Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings / Edition 1

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Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings is a practical guide, providing the reader with basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of an existing barrier product. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the terminology and science is introduced, and includes descriptions about barrier testing methods and the vacuum deposition process. The book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting these defects. This enables readers to decide where their development efforts and money can best be used to improve the barrier performance of their own process or materials.

Roll-to-Roll Vacuum Deposition of Barrier Coatings:

Specifies the benefits and problems of producing vacuum deposited barrier coatings

Explains why products designed by system operators might vary and how they can improve the quality and reproducibility of their products

Describes the basic deposition process, limitations that may arise, and how they may be overcome

Details why current barrier materials have limited performance and why it is so difficult and expensive to make improvements or to produce ultra barrier materials.

This practical reference is invaluable to all readers using the roll-to-roll vacuum coating technology, including R&D scientists and engineers (process; product and process design), operators, technicians, line managers involved in producing vacuum deposited barrier coatings. It also serves the food packaging and medical packaging industries, along with any industry using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) such as electronics, solar energy and photovoltaics (PVs), thin film battery as well as vacuum insulation panels.

Dr. Bishop is the author of 'Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils' and author or co-author of over 60 papers and 5 patents. He jointly runs a vacuum training website ( and edits the blog.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The book presents a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product." (News Blaze, 1 November 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470609569
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/28/2010
  • Series: Wiley-Scrivener Series, #22
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 262
  • Sales rank: 553,475
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Charles Bishop left school at 16 to start an engineering apprenticeship completing it as a Toolmaker. Opting to return to education, he received a degree in Materials Technology. Moving to the Physics Department, he went on to complete Masters and Doctorate degrees on different aspects of vacuum deposition. After a brief time as a post doctoral researcher, Dr. Bishop moved into industry for the next 15 years before setting up his own consultancy business in 1998.
Dr. Bishop is the author of 'Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils' and author or co-author of over 60 papers and 5 patents. He jointly runs a vacuum training website ( and edits the blog on behalf of AIMCAL. In 2008, Dr. Bishop was presented with the Society of Vacuum Coaters Mentor Award.

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Packaging 5

1.1.1 Opaque Barrier 6

1.1.2 Transparent Barrier 8

1.2 Markets 10

References 13

2 Terminology 17

2.1 Permeability Models 27

2.2 Barrier Improvement Factor 32

2.3 Tortuous Path Model 33

2.4 Terminology Summary 36

References 37

3 Measurements 43

3.1 Permeation Measurements 44

3.2 Durability Testing 51

3.3 Adhesion 55

3.4 Pinholes 57

3.5 Surface Energy 59

3.6 Coefficient of Friction 64

3.7 Coating Thickness 66

3.8 Coating Conductivity or Resistivity 69

3.9 Transmittance, Reflectance and Ellipseometry 71

3.10 Standard Test Methods 72

3.10.1 Permeability Tests 72

3.10.2 Other Mechanical or Optical Performance Tests 73

References 74

4 Materials 81

4.1 Packaging Materials Calculations 91

References 94

5 Substrates, Surfaces, Quality and Defects 97

5.1 Substrates 97

5.1.1 Oligomers 102

5.1.2 Additives 104

5.1.3 Contamination 109

5.1.4 Surface Quality 113

5.2 Substrate Cleaning 114

5.3 Substrate Plasma Treatments 118

5.4 Wetting and Adhesion 129

5.5 Subbing or Planarisation Layers and Over-coatings 133

References 137

6 Vacuum Deposition Processing 145

6.1 Nucleation, Growth and Modification 145

6.2 Managing Heat Load 160

6.3 Web Winding in Vacuum 172

6.4 Troubleshooting 190

References 193

7 Vacuum deposition 199

7.1 Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) 200

7.1.1 Resistance Heated Evaporation 200

7.2 Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) 218

7.3 Electron Beam Evaporation Sources 220

7.4 Induction Heated Evaporation Source 224

7.5 Magnetron Sputter Deposition Sources 225

7.6 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) 235

7.7 Other Deposition Processes 238

References 238

8 Summary 251

8.1 Cleanliness 251

8.2 Substrates 252

8.3 Coatings 253

8.4 Over Coatings 254

8.5 Multilayers 254

8.6 Conclusion 254

Index 255

Author Biography 261

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