Biology of the Uterus

Biology of the Uterus

by Ralph Wynn (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1977)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468422733
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/04/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1977
Pages: 748
Product dimensions: 8.27(w) x 10.98(h) x 0.06(d)

Table of Contents

1 History.- 1. Greece.- 2. Alexandria.- 3. Rome.- 4. The “Dark Ages”.- 5. Renaissance.- 6. Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries.- 7. Embryology and Microscopic Anatomy.- 8. References.- 2 Comparative Anatomy.- 1. Types of Uteri.- 2. Distribution and Probable Evolution of Uterine Types.- 3. Correlations of Uterine Types with Other Biological Features.- 4. Miscellaneous Aspects of the Comparative Morphology of the Uterus.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- 6. References.- 3 Prenatal Human Development.- 1. Urinary Preliminaries.- 2. The Paramesonephric Ducts.- 3. Fetal Development.- 4. References.- 4 Vascular Anatomy.- 1. Menstrual Cycle.- 1.1 Distribution of Vessels.- 1.2 Histology.- 2. Pregnancy.- 2.1 Anatomy.- 2.2 Histology.- 3. Conclusion.- 4. References.- 5 Vascular Physiology.- 1. Measurement of Uterine Blood Flow.- 1.1. Steady-State Diffusion.- 1.2. Microsphere Technique.- 1.3. Electromagnetic Flowmeter.- 2. Physiological Observations.- 2.1. Pressure-Flow Relationship.- 2.2. Distribution of Uterine Blood Flow.- 2.3. Reactivity of Uterine Vascular Beds.- 2.4. Effect of Estrogens on the Uterine Vascular Bed.- 2.5. Effects of Pregnancy on Uterine Blood Flow.- 2.6. Effects of Acute Hypoxia and Hyperoxia on Blood Flow to the Pregnant Uterus.- 2.7. Effect of Uterine Contractions on Uterine Blood Flow.- 3. Summary.- 4. References.- 6 Genetic, Biochemical, and Hormonal Mechanisms in the Regulation of Uterine Metabolism.- 1. Genetic Control of Metabolism.- 1.1. Pyrimidines, Purines, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides.- 1.2. Replication of DNA.- 1.3. Structure, Function, and Synthesis of RNA.- 1.4. Protein Biosynthesis and Enzyme Activity.- 2. Biochemical Control of Metabolism.- 2.1. Glucose Metabolism in Endocrine Glands and Hormone- Responsive Tissues.- 2.2. Sources and Biosynthesis of Hormones Affecting the Uterus.- 2.3. Regulation of Uterus by Estradiol.- 3. References.- 7 Estrogens, Nucleic Acids, and Protein Synthesis in Uterine Metabolism.- 1. Review of the Biosynthesis of Ribonucleic Acid and Protein.- 2. Estrogen.- 2.1. Transport.- 2.2. Energy Supply.- 2.3. Estrogen Receptor Sites.- 2.4. Ribonucleic Acid Biosynthesis.- 2.5. Protein Biosynthesis.- 2.6. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Biosynthesis.- 2.7. Adenosine 3’,5’-Cyclic Monophosphate.- 2.8. Estrogen and Lysosomes.- 2.9. Estradiol-Sensitive Uterine Cell Cultures.- 3. Conclusion.- 4. References.- 8 The Endometrium of Delayed and Early Implantation.- 1. Marsupials.- 2. Roe Deer.- 3. Armadillos.- 4. Insectivores and Chiroptera.- 5. Carnivores.- 6. Rodents.- 7. Discussion.- 8. References.- 9 The Implantation Reaction.- 1. Preparation of the Endometrium.- 1.1. Cell Proliferation.- 1.2. Cell Differentiation.- 2. Control of Endometrial Preparation.- 2.1. Hormonal Control of Cell Proliferation.- 2.2. Hormonal Control of Differentiation of Endometrium...- 3. Sensitization of the Endometrium for Implantation…..- 3.1. Experimental Techniques.- 3.2. Role of Progesterone.- 3.3. Role of Luteal-Phase Estrogen.- 3.4. Role of Estrogen Secreted before Ovulation.- 3.5. Role of the Pituitary and Hypothalamus.- 3.6. Mode of Action of Luteal-Phase Estrogen in Inducing Endometrial Sensitivity.- 4. The Implantation Process.- 4.1. Positioning of Blastocysts in the Uterus.- 4.2. The Attachment Reaction.- 4.3. Activation of the Blastocyst.- 4.4. The Nidatory Stimulus.- 4.5. Formation of the Implantation Chamber.- 5. Regression of the Decidua.- 6. Significance of the Decidua.- 7. Concluding Remarks.- 8. References.- 10 Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium.- 1. Ciliated Cells.- 1.1. Kinocilia.- 1.2. Solitary Cilia.- 2. Secretory Cells.- 3. Endometrial Secretions.- 4. Endometrial Glands.- 5. Species Differences.- 6. Cyclical Variations.- 7. Effect of Intrauterine Devices.- 8. Changes during Implantation of Blastocyst.- 9. Effect of Aging.- 10. Concluding Remarks.- 11. References.- 11 Histology and Ultrastructure of the Human Endometrium.- 1. Histology.- 2. Ultrastructure.- 2.1. The Normal Menstrual Cycle.- 2.2. The Nucleolar Channel System.- 2.3. The Decidua.- 2.4. The Arias-Stella Reaction.- 2.5. Scanning Electron Microscopy.- 2.6. Ultrastructural Localization of Enzymes.- 3. Clinical Correlations.- 3.1. Effects of Contraceptive Agents.- 3.2. Menstruation.- 4. References.- 12 Biochemistry of the Myometrium.- 1. The Biological Unit of Vertebrate Smooth Muscle…...- 2. Energy Provision.- 2.1. Hormonal Influence on Glucose Metabolism and Respiration in the Uterus.- 2.2. Energy Sources.- 2.3. Lipids, Glycogen, ATP, and PC.- 2.4. Glycolytic and Respiratory Enzymes.- 2.5. Metabolism of Smooth Muscle Contraction.- 3. Proteins of the Contractile Mechanism.- 3.1. Nature and Organization of the Contractile Proteins of Striated Muscle.- 3.2. Extractibility of the Contractile Proteins of Vertebrate Smooth Muscle.- 3.3. Actomyosin.- 3.4. Myosin.- 3.5. Myosin Subunits.- 3.6. Actin.- 3.7. Tropomyosin.- 3.8. The Regulatory Proteins.- 4. Special Characteristics of the Contractile Mechanism of Mammalian Smooth Muscle.- 4.1 ATPase Activity.- 4.2. Solubility of Smooth Muscle Actomyosin at Low Ionic Strength.- 4.3. Calcium Regulation of Contraction.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- 6. References.- 13 Electrophysiological Properties of the Uterine Smooth Muscle.- 1. Review of Methodology.- 1.1. Comparison of Uterine, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscles.- 1.2. A Brief Statement of the Ionic Theory of Excitation.- 1.3. Methods of Recording Electrical Activities of the Myometrium.- 2. Ionic Distribution Patterns and Resting Potential in Myometrium.- 2.1. Problems in Analysis of Ionic Contents of Myometrium.- 2.2. Ionic Contents and Distribution.- 2.3. Resting Potential and Its Relation to Ionic Distribution.- 2.4. Hormonal and Gestational Influences on Ionic Distribution and Resting Potential.- 2.5. Active Ion Transport.- 3. Excitation in Myometrium.- 3.1. Cellular Phenomena.- 3.2. Ionic Basis of Spike Activity.- 3.3. Tissue Phenomena.- 3.4. Contractile Consequences of Electrical Activities.- 3.5. Actions of Drugs on the Myometrium.- 4. Summary and Concluding Remarks.- 5. References.- 14 The Contractile Mechanism and Ultrastructure of the Myometrium.- 1. The Contractile Mechanism.- 1.1. Skeletal Muscles.- 1.2. Vertebrate Smooth Muscles.- 1.3. Mechanism of Contraction.- 2. The Organelles of Smooth Muscle.- 2.1. Surface Vesicles.- 2.2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 2.3. Mitochondria.- 2.4. Golgi Apparatus.- 2.5. Centrioles.- 2.6. Microtubules.- 2.7. Microsomes and Glycogen Granules.- 3. Structural Changes of the Myometrium.- 3.1. Immature Myometrium.- 3.2. Adult Myometrium.- 3.3. Aging.- 4. Discussion.- 5. References.- 15 Ultrastructural Pathology of the Uterus.- 1. Endometrial Morphological Response to Hyperestrogenic Environment.- 1.1. Persistent (Anovulatory) Proliferative Endometrium and Endometrial Polyp.- 1.2. Cystic Glandular Hyperplasia.- 1.3. Adenomatous Hyperplasia.- 1.4. Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia.- 2. Endometrial Neoplasia.- 3. Endometrial Morphological Response to Hormonal Therapy: Progestin Effect on Hyperplasia and Neoplasia.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. References.- 16 Uterine Control of Ovarian Function.- 1. Ovarian Function.- 1.1. Corpus Luteum in Rat.- 1.2. Corpus Luteum in Rabbit.- 1.3. Corpus Luteum in Ewe and Sow.- 2. Uterine Function.- 2.1. Development and Regression of Endometrium and Myometrium.- 2.2. Role of the Uterus in Cyclic Periodicity.- 2.3. Uterine-Ovarian Function during Pregnancy…..- 3. Effects of Hysterectomy on Ovarian Function.- 4. Luteolytic Action of the Uterus.- 4.1. Amount of Uterus Required for Luteolysis.- 4.2. Local Luteolytic Action.- 4.3. Luteolytic Effects of Estrogens in the Ewe.- 5. Ovarian Auto transplantation.- 6. Uterine Transplantation.- 7. Intrauterine Devices and Ovarian Function.- 7.1. IUD in Rat and Rabbit.- 7.2. IUD in Ewe.- 7.3. IUD in Monkey and Woman.- 8. Other Hormones Affecting Uterine-Ovarian Function….- 8.1. Prostaglandins.- 8.2. Relaxin.- 8.3. Oxytocin.- 9. References.- 17 Endocrine Control of Parturition.- 1. Observations Implicating the Fetus in the Control of Parturition..- 2. Parturition in the Sheep.- 2.1. Early Experimental Evidence for the Role of the Fetus in the Initiation of Parturition.- 2.2. The Fetal Adrenal, Cortisol, and Parturition.- 2.3. The Trigger Mechanism.- 2.4. Hormonal Changes during Pregnancy.- 3. Parturition in the Goat.- 3.1. Progesterone.- 3.2. Prostaglandins.- 3.3. Estrogens.- 3.4. Induction of Premature Parturition by PGF2a Infused into the Uterine Vein.- 3.5. Estradiol-Induced Premature Parturition.- 4. Parturition in the Rabbit.- 4.1. Progesterone.- 4.2. Estrogens.- 4.3. Prostaglandins.- 4.4. Cortisol.- 4.5. Effects of Exogenous Glucocorticoids.- 4.6. Uterine Activity.- 5. Parturition in the Guinea Pig.- 5.1. Progesterone.- 5.2. Estrogens.- 5.3. Cortisol.- 5.4. Oxytocin.- 5.5. Prostaglandins.- 5.6. Uterine Activity and Relaxin.- 5.7. Surgical Manipulations.- 6 Comment Parturition in the Rhesus Monkey.- 6.1. Hormone Levels in Normal Pregnancy.- 6.2. Uterine Activity.- 6.3 Surgical Manipulations.- 6.4 Effects of Exogenous Compounds.- 6.5 Prostaglandins.- 6.6 Dexamethasone.- 6.7 Comment.- 7. Parturition in the Human.- 7.1. The Fetal Adrenal: Spontaneous Adrenal Hyperplasia Hypoplasia.- 7.2 Fetal Adrenal and Cortisol.- 7.3 Progesterone.- 7.4 Prostaglandins.- 7.5 Oxytocin and Vasopressin.- Concluding Remarks.- References.

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