Youth and Public Policy in Estonia

Youth and Public Policy in Estonia




After regaining independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia has undergone a profound transition, becoming a democratic nation with an exceptionally liberal economy and its own place within a United Europe. How will this transition continue to affect the country's youth? Estonia's Soviet past and post-Soviet reforms crucially affect the situation of youth as well as policies pertaining to young people. In 2011, young peo ple between the age of 7 and 26 made up 24 percent of the total Estonian population. This percentage is going to drop considerably in the coming decades, because of a constantly low birth rate and further losses through youth emigration. Europeanization also impacts the content and process of youth policies in Estonia. This book reviews youth policy and other policies pertaining to youth in Estonia with an eye to the implications of the country's eventful recent history, significant Russian-speaking minority, and ageing population.


Many countries have stated their youth policies, but are they executing them? Do these policies allow young people to achieve their rights? How do specific youth policies interact with broader policies that pertain to young people, and what are the results? How can young people get their fair share of policy attention and resources? In light of these questions, this series researches and analyzes public policies affecting youth. Country-specific titles lay out the evidence on which young people, organizations, and institutions can advocate for the adoption and implementation of sound national and international youth policies. The series provides what is needed in order to hold governments and international institutions to account on the promises they make to young people.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781617700552
Publisher: Internationa Debate Education Association
Publication date: 10/12/2012
Series: Youth Policy Review
Pages: 130
Product dimensions: 8.80(w) x 6.00(h) x 0.50(d)

Table of Contents

List of Acronyms viii

Executive Summary 1

1 Background to Pilot Review 5

1.1 Rationale for the Pilot Review

1.2 Rationale for the Estonia Review

1.3 Approach and Methodology

1.4 Team Reflections on Drafting the National Report

1.5 Assumptions Underlying the Research Process

1.6 Conclusion

2 The Situation of Young People 12

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Demographics

2.3 Access to Information

2.4 Education and Employment

2.5 Mobility and Migration

2.6 Health

2.7 Conclusion

3 The Policy Context 21

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Key Definitions Underpinning Policymaking

3.3 Visibility of Youth in Society

3.4 Rights and Responsibilities Addressed by Policies Pertaining to Youth

3.5 Needs of Young People Considered in Policies Pertaining to Youth

3.6 Conclusion

4 Policy Realities 61

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Existence of Policies

4.3 Policy Implementation and Delivery

4.4 Recognition of Youth in Policies

4.5 Policy Coherence

4.6 Policy Alignment with Regional and International Frameworks

4.7 Conclusion

5 Impact of Policies on the Achievement of the Human Rights of Young People 92

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Observations on the Outcomes of Policy Implementation

5.3 Access to Rights and Opportunities Guaranteed by Policies

5.4 Effectiveness of Policy Implementation

5.5 Efficiency of Appropriated Resources

5.6 Youth Participation in Policy

5.7 Conclusion

6 Intersectorial Coordination and Cooperation in the Youth Policy Field 117

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Existence and Implementation of Action Plans for Youth Policies

6.3 Existence and Implementation of Monitoring and Evaluation Frameworks

6.4 Existence and Effectiveness of Intersectorial Coordination Mechanisms

6.5 Conclusion

7 Conclusions and Recommendations 126

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Awareness of the Shift Toward Integrated Youth Policy

7.3 Cooperation Between Actors

7.4 Usage of Expertise in Youth (Work)

7.5 Increase in Number of Experts and Specialists

7.6 Usage of Knowledge on Youth: Cooperation Between Research Field and Youth Field

7.7 Overview of Youth Policies

7.8 Evaluation of Outcomes of Policies Pertaining to Youth

7.9 Inclusion of Youth and Support of Youth Participation

Bibliography 133

Appendix I Research Plan 144

Stage 1 Preparation Phase

Stage 2 Data Collection Phase

Stage 3 Submission of the First Draft to the IEB

Stage 4 Corroboration of Initial Results

Stage 5 Editing and Finalization of the Report

Appendix II List of Interviews and Focus

Groups Conducted 153

Individual Interviews with Relevant Stakeholders

Web Poll for Youth

Thematic Focus Group Interviews

About the Authors 161

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