ISBN-10:
0195092031
ISBN-13:
9780195092035
Pub. Date:
03/28/1995
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach / Edition 1

The Youth Gang Problem: A Community Approach / Edition 1

by Irving A. Spergel

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195092035
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 03/28/1995
Edition description: FACSIMILE
Pages: 368
Product dimensions: 9.13(w) x 6.06(h) x 1.13(d)

About the Author

University of Chicago

Table of Contents

IDescription and Analysis
1.Introduction: Comparative and Historical Perspectives3
Gang Problems in Other Countries and Times3
Gangs in the United States before the 1990s6
The Contemporary Gang Scene in the United States9
2.Research Limitations: Data Sources and Definitions12
The Limits of Data12
Solving the Definitional Problem16
3.Scope and Seriousness of the Gang Problem26
Extent of the Problem26
Youth Gang Violence33
4.Gangs, Drugs, and Violence43
Gang Drug Use and Trafficking: Historical Perspectives43
Increase in Gang Member Drug Trafficking45
Gang Drug Trafficking and Criminal Organization47
Changing Relationships of Gangs and Drug Dealing49
Gang Violence, Drug Use, and Drug Trafficking50
5.Gang Member Demographics and Gang Subcultures55
Demographics55
Gang Subcultures and Social Contexts61
6.The Structure of the Gang70
Gang Organization and Community Structure70
Development of Gang Organization71
Patterns of Organization of the Gang74
Evolving Gang Organization77
Limitations of the Idea of Gang Organization79
Cliques or Subgroups81
Types of Gang Members83
Leaders and Core Gang Members85
Territory87
7.The Gang Member Experience90
Joining the Gang90
Group Process96
Leaving the Gang104
8.The Ecological Context110
Local Context and Gang Development111
Family113
School116
Politics120
Prisons125
9.Youth Gangs and Organized Crime129
Defining Organized Crime129
The Evolving Youth Gang-Organized-Crime Connection131
Transformation of the Black Street Gang134
Hispanic Youth Gang-Criminal-Organization Connections137
Asian-American, Pacific, and Asian Gang Criminal-Organization Connections138
IIPolicy and Program
10.Theoretical Perspectives145
Poverty-related Theories145
Social Disorganization152
Racism161
Personal Disorganization163
11.Planning for Youth Gang Control and Violence Reduction171
Historical Considerations171
Elements of a Community Planning and Mobilization Process178
12.Criminal Justice System: The Police189
Suppression: "Recent" Traditional Law Enforcement Approaches189
Emerging Police Approach199
13.Prosecution, Defense, and the Judiciary208
The Specialized Prosecution Strategy209
Defense Attorneys216
Court Attention to the Problem219
14.Probation, Corrections, and Parole--After Care229
Probation230
Corrections235
Parole--After Care243
15.Social Intervention247
Traditional Approaches: Street-Gang Work248
Recent Innovative Approaches256
16.Social Opportunities: Education and Jobs262
Macro Level Educational Perspective263
Local School Programs267
Macro Level Employment Perspective272
Local Employment277
17.Local Community Mobilization and Evolving National Policy281
Local Citizen and Organization Mobilization281
State-Level Mobilization287
Need for National Policy290
Appendix A.Community Mobilization/Planning: Selected Structure and Process Summary297
Appendix B.Nature and Level of Youth Gang Member Problems to Be Addressed299
Appendix C.Selected Strategic Activities/Structures for Particular Settings (Organizations)301
Glossary and Discussion of Terms309
References313
Index337

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