The objective of this book is to make analytical methods available to students of ecology. The text deals with concepts of energy exchange, gas exchange, and chemical kinetics involving the interactions of plants and animals with their environments. The first four chapters are designed to show the applications of biophysical ecology in a preliminary, sim plified manner. Chapters 5-10, treating the topics of radiation, convec tion, conduction, and evaporation, are concerned with the physical environment. The spectral properties of radiation and matter are thoroughly described, as well as the geometrical, instantaneous, daily, and annual amounts of both shortwave and longwave radiation. Later chapters give the more elaborate analytical methods necessary for the study of photosynthesis in plants and energy budgets in animals. The final chapter describes the temperature responses of plants and animals. The discipline of biophysical ecology is rapidly growing, and some important topics and references are not included due to limitations of space, cost, and time. The methodology of some aspects of ecology is illustrated by the subject matter of this book. It is hoped that future students of the subject will carry it far beyond its present status. Ideas for advancing the subject matter of biophysical ecology exceed individual capacities for effort, and even today, many investigators in ecology are studying subjects for which they are inadequately prepared. The potential of modern science, in the minds and hands of skilled investigators, to of the interactions of organisms with their advance our understanding environment is enormous.
Table of Contents1 Introduction.- A Reductionist Approach.- Physical Factors.- A Multiplicity of Variables.- Organization of the Book.- Photosynthesis.- Animal Energetics.- Microclimates.- Knowledge of Ecosystems.- 2 Energy and Energy Budgets.- Organism Temperatures.- Microclimate.- The Energy Environment.- Coupling between Organism and Environment.- Climate Factors.- Energy Budgets.- 3 Application to Plants.- Energy Budget of a Leaf.- Sample Calculations of Leaf Temperature.- Photosynthesis by Leaves.- Problems.- 4 Application to Animals.- Energy Exchange.- The Analysis.- Body Temperature.- Physiological Properties.- Sample Calculations.- Climate-Space.- Problems.- 5 Radiation Laws, Units, and Definitions.- Radiation Laws.- Système International.- Radiometric Terminology.- Photometric Terminology.- Solar Illumination and Irradiation.- Problems.- 6 Solar Radiation.- Sun and Earth Geometry.- Direct Solar Irradiation without Atmosphere.- Attenuation by the Earth’s Atmosphere.- Direct Solar Irradiation with Atmosphere.- Diffuse and Global Shortwave Irradiation with a Clear Sky.- Global Shortwave Irradiation with an Overcast Sky.- Measured Amounts of Global Radiation.- Daylight and Twilight.- Moonlight.- Plant Productivity.- Solar and Skylight Irradiation of Slopes.- Problems.- 7 Longwave and Total Radiation.- Terrestrial Longwave Radiation.- Nighttime Radiation Climate.- Measured Thermal Radiation.- Daytime Radiation Climate.- Absorption of Radiation.- Sample Calculations.- Diurnal Radiation Climate.- Problems.- 8 Spectral Characteristics of Radiation and Matter.- Molecular Spectra.- The Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum.- Thermal Emission Spectra.- Atmospheric Scattering.- Spectral Distribution of Direct Solar Radiation.- Spectral Distribution of Skylight.- Spectral Distribution of Global Radiation.- Comparative Spectral Distribution of Natural Light.- Spectral Properties of Liquid Water.- Spectral Properties of Plants.- Leaf Optical Properties with Angle of Incidence.- Spectral Properties of Animals.- Problems.- 9 Conduction and Convection.- Viscosity.- Heat Transfer by Conduction.- Theory of Convection.- Dimensionless Groups.- Forced Convection with Laminar Flow.- Forced Convection with Turbulent Flow.- Forced Flow over a Cylinder.- Forced Flow over a Sphere.- Forced Flow over Animals.- Free Convection.- Actual Broad Leaves.- Leaf Adaptation to Environment Problems.- 10 Evaporation and Transpiration.- Ideal Gas Law.- Definitions.- Mass Transfer.- First Law of Thermodynamics.- Enthalpy and Equivalent Temperature.- Wet Surface of Vegetation.- Transpiration by Leaves.- Environmental Influences on Leaf Resistance.- Problems.- 11 Energy Budgets of Plants.- Time-Dependent Energy Budgets.- Observed Transients.- Steady-State Energy Budget.- Observed Leaf Temperatures.- Optimal Leaf Size.- Photosynthesis; Taking into Account Light and Temperature.- Adaptation to High Radiation.- Problems.- 12 Energy Budgets of Animals.- Steady-State Energy Budgets.- Metabolic Rate.- Thermal Conductance.- Metabolism and Body Size.- Body Temperatures.- Evaporative Water Loss.- Insulation by Fur or Feathers.- Radiation Absorbed.- Radiation Emitted.- Convection Coefficients.- Appendages.- Behavior and Special Anatomical Features.- Lizards.- Alligators.- Chipmunks.- White-Tailed Deer.- Distributed-Parameter Model.- Additional Information.- Problems.- 13 Time-Dependent Energetics of Animals.- Animals without Pelage.- Animals with Pelage.- Body-Temperature-Dependent M and ?Eb.- General Time-Varying Environment.- Evolution of Thermoregulation.- Problems.- 14 Photosynthesis.- Photosynthesis.- Analytical Models.- Photosynthesis Model without Respiration.- Respiration.- Resistances.- Photosynthesis Model with Respiration.- Biochemical Model of Photosynthesis.- Problems.- 15 Temperature and Organisms.- Temperature History of the Earth’s Climate.- Physiology and Temperature.- Higher Plants.- Grasslands.- Arctic and Alpine Ecosystems.- Temperature Effects on Insects.- Appendices.- Appendix 1: Conversion Factors: Système International (SI) Units and cgs Equivalents.- Appendix 2: Physical Constants.- Appendix 3: Properties of Air, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide.- Appendix 4: Determination of Solar Altitude and Azimuth.- References.