"The authoritative masterpiece" (L. A. Times) on the Apollo space program and NASA's journey to the moon
This acclaimed portrait of heroism and ingenuity captures a watershed moment in human history. The astronauts themselves have called it the definitive account of their missions. On the night of July 20, 1969, our world changed forever when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon. Based on in-depth interviews with twenty-three of the twenty-four moon voyagers, as well as those who struggled to get the program moving, A Man on the Moon conveys every aspect of the Apollo missions with breathtaking immediacy and stunning detail.
A Man on the Moon is also the basis for the acclaimed miniseries produced by Tom Hanks, From the Earth to the Moon, now airing and streaming again on HBO in celebration of the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11.
|Publisher:||Penguin Publishing Group|
|Product dimensions:||5.30(w) x 7.97(h) x 1.50(d)|
|Age Range:||18 Years|
About the Author
Andrew Chaikin is the author of the acclaimed A Man on the Moon and several other books about space. He is a commentator for NPR’s Morning Edition and had appeared on Good Morning America, Nightline, Fresh Air, and Talk of the Nation.
Read an Excerpt
Excerpt from Chapter 3: First Around the Moon
The news was bad in the summer of 1968. A nation reeling from the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy now confronted more images of violence in its living rooms: the blood of young soldiers in Vietnam, the blood of demonstrators outside the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. And even within NASA's world, where these events were overshadowed by the race with the decade, there was bad news. The second unmanned test of the Saturn V moon rocket had been a near disaster. Minutes into the launch the booster began to vibrate badly. Then two of the second-stage engines shut down prematurely. Later, a third engine refused to reignite in space. And if that weren't enough, there were ongoing headaches with the Apollo spacecraft. The redesigned command module was coming along well at North American, and the craft slated for Apollo 7, the command module's manned, earth-orbit debut, was already at the Cape being readied for an October launch. But the lunar module was facing one technical problem after another. From the beginning, engineers at the Grumman Corporation in Bethpage, Long Island, had struggled to keep the lander's weight from exceeding forbidden limits. And there were other woes: faulty wiring, corroded metal, and most serious of all, troubles with the LM's ascent rocket. And when the first manned lunar module was shipped to the Cape in June, quality control inspectors found 100 separate defects. At NASA, no one who heard the reports on the lander was happy with the situation. Apollo 8, the LM's first manned flight, would almost certainly be delayed beyond the end of the year, throwing the whole sequence of Apollo missions into jeopardy. The end-of-the-decade deadline for the lunar landing was slipping out of reach.
All that began to change in early August. A plan emerged, elegant in its simplicity, astounding in its boldness, that altered the course of the moon program. It was the brainchild of George Low, the quiet engineering genius who oversaw the development of the Apollo spacecraft from Houston. If Apollo 7 went well in October, Low reasoned, why keep Apollo 8 in earth orbit? Even if the LM wasn't going to be ready for its debut, the second command ship could go to the moon by itself in December. Already, during the spring, Low had quietly raised the possibility of a circumlunar flight in which the joined command module/lunar module pair would execute a figure 8 loop around the moon and then come home. His new plan was even more ambitious. Low wanted to send the command module to the moon by itself, not to fly a figure 8 loop, but to go into lunar orbit. Even without a lunar module, that would let NASA practice the elements of a basic lunar mission: navigating across the vast translunar gulf, executing the precise rocket firings to get into and out of lunar orbit, communicating across a quarter-million miles, and the critical reentry into the earth's atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. Then, by the time the LM was ready -- estimates said February -- Apollo would have taken a giant step forward.
But there was another reason for urgency. Reports from the Central Intelligence Agency said the Soviet Union was about to resume flying its new Soyuz spacecraft -- after the first Soyuz crashed, killing its lone cosmonaut, Vladimir Komarov, in April 1967 -- and were on the verge of sending one around the moon. Most experts doubted the Soviets had the capability to land on the moon before the end of the decade; for one thing, they had yet to test a rocket, like the Saturn V, powerful enough to propel the necessary payload to the lunar surface. Even a lunar orbit flight was probably beyond them. But with the booster they already had, they could fire a Soyuz, with one or two cosmonauts aboard, on a trip around the moon.
From the beginning, without warning, the Soviets had upstaged the United States in space with their own spectacular firsts. In 1957 it had been the first earth satellite, Sputnik I. More than three years later it was Yuri Gagarin's one-orbit flight that stunned the world and sparked John Kennedy's decision to go to the moon. Then came the first woman in space, the first multiperson space crew, the first spacewalk. If the Soviets got to the moon first -- even if they did nothing more than loop around it -- the world would hardly notice the difference between that accomplishment and NASA's more difficult lunar orbit mission.
There is no way of knowing what would have happened to Low's plan if NASA Administrator James Webb had been in Washington, but the fact was he was not; he and his deputy George Mueller were in Vienna attending a conference. In their absence Associate Administrator Thomas Paine, a bright, young engineer with a penchant for the visionary, was in charge. When Paine's deputy, Apollo program director Sam Phillips, told him about Low's idea Paine immediately saw the logic in it. But it remained to convince Webb, and that might not be easy.
Webb was not an engineer. He was, however, a canny bulldog of a politician. When Kennedy said "Go to the moon" it was up to Webb to keep Congress from having second thoughts, which he did by any means of persuasion he found necessary -- including a knack for knowing where congressional skeletons were hidden. Year after year, he was Apollo's champion on the Hill, where it counted most. He had persevered even as the war in Vietnam claimed more and more of Lyndon Johnson's attention and Apollo became a target of congressional opposition. If Americans reached the moon by the end of the decade, it would be due in large measure to Jim Webb. But Webb would not be at NASA to see it; he already knew his tenure would end when Johnson left office.
Webb took Paine's call at the American embassy, where there was a secure phone, and then Sam Phillips got on the line. Webb wasn't ready for what he heard. He yelled over the transatlantic phone line, "Are you out of your mind?" Webb reviewed what was apparent to any sane person: They hadn't even flown a manned Apollo spacecraft, and here they were with a scheme to send the second flight to the moon. And with no lunar module! All along, the LM had been thought of as a measure of safety, a lifeboat in case something happened to disable the command ship's rocket engines. Sending the command module by itself only increased the risk of what was already a risky mission. With the Fire still fresh in the memory of the public and the Congress, Webb could only imagine the effect of another space tragedy. He warned his two deputies, "You're putting the agency and the whole program at risk."
Webb was right. For all its logic, Low's plan was audacious. Many would look back on it as the boldest decision NASA ever made. Still, by the time Paine and Phillips hung up the phone to Vienna, Webb had agreed to give the idea a chance.
In Houston, they were already working on it. Low had asked Chris Kraft, director of Flight Operations, to find out whether his people could be ready to send Apollo 8 to the moon in December. They went ahead with their study in secret. When their office mates asked -- "What's all this lunar stuff you're working on?" -- they replied coolly, "Oh, it's just a what-if type of study..."
Within a week Kraft's team had an answer. By the summer of 1968, after years of intensive effort, the basics of sending a manned spacecraft to the moon were all but perfected. The biggest hurdle: finishing the computer software that mission control would need to help Apollo 8 navigate to and from the moon. Making the December launch date would be tight, but Kraft's people were confident they could do it. Meanwhile, at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, Wernher von Braun's rocket team reported the problems with the Saturn V were being ironed out. It remained for the Apollo spacecraft to prove itself. If all went well on Apollo 7, slated for October, there wouldn't be anything to stand in the way.
Table of Contents
"Fire in the Cockpit!" 11
The Office 27
First Around the Moon (Apollo 8) 56
The Decision 56
A Hole in the Stars 82
"In the Beginning..." 107
"It's All Over but the Shouting" 125
"Before This Decade Is Out" 135
The Parlay 135
"We Is Down Among 'Em!" 150
Down to the Wire 160
The First Lunar Landing (Apollo 11) 184
The Eagle Has Landed 184
Magnificent Desolation 200
"Before This Decade Is Out" 219
Sailors on the Ocean of Storms (Apollo 12) 231
The Education of Alan Bean 231
Shore Leave 253
In the Belly of the Snowman 270
The Crown of an Astronaut's Career (Apollo 13) 285
A Change of Fortune 285
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress 303
The Chill of Space 318
The Story of a Full-up Mission (Apollo 14) 337
Big Al Flies Again 337
To the Promised Land 352
The Climb 364
The Scientist 383
A Fire to Be Lighted 398
To the Mountains of the Moon (Apollo 15) 411
"Exploration at Its Greatest" 411
High Point 423
The Spirit of Galileo 437
The Final Selection 444
The Unexpected Moon (Apollo 16) 452
Luna Incognita 452
"You Just Bit Off More Than You Can Chew" 477
"...Or Wherever Geologists Go" 482
The Last Men on the Moon (Apollo 17) 495
Sunrise at Midnight 495
Apollo at the Limit 516
Witnesses to the Earthrise 531
Epilogue: The Audiences of the Moon 553
Afterword: A People Without Limits 587
Astronaut Biographical Information 597
Persons Interviewed 607
Apollo Mission Data 610
Author's Notes 621
What People are Saying About This
"Recounts in loving detail the standing Apollo epic . . . with verve and intelligence."
-The New York Times Book Review
"The power of A Man on the Moon truly astounded me. . . . I found myself transported, reminded of all that was wonderful about Apollo. I laughed and cried."
-Dava Sobel, author of Longitude and Galileo's Daughter
"More inside stories, more details, recollections, and feelings of all the men who traveled to the moon than any other account of the Apollo program."
-The Christian Science Monitor
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Although many of us remain amazed at the many technical achievements that landed us on the moon in 1969, this book takes a refreshing look at the achievements from the astronauts perspective. It looks deep into each of the men that visited the moon, their background, education, families, astronaut training, and, most interesting to me, how this most profound of experiences has affected them. Great read!
A Man on the Moon brought back memories of watching blurry pictures of the first moon walk on a black and white TV in the middle of the night. Andrew Chaikin has written a book that captures the excitement of those flights and the men who made them. His book is actually better than Tom Wolfe’s The Right Stuff at portraying the astronauts. The section on the later Apollo missions and their scientific accomplishments was enlightening. He also reminds us of the opportunities lost by small minded politicians. It is possible that a manned mission to Mars could have flown or a base on the moon could have been established by now. Instead, much of that money was spent on the military-industrial complex.
Andrew Chaikin's detailed account of the Apollo space program focuses as much or more on the experiences, thoughts and reactions of the people involved than on the technical details, drawing on extensive interviews with astronauts and others to bring those experiences to life. At 600+ pages, it might be a little slow in places, but the descriptions of the missions themselves, which make up the bulk of the book, are vivid and exciting, at least to a lifelong space enthusiast like me. The sheer, marvelous audacity of the whole enterprise comes across very well, leading me several times to look up from the book, lean back and shake my head thinking, "This is surely the craziest, most improbable, most wonderful thing we human beings have ever done!" But more than that, Chaikin manages to effectively convey the simple reality of it all. These astronauts, we are reminded, were just ordinary guys -- well, all right, perhaps slightly extraordinary guys -- walking around a real and solid landscape cracking jokes, getting excited about interesting rocks, cursing at uncooperative equipment, and falling victim to that "so much to do, so little time!" feeling familiar to anyone who's ever over-scheduled a vacation. The you-are-there feeling of real people doing real things is sometimes almost overwhelming. Unfortunately, so is the sense of sadness at the thought that it's been a terribly long time since anyone's done anything at all on the moon, however optimistic Chaikin might try to be about the possible future of space exploration.I've read quite a few books on this period in the American space program, from the excellent to the terrible; this is one of the ones I would most highly recommend.
Andrew Chaikin provides a great story about the Apollo program that brought 24 astronauts to the Moon and safely back to Earth. And it is not a provision of technical details, instead the riveting descriptions center on people, their feelings and impressions, their fears and expectations. On following the lines it is almost possible to gain some sense of the vast distances or of the loneliness the pilot of the command module could experience as he orbits the Moon, especially on the far side without contact to any other human being, while his companions explore the surface of this strange and remote world.
The Apollo astronauts accomplished a feat which few thought possible. In a captivating fashion, author Andrew Chaikin offers a version of the Moon flights which most astronauts could not communicate. The vivid details of the lunar features and the astronauts' private thoughts are brought to life in a way that makes you feel as if you are really there. The astronauts often stumble into 'thrust-to-weight ratios' and 'angles of trajectory' when they talk about their experiences. This is not what the public wants to hear. This book is the definitive book for mankind's greatest adventure. Tahir Rahman, author of We Came in Peace for all Mankind
This is a 600+ page book about the Apollo moon missions. It provides the background necessary to appreciate each mission, and details the missions leading up to Apollo 11, the first one to take humans to the surface of the moon, and then through Apollo 17, the last of the moon mission. It chronicles the efforts and accomplishments of the people who met John F. Kennedy's challenge to land a man on the moon and bring him back safely before the end of the 1960's. The stories, culled from interviews with the astronauts and other people in NASA and the Apollo program, are compelling. They add depth to events that history tends to trivialize, and give a better insight into Apollo's legacy.