Ahmed Galal is executive director and director of research at the Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES) in Cairo. He has also been a staff member of the World Bank since 1984, where he served as industrial economist in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; senior then principal economist in the bank's research arm; and economic adviser to the private-sector development department. His works include, among others, Building Bridges: An Egypt-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (Brookings Institution Press, 1998) and Monetary Policy and Exchange Rate Regimes: Options for the Middle East (ECES, 2002).
Robert Z. Lawrence was a senior fellow and also the Albert L. Williams Professor of Trade and Investment at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He served a s amember of PResident Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers form 1999 to 2000. He hes the New Century Chair as a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution between 1997 and 1998.