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It is estimated that 25% to 35% of students do not read well enough to handle their content area texts. This book emphasizes strategies, techniques, and materials especially appropriate for students who are struggling to learn. Above all else, the book serves as a practical guide, filled with sample lessons, examples of exemplary teaching, explanations of student strategies, and emphasizes integrating technology into the classroom. Building Literacy in the Content Areas reflects the diversity of today's student population and emphasizes the need to gear instruction to include all students. This K-12 book provides templates for planning programs and making modifications for average, gifted, ESL and bilingual students, and struggling learners at all grade levels (not just secondary). K-12 experienced and incoming teachers, Reading Coordinators.
All chapters begin with “Anticipation Guide,” and “Using What You Know.” All chapters conclude with “Summary,” “Reflection,” and “Extension and Application.”
1. Content Area Literacy.
What Content Area Literacy Is.
The Constructive Nature of Content Area Literacy.
The Quiet Crisis.
A Question of Equity.
Impact of the Standards Movement.
The Content Teacher's Role.
Characteristics of an Effective Content Area Literacy Program.
Building on Students' Strengths.
Fostering Cognitive Development.
Fostering Principled Understanding.
Integrating Domain Knowledge and Thinking Skills.
Building Academic Language.
Developing Literacy Competencies.
Learning with and from Others.
Fostering Motivation and Engagement.
Importance of the Teacher.
2. The Nature and Assessment of Content Area Texts.
Importance of Content Area Texts.
The Problem of Coverage.
Difficulty Level of Content Area Texts.
Nature of Content Area Texts.
Carefully Constructed Texts Make a Difference.
Making the Match.
3. Building Content Area Vocabulary.
Learning the Words.
Relative Difficulty of Words.
Estimating Students’ Vocabulary.
Deciding What Students Need to Know.
Selecting Words to Be Taught.
English Language Learners.
Techniques for Teaching Words.
Creating Independent Word Learners.
Effective Vocabulary Instruction.
4. Comprehension: Processes and Strategies.
The Process of Comprehending.
Learning from Text.
Levels of Understanding.
5. Reading to Learn Content.
Building Conceptual Comprehension.
6. Collaborative and Cooperative Approaches for Learning in the Content Areas.
7. Study Skills and Strategies.
Reading to Remember.
Importance of Study Skills.
How We Remember.
Conditions That Foster Remembering.
SQ3R: A Research-Based Study System.
Distributed Versus Massed Practice.
Assessing Students' Study Strategies and Habits.
Providing Continuous Support.
8. Writing to Learn.
Writing to Communicate.
Improvement in Writing Instruction.
Responsibility for Teaching Writing.
Instructing Students in Writing.
Teaching the Writing Process.
Learning Through Imitation.
Content Area Autobiographies.
Affective Component of Writing.
Composing the Research Report.
Fostering Higher-Level Thinking Through Writing.
Help from Technology.
Help on the Internet.
9. Teaching Diverse Learners.
Students at Risk.
Adjusting Content Coverage to Provide for Individual Differences.
Working with English Language Learners.
Assisting Struggling Learners.
10. Learning in Language Arts, Social Studies, and the Arts.
Reading in the Language Arts.
Reading and Writing in the Social Studies.
Other Performing Arts.
11. Reading and Writing in Math and Science.
Building Literacy in the Sciences.
Building Literacy in Mathematics.
12. Using Trade Books, Periodicals, and Technology to Foster Learning in the Content Areas.
Using What You Know.
The Promise of Technology.
Using the Internet in Content Classes.
Widespread Use of the Internet.
Teaching Students How to Use the Internet More Effectively.
Virtual Field Trips.
Sources of Professional Development for Teachers.
Using Tradebooks in the Content Areas.
Supplementary Reading Materials.
13. Evaluating Progress in the Content Areas.
Formative and Summative Assessment.
The Starting Point.
The Standards Movement.
Norm-Referenced Versus Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Judging Assessment Measures.
Functional Level Assessment.
Other Methods of Assessment.
Assessing Background Knowledge.
14. Organizing Content Area Literacy Programs.
Selecting Techniques and Strategies.
Integrating Content and Techniques.
Designing an Effective Classroom.
Collaborating with Other Professionals.
Becoming a Teacher-Researcher.
Appendix A: Content Area Trade Books.