Youth at Risk in Latin America and the Caribbean: Understanding the Causes, Realizing the Potential

Youth at Risk in Latin America and the Caribbean: Understanding the Causes, Realizing the Potential



Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821375204
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Publication date: 05/30/2008
Series: Directions in Development
Pages: 324
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments     xiii
Overview: Why Do Young People Deserve Special Attention?     3
Key Messages     4
Designing Effective Interventions     13
Policy Conclusions     21
Introduction     23
The Motivation for the Study     26
Definitions, Data, and Methodologies     30
The Organization of the Report     32
Notes     33
Laying the Groundwork     35
Motivations for Focusing on At-Risk Youth     37
The Youth Cohort, Particularly Those Considered At-Risk, Is Growing     37
The Costs of Not Investing in At-Risk Youth Are Very High for Young People, Their Families, and Society     44
Notes     55
A Conceptual Framework and Its Application for Policy Making     57
The Conceptual Framework and Definitions     57
Moving from the Conceptual Framework to Policy     61
Note     62
Identifying At-Risk Youth for Better Programming and Targeting     63
A Characterization of At-Risk Youth     63
Using the Risk Typology for Targeting Prevention Programs     68
Using the Risk Typology for Targeting for Second Chances     70
Conclusions     70
Notes     71
Informing Policy by Understanding the Trends and Causes of Risky Behavior in LAC     73
Understanding the Nature and the Magnitude of Risky Behavior     75
Leaving School without Learning     75
Difficult Integration into the Labor Market: Joblessness and Job Turnover     83
Risky Sexual Behavior     97
Crime and Violence     106
Substance Use     112
Notes     117
Identifying the Factors That Put Youth at Risk     119
Why Young People Engage in Risky Behavior     121
Key Factors Correlated with Risky Behaviors     146
Cumulative Effect of Factors     151
Conclusions     152
Notes     153
Helping Young People Make Good Choices: Programming, Policy, and Implementation     157
Principles for Building an Effective Portfolio for Youth at Risk     159
Investing in At-Risk Youth Leads to Lower Demands on the Public Purse in the Future     159
Preventing Risky Behavior Begins at Birth     161
At-Risk Youth Need Second Chances     161
Effective Targeting Is the Key to Results     162
The Most Effective Portfolio Will Prioritize Policies and Programs That Affect Multiple Risks      163
Include Only Effective Policies in the Portfolio     164
Notes     164
Prioritizing What Works     167
Core Policies: Strategies That Work and Are Recommended for Implementation     170
Nine Promising Approaches That Ought to Work and Should Be Tried, Accompanied by Careful Impact Evaluation     177
General Policies with a Surprisingly Strong Effect on Youth at Risk     192
Notes     204
Moving From a Wish List to Action     207
Improving the Portfolio for At-Risk Youth in a Budget-Constrained Environment: Reallocate Resources Away from Ineffective Programs toward Recommended Programs     207
Improving the Portfolio for At-Risk Youth in a Budget-Constrained Environment: Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Data     216
Assign and Coordinate Institutional Responsibilities Based on Comparative Advantages     226
Notes     231
Investing in Youth in LAC: Key Messages and Conclusions     233
Key Messages     233
Defining an Effective Portfolio of Policies and Programs     236
Moving Forward     240
Population in LAC by Age and Sex     243
Methodology for Estimating the Cost of Negative Youth Behavior     247
Individual Financial Costs     248
Individual Opportunity Costs      249
Social Financial Costs     250
Social Opportunity Costs     250
Components of the Cost Estimates for Each Kind of Risky Youth Behavior     251
Methodology for Devising the Typology of At-Risk Youth     255
Notes     257
Measuring Youth Outcomes     259
Note     266
Estimated Taxpayer Costs and Crime-Reduction Benefits of 16 Crime Prevention Programs     267
Sources of Information for Evaluated Programs     271
General     271
Crime and Violence     272
Risky Health Behavior     272
Labor     273
Education     273
Substance Abuse     274
World Bank Experts Working Group on Youth at Risk in LAC     274
References     277
Index     297

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