Biomarkers: Research and Application in the Assessment of Environmental Health

Biomarkers: Research and Application in the Assessment of Environmental Health

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993)

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Overview

Biological markers used to assess the effects of environmental pollution have attracted considerable attention from regulatory agencies and are currently under evaluation at a number of research facilities throughout the world. However promising a biomarker-based biomonitoring approach may be, the development of this concept is complicated by a range of technical issues. This book provides a conceptional framework for research and application of biomarkers. International experts on biomonitoring have formulated a unified strategy for the development and validation of biomarkers in assessing environmental health as well as appropriate protocols for their implementation and interpretation in a biological monitoring program.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642846335
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/15/2011
Series: Nato ASI Subseries H: , #68
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993
Pages: 119
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.53(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1. Applications and Objectives of Biomarker Research.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Definitions.- 1.3. Objectives of Biomarker Programs.- 1.3.1. Relationship to Chemical Monitoring.- 1.3.2. Relationship to Toxicity Testing and Residue Levels.- 1.3.3. Ethical Considerations.- 1.4. Applications of Biomarker Programs.- 1.4.1. Environmental Assessment.- 1.4.2. Long-Term Monitoring.- 1.4.3. Field and Semi-Field Testing.- 1.4.4. Identification of Organisms/Populations at Risk.- 1.4.5. Identification of Chemical/Mode of Action.- 1.5. Rationale for the use of Biomarkers.- 1.5.1. Linking Exposure to Toxic Effects.- 1.5.2. General Indicators vs Specific Indicators.- 1.6. Current Limitations in the use of Biomarkers.- 1.6.1. Prerequisites to the Use of Biomarkers.- 1.6.2. Experience with Different Types of Ecosystems.- 1.7. Future of Biomarkers in Environmental Assessment.- 1.8. Literature Cited.- 2. The Conceptual Basis of the Biomarker Approach.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Dose-Response Relationships.- 2.3. Physiological Alterations as a Basis for Biomarkers.- 2.4. Considerations in the use of Biomarkers.- 2.4.1. Health and Homeostasis.- 2.4.2. Biomarker Hierarchies.- 2.4.3. Interaction with Other Stressors.- 2.5. Future Prospects.- 2.5.1. Changes in Gene Frequency.- 2.5.2. Use of Molecular Probes.- 2.5.3. Human Health Considerations.- 2.5.4. Patterns of Biomarker Response.- 2.6. Literature Cited.- 3. Implementation of Biomarker-Based Studies.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Selection and Characterization of Study Sites.- 3.3. Selection of Species.- 3.3.1. Abundance of Species.- 3.3.2. Life History Characteristics.- 3.3.3. Baseline Toxicological Information on a Species.- 3.4. Biomarker Selection.- 3.4.1. Biomarkers of Exposure.- 3.4.2. Biomarkers of Toxic Effect.- 3.5. Sampling Methodology.- 3.5.1. Biological Variables.- 3.5.2. Abiotic Variables.- 3.6. Analysis.- 3.6.1. Biomarker Analysis.- 3.6.2. Chemical Analysis.- 3.6.3. Archiving of Samples.- 3.7. Summary.- 3.8. Literature Cited.- 4. Interpretation of Biomarker Responses.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Biological Interpretation of Biomarkers.- 4.2.1. Exposure and Effect.- 4.2.2. Diagnosis and Prediction.- 4.3. Statistical and Mathematical Techniques for Interpretation.- 4.3.1. Assumptions.- 4.3.2. Choosing Analyses to Answer Assessment Questions.- 4.3.3. Some Statistical and Mathematical Approaches.- 4.3.4. Study Designs.- 4.3.5. Mathematical Models.- 4.4. Societal Interpretations.- 4.4.1. Environmental Quality.- 4.4.2. Human Health.- 4.5. Literature Cited.- 5. Development and Validation of Biomarkers.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. The Ideal Biomarker.- 5.3. Development of new Biomarkers.- 5.3.1. General Principles.- 5.3.2. Chemical Approach to Biomarker Development.- 5.3.3. Physiological Approach to Biomarker Development.- 5.3.4. Ecosystem Approach to Biomarker Development.- 5.4. Validation.- 5.4.1. Definition.- 5.4.2. Analytical Validation.- 5.4.3. Biological Validation.- 5.5. Literature Cited.- 6. Conceptual Strategy for Development and Application of a Biomarker-Based Biomonitoring Program.- 6.1. Definition of Study Objectives.- 6.1.1. Hazard Identification.- 6.1.2. Hazard Assessment.- 6.1.3. Risk Prediction.- 6.2. General Elements of a Biomarker-Based Biomonitoring Study.- 6.2.1. Selection of Study Areas and Reference Sites.- 6.2.2. Selection of Sampling Sites.- 6.2.3. Characterization of Study and Reference Sites.- 6.2.4. Species Selection.- 6.2.5. Biomarker Selection.- 6.2.6. Sampling Design.- 6.2.7. Biological and Chemical Analysis.- 6.2.8. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Results.- 6.3. Tailoring Study Design for Specific Objectives.- 6.4. Development of Biomarkers: Laboratory and Field Studies.- 6.4.1. Definition of Experimental Objective.- 6.4.2. Exposure Scenario.- 6.4.3. Species Selection.- 6.4.4. Biomarker Selection.- 6.4.5. Exposure Protocol.- 6.4.6. Biological and Chemical Analysis.- 6.4.7. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Results.- 6.4.8. Comparison of Field and Laboratory Results.- 6.4.9. Evaluation of Biomarker Responses.- 6.5. Literature Cited.

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