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Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling
     

Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling

4.3 26
by Ross King
 

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In 1508, despite strong advice to the contrary, the powerful Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the newly restored Sistine Chapel. With little experience as a painter (though famed for his sculpture David), Michelangeol was reluctant to begin the massive project. Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling recounts the four extraordinary years

Overview

In 1508, despite strong advice to the contrary, the powerful Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the newly restored Sistine Chapel. With little experience as a painter (though famed for his sculpture David), Michelangeol was reluctant to begin the massive project. Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling recounts the four extraordinary years Michelangelo spent laboring over the vast ceiling while the power politics and personal rivalries that abounded in Rome swirled around him. Battling against ill health, financial difficulties, domestic problems, the pope's impatience, and a bitter rivalry with the brilliant young painter Raphael, Michelangelo created scenes so beautiful that they are considered to be among the greatest masterpieces of all time. A panorama of illustrious figures converged around the creation of this magnificent work -- from the great Dutch scholar Erasmus to the young Martin Luther -- and Ross King skillfully weaves them through his compelling historical narrative, offering uncommon insight into the intersection of art and history.

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
King's historical account of the four years Michelangelo Buonarroti spent frescoing the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome is splendid, thorough and detailed. But its larger appeal lies in the way King (Brunelleschi's Dome) brings out the story's human elements. Listeners learn of Michelangelo's bitter disappointment when a project he was eagerly looking forward to (the construction of the Pope's tomb) was cancelled and that he had little experience with the art of fresco and was reluctant to take on the Sistine Chapel. King explains the craft of frescoing with involving details: for example, fresco dries quickly, so the artist could work only in small sections, and if a mistake was found after the paint dried, the whole day's work had to be chipped away and redone. Listeners also learn of Michelangelo's financial woes and family problems and the political upheavals of the time. Sklar's narration is perfect for the project. His lively and expressive reading add a realistic edge to a centuries-old tale. He speaks passionately and his accent on the Italian names and phrases is flawless. Simultaneous release with the Walker hardcover (Forecasts, Dec. 9, 2002). (Jan.) Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
Library Journal
This amazing book transports the listener back to Italy in the early 16th century. King is able to describe the intricacies of fresco painting while also portraying the day-to-day life of that era. Descriptions of the court intrigues of Pope Julius II are interwoven with the struggles Michelangelo faced when Julius ordered him to paint, in fresco, the 12,000 square foot ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The author's research and writing skills bring the many characters vividly to life. Alan Sklar seems to be reading the abridged version from cue cards, while John Lee narrates the unabridged production with more zest-his performance definitely adds excitement to an already enthralling listening experience. King has certainly captured the spirit of the time, as well as the life of a very gifted and somewhat eccentric artist. Both of these recordings are superb, but the best reading is done by Lee. Highly recommended for all libraries.-Theresa Connors, Arkansas Tech Univ., Russellville Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
A legend-busting, richly detailed account of the four-year making of the Sistine Chapel frescos.

When Pope Julius II wasn’t riding off to subdue some unfortunate neighbor during the endless Papal Wars, he was hounding poor Michelangelo--"When will you have this chapel finished?"--to make good on his three-thousand-ducat commission and reveal to an expectant world the mysteries of the Creation. If you’ve put those impatient words in the mouth of Rex Harrison, who brought Julius to the screen in The Agony and the Ecstasy, you’ll know that poor Michelangelo worked alone, racked by the demons of poverty and artistic insecurity, to say nothing of the Inquisition. Not so, writes King (Domino, p. 1337, etc.). It’s not that the pope was a patient or gentle man--from time to time he gave Michelangelo a good clout, and he once threatened to throw the recalcitrant artist off his scaffolding. But Michelangelo was being paid very well for his work and had a squadron of skilled craftsmen at his disposal, and it was they, not he, who spent years on their backs staring up at the ceiling, paintbrush in hand, while Michelangelo was ducking off to check on other commissions in Florence and Bologna. King supplies a richly nuanced view of Michelangelo and company’s day-to-day life in the Sistine Chapel, placing it in the context of the overall Renaissance, a time of plenty of bloodshed and intrigue, but also of extraordinary artistic accomplishment thanks to the likes of Julius, Cesare Borgia, and other noteworthy hotheads. Disputing the now accepted view that Michelangelo was gay (there is no good evidence, King argues, that he had much of any kind of sex life), King examines Michelangelo’s considerablevirtues and quirks--one of which, his understandable desire not to show a work until it was done, was to get him into much trouble with his eminent patron.

Readers looking for the lite version of this tale may still want to fire up the VCR and watch Charlton Heston chew the scenery. Those seeking a richer understanding of Renaissance art-making will find this a pleasure.

From the Publisher

“This amazing book transports the listener back to Italy in the early 16th century. King is able to describe the intricacies of fresco painting while also portraying the day-to-day life of that era . . . Highly recommended.” —Library Journal

“A legend-busting, richly detailed account of the four-year making of the Sistine Chapel frescos . . . Readers looking for the lite version of this tale may still want to fire up the VCR and watch Charlton Heston chew the scenery. Those seeking a richer understanding of Renaissance art-making will find this a pleasure.” —Kirkus

“Scrupulously researched, written with panache, Ross King's Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling is a sublime peek into a remarkable era.” —The Miami Herald

“Ross King expertly wipes away such smudges from the story of this great painting, only to uncover a truth even more exciting and improbable.” —San Francisco Chronicle

“[An] exciting account. . . King chronicles Michelangelo's aesthetic decisions and clarion triumphs over myriad forms of adversity with expertise and contagious enthusiasm.” —Booklist, starred review

“Splendid, thorough and detailed.” —Publishers Weekly

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780142003695
Publisher:
Penguin Publishing Group
Publication date:
11/25/2003
Edition description:
Reissue
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
6.12(w) x 9.21(h) x 1.10(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Read an Excerpt

Michelangelo & the Pope's Ceiling


By ROSS KING

WALKER & COMPANY

Copyright © 2003 Ross King
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0802713955


The Summons

The Piazza Rusticucci was not one of Rome's most prestigious addresses. Though only a short walk from the Vatican, the square was humble and nondescript, part of a maze of narrow streets and densely packed shops and houses that ran west from where the Ponte Sant'Angelo crossed the Tiber River. A trough for livestock stood at its center, next to a fountain, and on its east side was a modest church with a tiny belfry. Santa Caterina delle Cavallerotte was too new to be famous. It housed none of the sorts of relics-bones of saints, fragments from the True Cross-that each year brought thousands of pilgrims to Rome from all over Christendom. However, it was behind this church, in a small street overshadowed by the city, wall, that could be found the workshop of the most sought-after artist in Italy: a squat, flat-nosed, shabbily dressed, ill-tempered sculptor from Florence.

Michelangelo Buonarroti was summoned back to this workshop behind Santa Caterina in April 1508. He obeyed the call with great reluctance, having vowed he would never return to Rome. Fleeing the city two years earlier, he had ordered his assistants to clear the workshop and sell its contents, his tools included, to the Jews. He returned that spring to find the premises bare and, nearby in the Piazza San Pietro, exposed tothe elements, one hundred tons of marble still piled where he had abandoned it. These lunar-white blocks had been quarried in preparation for what was intended to be one of the largest assemblages of sculpture the world had ever seen: the tomb of the reigning pope, Julius II. Yet Michelangelo had not been brought back to Rome to resume work on this colossus.

Michelangelo was thirty-three years old. He had been born on the sixth of March 1475, at an hour, he informed one of his assistants, when Mercury and Venus were in the house of Jupiter. Such a fortunate arrangement of the planets had foretold "success in the arts which delight the senses, such as painting, sculpture and architecture." This success was not long in coming. By the age of fifteen the precociously gifted Michelangelo was studying the art of sculpture in the Garden of San Marco, a school for artists fostered by Lorenzo de' Medici, the ruler of Florence. At nineteen he was carving statues in Bologna, and two years later, in 1496, he made his first trip to Rome, where he soon received a commission to sculpt the Pietà. His contract for this statue boldly claimed it would be "the most beautiful work in marble that Rome has ever seen"-a condition he was said to have fulfilled when the work was unveiled to an astonished public a few years later. Carved to adorn the tomb of a French cardinal, the Pietà won praise for surpassing not only the sculptures of all of Michelangelo's contemporaries but even those of the ancient Greeks and Romans themselves-the standards by which all art was judged.

Michelangelo's next triumph was another marble statue, the David, which was installed in front of the Palazzo della Signoria in Florence in September 1504, following three years of work. If the Pietà showed delicate grace and feminine beauty, the David revealed Michelangelo's talent for expressing monumental power through the male nude. Almost seventeen feet in height, the work came to be known by the awestruck citizens of Florence as Il Gigante, or "The Giant." It took four days and considerable ingenuity on the part of Michelangelo's friend, the architect Giuliano da Sangallo, to transport the mighty statue the quarter mile from his workshop behind the cathedral to its pedestal in the Piazza della Signoria.

A few months after the David was finished, early in 1505, Michelangelo received from Pope Julius II an abrupt summons that interrupted his work in Florence. So impressed was the pope with the Pietà, which he had seen in a chapel of St. Peter's, that he wanted the young sculptor to carve his tomb as well. At the end of February the papal treasurer, Cardinal Francesco Alidosi, paid Michelangelo an advance of one hundred gold florins, the equivalent of a full year's salary for a craftsman. The sculptor then returned to Rome and entered the service of the pope. So began what he would later call "the tragedy of the tomb."

Papal tombs were usually grand affairs. That of Sixtus IV, who died in 1484, was a beautiful bronze sarcophagus that had been nine years in the making. But Julius, a stranger to all modesty, had envisioned for himself something on an entirely new scale. He had begun making plans for his sepulchre soon after his election to the papacy in 1503, ultimately conceiving of a memorial that was to be the largest since the mausoleums built for Roman emperors such as Hadrian and Augustus.

Michelangelo's design was in keeping with these tremendous ambitions, calling for a freestanding structure some thirty-four feet wide and fifty feet high. There were to be over forty life-size marble statues, all set in a massive and highly detailed architectural setting of pillars, arches, and niches. On the bottom tier a series of nude statues would represent the liberal arts, while the top would be crowned by a ten-foot-high statue of Julius wearing the papal tiara. Besides an annual salary of 1,200 ducats-roughly ten times what the average sculptor or goldsmith could expect to earn in a single year-Michelangelo was to receive a final payment of 10,000 more.

Michelangelo began this daunting project with energy and enthusiasm, spending eight months in Carrara, sixty-five miles northwest of Florence, supervising the quarrying and transport of the white marble for which the town was famous, not least because both the Pietà and the David had been carved from it. In spite of several mishaps in transit-one of his cargo boats ran aground in the Tiber, and several others were swamped when the river flooded-by the start of 1506 he had unloaded more than ninety, wagonloads of marble in the square before St. Peter's and moved into the workshop behind Santa Caterina. The people of Rome rejoiced at the sight of this mountain of white stone rising in front of the old basilica. No one was more excited than the pope, who had a special walkway built to connect Michelangelo's workshop with the Vatican and thereby facilitate his visits to the Piazza Rusticucci, where he would discuss his magnificent project with the artist.

Even before the marble had arrived in Rome, however, the pope's attentions were being distracted by an even larger enterprise. Originally he had planned for his sepulchre to stand in a church near the Colosseum, San Pietro in Vincoli, only to change his mind and decide it should be installed instead in the grandeur setting of St. Peter's. But soon he realized that the old basilica was in no fit state to accommodate such an impressive monument. Two and a half centuries after his death in 67 C.E., the bones of St. Peter had been brought from the catacombs to this location beside the Tiber-the spot where he was believed to have been crucified-and the basilica that bears his name constructed over them. By a sad irony, this great edifice housing the tomb of St. Peter, the rock on which the Christian Church was founded, therefore came to occupy a low-lying patch of marshy ground in which, it was said, there lived snakes large enough to eat babies whole.

These undesirable foundations meant that, by 1505, the walls of the basilica were leaning six feet out of true. While various piecemeal efforts had been made to rectify the perilous situation, Julius, typically, decided to take the most drastic measures: He planned to have St. Peter's demolished and a new basilica built in its place. The destruction of the oldest and holiest church in Christendom had therefore started by the time Michelangelo returned from Carrara. Dozens of ancient tombs of saints and previous popes-the inspiration for visions, healings, and other miracles-were smashed to rubble and enormous pits twenty-five feet deep excavated for the foundations. Tons of building materials cluttered the surrounding streets and piazzas as an army of 2,000 carpenters and stonemasons prepared themselves for the largest construction project seen anywhere in Italy since the days of ancient Rome.

A design for this grand new basilica had been put forward by the pope's official architect, Giuliano da Sangallo, Michelangelo's friend and mentor. The sixty-three-year-old Sangallo, a Florentine, boasted an impressive list of commissions, having designed churches and palaces across much of Italy, among them the Palazzo Rovere, a splendid residence built in Savona, near Genoa, for Julius II. Sangallo had been the favorite architect of Lorenzo de' Medici, for whom he had designed a villa near Florence at Poggio a Caiano. In Rome he had been responsible for making repairs to the Castel Sant'Angelo, the city's fortress. He had also repaired Santa Maria Maggiore, one of Rome's most ancient churches, and gilded its ceiling with what was said to be the first gold ever brought back from the New World.

So confident was Sangallo of gaining the commission to rebuild St. Peter's that he uprooted his family from Florence and moved it to Rome. He faced competition for the design, however. Donato d'Angelo Lazzari, better known as Bramante, had a collection of equally prestigious works to his credit. Hailed by his admirers as the greatest architect since Filippo Brunelleschi, he had built churches and domes in Milan and, after moving to Rome in 1500, various convents, cloisters, and palaces. To date, his most celebrated building was the Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio, a small classical-style temple on the Janiculum, a hill south of the Vatican. The word bramante means "ravenous," making it an apt nickname for someone with the sixty-two-year-old architect's overweening aspirations and vast sensual appetites. And the voracious Bramante saw, in St. Peter's, the chance to exercise his considerable abilities on a larger scale than ever before.

The competition between Sangallo and Bramante had repercussions for virtually every painter and sculptor in Rome. A Florentine who had lived and worked for many years in Rome, Sangallo was the leader of a group of artists-among them his brother and nephews-who had migrated south from Florence to vie for commissions from the pope and his wealthy cardinals. Bramante, a native of Urbino, had come to Rome more recently, though since his arrival he had been cultivating friendships with artists who hailed from various other Italian towns and cities, promoting them as a counterpoise to the Florentines whose careers Sangallo was attempting to advance. Much was at stake in the competition to design St. Peter's, since to the victor would accrue wide-ranging powers of patronage as well as an enviable influence at the papal court Late in 1505, Bramante's faction dramatically seized the upper hand when the pope accepted his design for a huge, domed structure in the shape of a Greek cross, rather than the one submitted by Sangallo.

If Michelangelo was disappointed by his friend's failure to secure the commission, the rebuilding of St. Peter's had an almost immediate effect on his own work. The tremendous expense involved meant that the pope abruptly put the tomb project on hold-a change of heart that Michelangelo learned about the hard way After shipping his one hundred tons of marble to Rome, he was left with freight charges of 140 ducats, a substantial sum which he needed a bank loan to pay. Having received no money since the one hundred florins more than a year earlier, he decided to seek reimbursement from the pope, with whom he happened to dine in the Vatican one week before Easter. To his alarm, during this meal he overheard the pope informing two of his other guests that he had no intention of spending another ducat on marble for the tomb-a shocking turnabout given his earlier zeal for the project. Still, before taking his leave of the table Michelangelo was bold enough to broach the subject of the 140 ducats, only to be fobbed off by Julius, who instructed him to return to the Vatican on Monday. Then, however, he was spurned a second time when the pope declined to grant him an audience.

"I returned on Monday," Michelangelo later recalled in a letter to a friend, "and on Tuesday and on Wednesday and on Thursday. ... Finally, on Friday morning I was turned out, in other words, I was sent packing." A bishop, witnessing these proceedings with some surprise, asked the groom who repulsed Michelangelo if he realized to whom he was speaking. "I do know him," answered the groom, "but I am obliged to follow the orders of my superiors, without inquiring further."

Such treatment was too much for a man unaccustomed to the sight of doors closing in his face. Almost as renowned for his moody temper and aloof, suspicious nature as he was for his amazing skill with the hammer and chisel, Michelangelo could be arrogant, insolent, and impulsive. "You may tell the pope," he haughtily informed the groom, "that from now on, if he wants me, he can look for me elsewhere." He then returned to his workshop-"overwhelmed with despair," he later claimed-and instructed his servants to sell all of its contents to the Jews. Later that day, the seventeenth of April 1506-the eve of the laying of the foundation stone of the new basilica-he fled from Rome, vowing never to return.


* * *

Pope Julius II was not a man one wished to affend. No pope before or since has enjoyed such a fearsome reputation. A sturdily built sixty-three-year-old with snow-white hair and a ruddy face, he was known as íl papa terribile, the "dreadful" or "terrifying" pope. People had good reason to dread Julius. His violent rages, in which he punched underlings or thrashed them with his stick, were legendary.

Continue...


Excerpted from Michelangelo & the Pope's Ceiling by ROSS KING Copyright © 2003 by Ross King
Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

Meet the Author

Ross King is the highly praised author of Brunelleschi's Dome (the Book Sense Nonfiction Book of the Year in 2000), Leonardo and The Last Supper, The Judgment of Paris, Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power, and two novels, Ex Libris and Domino. He lives outside Oxford in England.

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Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling 4.3 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 26 reviews.
bwerges More than 1 year ago
I love this book because it tells the story of such a famous piece of art, that after reading it you feel intimate with it. This book is really good for history buffs though, it is not as much of a story but teaches you a lot about his life and all his struggles with the ceiling and the many things that contributed to it. Also it has been researched very well, but still maintains the flow of a novel. I would recommend this book to anyone who likes history and art, or someone who just likes to know more than the average person on such well known things.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Not only a book about Michaelangelo, but a history of Pope Julius and the Catholic Church. This book is a great primer on Renaissance Italy and how Europe awoke after a long hibernation of the Dark Ages. All the cast and characters are here; the popes, the Medici's, the Borgia's, the patrons, and the artists. If you think Michaelangelo only created David or the Sistine Chapel, then this book will certainly enlighten. Highly recommended.

PW
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I found this book to be quite compelling and thought it was intriguing that the author went to great lengths to formulate the relationship between the two figures. It is a very in-depth book that will challenge one's primary angle on the situation with the Sistine Chapel.
Guest More than 1 year ago
You won't believe the politics and personalities of the Artists involved. I can't wait to see the Sistine Chapel in person -- Now I know what went on!
Guest More than 1 year ago
A fascinating book, examines not only art history, but world history, design, petty family squables, political and religous upheaval, paint technique, paint chemistry, greek history etc etc, and how each impacted the work as it was done. I could not put this book down. It is a shame it is only a few hundred pages. Unfortunataly, the color plates are not precise or complete. You'll want to invest some time on the internet research larger samles of the work. Or better yet, visit the Vatican.
Guest More than 1 year ago
I loved this book. I read it before I visited the Sistine Chapel and enjoyed seeing things in a different light. A great book for everyone; even those who dislike non-fiction
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is a enjoyable and will make you want to head out to Rome to see the ceiling in person. An interesting and enlightening read.
Guest More than 1 year ago
King's research is evident in this book and it is so thorough, leaving out no detail in the process of painting The Sistine Chapel. I would reccomend this to anyone, interested in art or not, because after reading it, you just gain a whole new perspective and its worth your time!
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is a great read and an amazing view inside the world of papal politics. I took it with me to Italy and finished on the flight, then toured the Vatican. Unbelievable!
Guest More than 1 year ago
I was in high school the last time I learned anything substantive about Renaissance art and history. This book is very well written, fun, an excellent leisure read with plenty of facts and figures to please the more technically-minded.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This history and art appreciation volume may well appeal to everyone of us who has visited or will visit the Sistine Chapel. To take full advantage of Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling one may want to have a good book of the frescos and a map of sixteenth century Italy very close at hand. No, they are not absolutely necessary but with them the journey will really begin. At the end of the journey I felt that I almost met the men who are the principals of this history. In Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling Mr.King has done another (Brunelleschi's Dome) very engaging and engrossing history. He motivates one to want to return to Rome and Florence yet again. Ah, how much more we now know thanks to Mr. King. Definitely at least four stars. Thank you Mr.King. I, for one, am sure that you have a book on Raphael in the works and I am very much looking forward to it.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Michelangelo and the Pope's Ceiling kept my attention throughout the whole book. Not only did I learn the facts about the painting of the Sistine Chapel, but King brought to life characters like Pope Julius II and Raphael. I highly recommend this to you if you are an art history fan, or just want an interesting read. I also feel as though I 'know' Michelangelo and was present during his amazing undertaking.
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