising Style63
Editing70
Manuscript Format72
Sample Response Essay73
3Composing Essays Drawing from Two or More Sources: Comparison and Contrast and Synthesis78
Comparison and Contrast Essay78
Identifying Comparisons and Contrasts79
Planning Comparison and Contrast Essays82
Organizing the Comparison and Contrast Essay84
Drafting Comparison and Contrast Essays86
Sample Comparison and Contrast Essay87
Revising the Preliminary Draft91
Editing the Preliminary Draft93
Synthesizing Sources94
Sample Synthesis Essay97
4Essays of Argument, Analysis, and Evaluation103
Argument: An Introduction103
Developing Support for Arguments105
Using Sources in Argument Essays105
Organizing Argumentative Essays112
Sample Argument Essay115
Revising the Preliminary Draft120
Editing the Preliminary Draft122
Analysis and Evaluation: An Introduction122
Writing an Analytical Essay124
Reading the Source and Planning Your Essay124
Clarify the Assignment, Set Your Rhetorical Goal, and Consider Your Audience124
Do a First Reading to Get a General Impression of the Text125
Reread and Ask Questions About Analyzing and Evaluating the Text125
Review Your Answers to the Questions for Analysis131
Deciding on an Organizational Plan131
Drafting134
Sample Essay of Literary Analysis135
Revising the Preliminary Draft138
Editing the Preliminary Draft140
5Writing Research Papers142
The Research Paper: An Introduction142
Identifying a Research Topic143
Developing a Research Strategy145
Allocate Sufficient Time for Research145
Identify Research Questions145
Brainstorm a List of Terms or a Search Vocabulary146
Virtual Libraries147
Using Electronic Retrieval Systems148
How Computerized Information Retrieval Systems Function148
Recall versus Relevancy150
Keyword Searching150
Truncation151
Boolean Searching151
The Library or the World Wide Web? Choosing a Research Site153
Locating Information in an Academic Library156
The Library Catalog157
Periodical Indexes160
Conducting Research Using the World Wide Web164
Collecting Information on Your Own: Surveys and Interviews166
Modifying Your Search Strategy167
Evaluating Information Sources168
Excerpting Information from Sources169
Writing a Preliminary Thesis170
Planning the Research Paper172
Writing from Your Outline174
Revising174
Editing175
Sample Research Paper176
Part 2An Anthology of Readings191
Natural Sciences and Technology193
6Cloning197
Jennifer and Rachel198
Me, My Clone, and I (Or In Defense of Human Cloning)208
Narcissus Cloned211
Crossing Lines: A Secular Argument Against Research Cloning217
Species on Ice228
Bessie and the Gaur232
7Human/Machine Interaction239
We Are Not Special240
Cyborg Seeks Community245
Loving Technology252
Live Forever260
Isolated by the Internet269
The Gist Generation278
Time to Do Everything but Think281
8Crime-Fighting Technology: Balancing Public Safety and Privacy285
Computer Project Seeks to Avert Youth Violence286
Rooting Out the Bad Seeds?291
Kyllo V. United States: Technology v. Individual Privacy298
DC's Virtual Panopticon311
Trading Liberty for Illusions318
Invasion of Privacy321
Social Sciences331
9The Changing American Family336
Brave New Family337
Children of Gay Fathers340
What Is A Family?350
Seven Tenets for Establishing New Marital Norms368
Cohabitation Instead of Marriage373
Promoting Marriage as a Means for Promoting Fatherhood378
Toward Revels or a Requiem for Family Diversity?389
10Social Class and Inequality398
What Are "Class" and "Inequality"?399
Grandma Went to Smith, All Right, But She Went from Nine to Five: A Memoir412
The Revolt of the Black Bourgeoisie427
The War Against the Poor Instead of Programs to End Poverty432
When Shelter Feels Like a Prison442
White Standard for Poverty445
Serving in Florida449
11Rethinking School471
High School, an Institution Whose Time Has Passed472
A Day in the Life of Rafael Jackson475
Educating Black Students490
Challenging Our Assumptions500
Homework510
Myth 5: Self-Esteem Must Come First--Then Learning514
Manufacturing a Crisis in Education522
Humanities529
12Religion and Identity535
Excellent Things in Women537
Politics and the Muslim Woman544
I Still Hear the Cry551
Threads558
Sin Big565
The Pope's Loyal Opposition569
America, a Christian Nation574
Is America a Christian Nation?578
13Literatures of Diaspora: Fiction and Nonfiction586
The Proper Respect588
The Journey595
A Different Mirror604
Jasmine618
Everyday Use628
AppendixDocumenting Sources639
Rhetorical Index663
Index665

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

TO OUR READERS IN APPRECIATION

In preparing the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers, we listened closely to students and instructors who had used the third edition, and we followed their advice. As requested, we reworked the first part of the book. We added a new student essay to Chapter 2, rearranged Chapters 3 and 4, and made extensive revisions to Chapter 5, "Writing Research Papers." We have also made changes to the second half of the book. A number of the readings are new, and in Chapter 12, we have introduced a new topic. To the readers who suggested these changes, we say "thank you" for helping us strengthen this book.

ORGANIZATION AND APPROACH

Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers serves two functions. It explains how to use reading sources as idea banks for college papers, and it teaches fundamental academic writing strategies: reading, paraphrasing, summarizing, quoting, organizing, drafting, revising, editing, synthesizing, analyzing, researching, and developing arguments. It also provides an anthology of readings in the humanities, the natural sciences and technology, and the social sciences which contains articles representing various rhetorical approaches across academic disciplines. These articles, along with the accompanying instructional apparatus, help develop students' abilities to think critically and reason cogently as they read, compose, and revise. The activities and questions that accompany each reading encourage students to approach academic writing as a process: to preview the source, set reading goals, and ponderthegeneral topic before reading; to annotate the text and think critically while reading; and to reflect on the source and identify information content, form, organization, expository and stylistic features, and rhetorical elements after reading. Students are also shown how to draw on annotations, notes, and preliminary writing to produce first drafts of academic essays and how to revise essays at the drafting stage as well as later in the writing process. Additional activities help students to use ideas from different sources to produce synthesis essays and research papers.

Chapter 1 presents active reading strategies that help students engage the ideas in academic texts and incorporate them in their own writing by paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting. Chapter 2 presents the writing process, including analyzing the assignment, planning, organizing, drafting, revising, and editing. In addition, Chapter 2 examines essay structures, from the introduction and thesis statement through the body of the essay to its conclusion, and teaches students to write essays of response to a source. Chapter 3 focuses on essays that draw on two or more sources, including compare-and-contrast essays and synthesis. Chapter 4 covers essays of argumentation, analysis, and evaluation, with the special attention to literary analysis; and Chapter 5 focuses on library research strategies and writing research papers. In the eight succeeding chapters, we provide forty-seven reading selections. We have organized the anthology in Chapters 6 through 13 by dividing the academic curriculum into three major fields: the natural sciences and technology, the social sciences, and the humanities. Each chapter in Writing in the Disciplines deals with a topic that is widely studied in the field. For example, the social sciences section has chapters on redefining the American family and social class and inequality. The reading selections help students view each topic from a range of perspectives, and they provide diverse views from experts within the discipline and from journalists and specialists in other academic fields. Most of the articles are written for nonspecialized readers, not for majors in particular fields. We believe these articles, from popular as well as scholarly sources, represent the types of readings many professors assign in introductory and lower-level courses. Psychology professors, for instance, know that first-year students cannot interpret most psychological research reports until they acquire a basic knowledge of the discipline and learn its principles of experimental methodology and statistical analysis. However, first-year students can read summaries and analyses of psychological research written for nonspecialists. For Writing in the Disciplines, we chose readings that might appear on a reserve list as supplements to an introductory-level textbook. We make no assumptions about students' prior knowledge. Our intent is to model first-year-level reading assignments, not to exemplify professional standards within the disciplines.

In the introduction to each of the sections, we characterize the field of study with a discussion of its subdisciplines, methodology, logic, and vocabulary. We then describe writing within the field by examining authors' perspectives, goals, organizational patterns, literary devices, and rhetorical styles. We recognize that there is no absolute standard for categorizing intellectual activities. For example, although we have classified history as a discipline within the humanities, we could as well have placed it within the social sciences, depending on the methodology the historians use. Throughout the book, we not only point out overlaps among disciplines but also capitalize on them in synthesis assignments at the end of each chapter. Despite the imprecision of these categories, we believe that important differences in approaches to scholarship and writing do exist among the three main academic areas. Students who understand these differences will read more critically and write more persuasively.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE FOURTH EDITION

In the fourth edition of Writing in the Disciplines, we have revised the initial section on academic writing. Chapter 2 contains a new student essay. We have moved argumentation from Chapter 3 to Chapter 4, and in Chapter 4 we have collapsed the material on analysis and evaluation. Chapter 5 has changed dramatically in response to advances in computerized information retrieval systems. Chapter 5 also includes a new research paper written in American Psychological Association (APA) style. In the anthology section, Chapter 6 has been revised to focus on the current controversy over human cloning, and Chapter 12 features a new topic, "Rock Music and Cultural Values." We also added new articles and fiction excerpts to Chapters 7 and 8. We continue to accompany each article with activities and questions that promote critical thinking. Each reading is preceded by a prereading activity and followed by groups of questions that encourage students to grasp information and decide what form, organization, and expository features the author uses. Additional questions ask students to analyze rhetorical concerns, such as the context and the author's purpose (Haas and Flower). As in previous editions, several writing assignments accompany each reading and each topically related chapter.

Finally, we have refined and expanded the guide to documentation and the comparison of the MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA styles in the Appendix.

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Writing in the Disciplines provides a series of collaborative learning activities that require students to work together in groups to clarify and extend their understanding of material presented in Chapters 1 through 5. We have constructed pairs of individual and collaborative exercises for each chapter subsection, so for any particular concept, instructors may assign out-of-class work and follow with in-class collaborative activities. Some instructors may use the collaborative exercises to emphasize points they or their students deem particularly important or problematic.

It is important to prepare students for group work by teaching them the collaborative skills they need in order to work together—requisite social skills, group dynamics, methods of interaction, and strategies for learning from each other as well as from the teacher. Some instructors pair off students at first. Then, when they move the students into groups, they give them time to become acquainted. Another technique is to redefine the groups frequently until everyone in the class has gotten to know each other.

Each of the collaborative exercises in this textbook requires students to divide into work groups. Experiment with different ways of grouping students together. You might allow them to choose their groups, or you might assign them to groups on the basis of working style, personality types, or role. We have found Kenneth Bruffee's methods for conducting collaborative learning groups particularly useful (28-51). The following procedure, which draws heavily on Bruffee's Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge, is applicable to all the collaborative exercises in this textbook.

WORKING IN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING GROUPS

  1. Students form groups of five or six by counting off. (Bruffee maintains that groups of five are particularly effective for collaborative activities.)
  2. Each group selects a recorder who will write down the results of the group's deliberation and will eventually report to the entire class.
  3. Each group selects a reader who then reads the collaborative task from the textbook.
  4. Group members attempt to achieve a consensus on the question or issue posed by the collaborative task. All viewpoints should be heard and considered. (Bruffee recommends that instructors refrain from taking part in or monitoring collaborative learning groups. He believes that teacher interference in groups "inevitably destroys peer relations among students and encourages the tendency of well-schooled students to focus on the teacher's authority and interests" 291.)
  5. When a consensus is reached, the recorder reads her or his notes back to the group, and they are revised to make sure they reflect the group's decision. Differences of opinion are also included in the notes.
  6. When all groups have completed the assignment, recorders read their notes to the entire class. The instructor may choose to summarize each group's report on the chalkboard. A discussion involving the entire class may follow.

Other methods of forming and conducting collaborative learning groups will also work with the exercises in Chapters 1 through 5. Although we have had success with Bruffee's technique, we encourage instructors to pick the methods that work best for them and their students. The following resources will be helpful:

Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993.

Goodsell, Anne, Michelle Maher, and Vincent Tinto. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education. University Park, PA: NCTLA, 1992.

Johnson, David W., Roger T. Johnson, Karl A. Smith, and E. Holubec. Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction, 1993.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Once again, in the fourth edition we have relied on the work of many researchers and scholars in composition and reading. We are particularly grateful to Ann Brown, Kenneth Bruffee, Linda Flower, Christina Haas, John Hayes, and Bonnie Meyer. We used pilot versions of Writing in the Disciplines in first-year-level writing courses at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and SUNY at Cortland, and we are indebted to our students for their comments and suggestions. Liam and Maura Kennedy deserve special thanks for their important contributions to Chapter 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hadley Smith would like to acknowledge David Flanagan's and Marlene Kobre's suggestions for articles for Chapters 6, 7, and 8 as well as their collegiality over the years.

At Prentice Hall, Senior English Acquisitions Editor Leah Jewell supervised our project with skill and professionalism. We also appreciate the assistance we received from Company President Phil Miller, and Editorial Assistant Patricia Castiglione. Special thanks to our Senior Production Editor Shelly Kupperman for her expert work and to our meticulous copy editor Diane Garvey Nesin. We are indebted to our reviewers who contributed their ideas and insightful analysis: Jia-Yi Cheng-Levine, Indiana University of PA; Jean H. Wilson, Indiana University of PA; Patricia Coward, Frostburg State University; Phillip Sipiora, University of South Florida; James Allen, College of DuPage; Charles Baker, Indiana University of PA; Chad Beck, North Carolina State University; Peter Stokes, Tufts University; Alma G. Bryant, University of South Florida.

Finally, we are grateful to Liam and Maura Kennedy, Nancy Siegele, and Annie, Colin, and Timm Smith for their patience, support, and understanding.

Mary Lynch Kennedy
William J. Kennedy
Hadley M. Smith

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