Modern RF receivers and transmitters require quadrature oscillators with accurate quadrature and low phase-noise. Existing literature is dedicated mainly to single oscillators, and is strongly biased towards LC oscillators. This book is devoted to quadrature oscillatorsand presents adetailed comparative study ofLC and RCosc- lators, both at architectural and at circuit levels. It is shown that in cross-coupled RC oscillators both the quadrature error and phase-noise are reduced, whereas in LC - cillators the coupling decreases the quadrature error, but increases the phase-noise. Thus, quadrature RC oscillators can be a practical alternative to LC oscillators, - pecially when area and cost are to be minimized. The main topics of the book are: cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC relaxation oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and t- integrator oscillators. The effect of mismatches on the phase-error and the pha- noise are thoroughly investigated. The book includes many experimental results, obtained from different integrated circuit prototypes, in the GHz range. A structured design approach is followed: a technology independent study, with ideal blocks, is performed initially, and then the circuit level design is addressed. This book can be used in advanced courses on RF circuit design. In addition to post-graduate students and lecturers, this book will be of interest to design engineers and researchers in this area.
Table of ContentsPreface. Acknowledgments. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION. 1.1 Background and Motivation. 1.2 Organization of the Book. 1.3 Main Contributions. CHAPTER 2 TRANSCEIVER ARQUITECTURES AND RF BLOCKS. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Receiver Architectures. 2.3 Transmitter Architectures. 2.4 Oscillators. 2.5 Mixers. 2.6 Quadrature Signal Generation. CHAPTER 3 QUADRATURE RELAXATION OSCILLATOR. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Relaxation Oscillator. 3.3 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator. 3.4 Phase-Noise. 3.5 Conclusions. CHAPTER 4 QUADRATURE OSCILLATOR-MIXER. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 High Level Study. 4.3 Circuit Level Study. 4.4 Conclusions. CHAPTER 5 QUADRATURE LC-OSCILLATOR. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Single LC Oscillator. 5.3 Quadrature LC Oscillator without Mismatches. 5.4 Quadrature LC Oscillator with Mismatches. 5.5 Q and Phase-Noise. 5.6 Quadrature LC Oscillator-Mixer. 5.7 Conclusions. CHAPTER 6 TWO-INTEGRATOR OSCILLATOR. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 High Level Study. 6.3 Circuit Implementation. 6.4 Phase-Noise. 6.5 Simulation Results. 6.6 Two-Integrator Oscillator-Mixer. 6.7 Conclusions. CHAPTER 7 MEASUREMENT RESULTS. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator. 7.3 Quadrature LC Oscillator. 7.4 Quadrature Oscillator-Mixer. 7.5 Comparison of Quadrature LC and RC Oscillators. 7.6 Conclusions. CHAPTER 8 MEASUREMENT RESULTS. 8.1 Conclusions. 8.2 Future Research. APPENDIX A: TEST-CIRCUITS AND MEASUREMENT SETUP. A.1 Introduction. A.2 Quadrature RC and LC Oscillators. A.3 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator-Mixer. References. Index.