The thinker who has a mortal fear of being wrong will give all that is valuable in himself to that little ambition. Walter Lippmann (1914) Psychology has always been plagued by passing fads and fan cies to a greater extent than is seemly in a scientific discipline. Over the past few years the Zeitgeist can be summed up by the two words 'cognitive psychology'. Indeed, a recent poll of academic psychologists in American indicated that over 80% of them regarded themselves as cognitive psychologists! Cognitive psychology is in the ascendant, but it has never been clear to me that it has addressed all of the appropriate is sues. In particular, information processing in the real world (and even in the laboratory) occurs within a motivational and emotional context, but cognitive psychologists usually main tain the convenient fiction that cognition can fruitfully be stud ied in isolation. The main reason for writing this book was to at tempt to demonstrate that there can be a useful cross-fertiliza tion between cognitive and motivational-emotional psycholo gy and that there are already tantalizing glimpses of the poten tial advantages of such inter-disciplinary research. The ideas of Donald Broadbent and his associates have exer cised a formative influence during the writing of this book. They discovered some years ago that there are intriguing simi larities (as well as differences) in the effects on performance of such apparently quite disparate factors as white noise, time of day, introversion-extraversion and incentive.
|Publisher:||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982|
|Product dimensions:||6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)|
Table of Contents1 Introduction.- 2 Theories of Attention.- 2.1 Early Theories.- 2.2 Posner and Snyder: Automatic Activation and Conscious Attention.- 2.3 Shiffrin and Schneider: Controlled and Automatic Processes.- 2.4 Treisman and Gelade: Features and Objects.- 2.5 Summary.- 3 Theories of Processing Resources.- 3.1 Baddeley and Hitch: Working Memory.- 3.2 Norman and Bobrow: Data-Limited and Resource-Limited Processes.- 3.3 Johnston and Heinz: Multi-Mode Theory.- 3.4 Navon and Gopher: Multiple Resources.- 3.5 Conclusions.- 4 Theories of Arousal and Performance.- 4.1 The Yerkes-Dodson Law.- 4.2 Easterbrook’s Hypothesis.- 4.3 Broadbent: Decision and Stress.- 4.4 Näätänen’s Theory.- 4.5 Kahneman: Attention and Effort.- 4.6 Thayer: Self-Reported Arousal.- 4.7 Hasher and Zacks: Automatic and Effortful Processes.- 4.8 Summary and Conclusions.- 5 Incentives and Motivation.- 5.1 Reinforcement and Incentives.- 5.2 Learning and Memory: Atkinson and Wickens (1971).- 5.3 Short-Term Memory: Weiner.- 5.4 Task Characteristics.- 5.5 Performance Efficiency.- 5.6 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.- 5.7 A Theoretical Overview.- 6 Anxiety and Performance.- 6.1 Worry and Emotionality.- 6.2 Working Memory Capacity.- 6.3 Spence and Spence (1966): Task Difficulty.- 6.4 Anxiety and Motivation.- 6.5 Failure and Shock.- 6.6 Failure and Success: A Cognitive Approach.- 6.7 Depth and Elaboration of Processing.- 6.8 Theoretical Positions.- 7 Endogenous Determinants of Arousal.- 7.1 Introversion - Extraversion.- 7.2 Time of Day.- 7.3 Sleep Deprivation.- 8 Exogenous Determinants of Arousal: Noise.- 8.1 Vigilance Task Performance.- 8.2 Continuous Tasks: Serial Reaction and Tracking.- 8.3 Learning and Memory.- 8.4 Attentional Selectivity.- 8.5 Theoretical Formulation.- 8.6 Summary.- 9 Conclusions and Speculations.- 9.1 The Yerkes-Dodson Law.- 9.2 Stages of Processing.- 9.3 Two Arousal Systems.- 10 References.- 11 Author Index.- 12 Subject Index.