Blizzards

Blizzards

Hardcover(REV)

$40.00 View All Available Formats & Editions

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816047918
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/28/2003
Series: The Facts on File Science Library
Edition description: REV
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 7.60(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)
Age Range: 11 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface: What is a blizzard?xiii
Introductionxv
Continental and Maritime Climates1
Seasons and the tilting Earth1
Adiabatic cooling and warming2
Movements of air and water3
General circulation of the atmosphere4
Continental and maritime climates6
Calculating continentality and oceanicity6
Movements of Air Masses in Winter9
Cold air, high pressure9
Air masses10
Air masses and the weather they bring10
When air masses move12
When air masses meet13
Distribution of pressure13
Weather fronts14
Jet stream17
Why warm air can hold more moisture than cold air can18
Ice Caps, Glaciers, and Icebergs19
Where glaciers form19
The polar ice caps20
How glaciers move21
Why the Arctic is warmer than the Antarctic22
Ice shelves and icebergs24
North Atlantic Deep Water and the Great Conveyor26
When the conveyor weakens or fails27
Reading Past Weather from Ice Sheets28
Reading tree rings and ice cores28
Lake Vostok, Europa, and Ganymede29
Vostok, GISP, and GRIP30
Oxygen isotopes32
Ice sheets and sea levels32
Trapped greenhouse gases33
Dust34
Volcanic ash35
Sediments, pollen, corals, and beetles36
Polar Deserts, Where Blizzards are Common37
Blizzards faced by explorers37
The difference between the Arctic and the Antarctic38
Deserts, despite being covered with snow39
Gales and extratropical hurricanes42
Louis Agassiz and the Great Ice Age43
The puzzle of the erratic rocks43
Agassiz and his vacations on the ice44
Glaciers flow44
Uniformitarians and catastrophists46
Not one ice age, but many47
Pleistocene glacials and interglacials48
Why do ice ages happen?49
The Little Ice Age51
Snowblitz52
Do ice sheets form from the top down or bottom up?52
Albedo53
At the edge of the snow54
Positive feedback55
Could it happen?56
Snowball Earth58
Ancient glacial deposits58
Continental drift and plate tectonics59
Could it happen?60
The thaw leading to "Greenhouse Earth"61
The cap dolostones62
Snowball or "slushball"?63
Snow Lines65
Dry air and moist air65
Effect of the shape of a mountain66
Mountain winds67
Where snow is most likely67
Where Blizzards Occur69
Cold climates are dry climates69
Spring blizzards70
The conditions that produce snowstorms71
European blizzards72
The Coriolis effect74
Gales and Why They Happen78
How Torricelli weighed air and invented the barometer78
Wind force and Admiral Beaufort79
Why air pressure varies80
Air does not move in straight lines82
Christoph Buys Ballot and his law83
Hail, Sleet, Snow85
Mass, drag, and terminal velocity85
Evaporation, condensation, and the formation of clouds86
Humidity88
Why drops of water are spherical88
Why some fall faster than others89
Rain, sleet, or snow?91
Hail92
Freezing Rain and Freezing Fog94
Freezing nuclei94
Supercooling95
Rain that freezes on contact95
Fog and frost97
Freezing fog98
What Happens When Water Freezes and Ice Melts99
Structure of the molecule99
What happens when water is heated101
The discovery of latent heat102
Melting, freezing, and the change between gas and solid103
The universal solvent105
Wilson Bentley, the Man Who Photographed Snowflakes106
The snowflake man107
Studying snowflakes108
Classification108
Snowflakes and Types of Snow110
How ice crystals grow110
Why most snowflakes have six points, but each one is unique111
Temperature affects the shape112
Availability of atmospheric moisture113
Inside the cloud113
Once fallen, snow changes114
Avalanches116
The force of moving snow116
Kinetic energy116
How an avalanche begins117
Types of avalanches120
Snow and wind120
Safety121
Cold Air and Warm Water123
Specific heat capacity123
Radiation and blackbodies124
Specific heat capacity and blackbodies125
Conductivity, albedo, and transparency126
Influence of oceans127
Snowstorms, Drifting, and Blizzards128
Wind and the city129
Urban climate129
Snowdrifts131
Drifts are dangerous133
Heavy Snowstorms and What Causes Them134
Stability and lapse rates135
Air pressure, highs, and lows136
Conditions inside the cloud137
Lightning138
Charge separation138
Precipitation139
The Lake Effect142
When air crosses water142
Where the snow falls, and how much144
Not only the Great Lakes144
Lake effects in Europe and Asia145
Advantages as well as disadvantages146
Cold Waves149
The Great Cold Wave of February 1899149
Dangers of the cold150
The polar front jet stream150
Drawing warm air north and cold air south152
Blocking153
Ice Storms154
Research that led to rainmaking154
Cloud seeding155
Icing at ground level156
Effects of an ice storm156
Wind Chill, Frostbite, Hypothermia, and Snow Chill158
Calculating wind chill158
Dangers of exposure160
Frostbite160
Hypothermia161
Snow chill162
Whiteout163
Scattering and reflecting light163
What you should do164
Blizzards of the Past166
The 1888 American winter166
Spring blizzards167
Winter storms167
The Northeast Blizzard of 1978168
The 1996 storms169
Blizzards in Europe171
The 1996 storms reach Europe171
Will Climate Change Bring Fewer Blizzards?173
Why worry?173
The enhanced greenhouse effect175
How the atmosphere absorbs heat176
Tracing the emissions176
The solar spectrum177
Estimating the effects178
Thermohaline circulation178
Forecasting Blizzards181
Problems of scale181
Weather stations, balloons, and satellites182
Forecasting183
Warnings184
Safety186
Lay in supplies186
If you have to drive187
When you hear the warning188
Outdoors188
If the car is stuck189
Appendixes
Beaufort Wind Scale190
Avalanche classes190
SI units and conversions191
Prefixes used with SI units192
Bibliography and further reading193
Index197

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews

Blizzards 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book was pretty good, but at times too confusing. It was good for one reason because they went into detail very far. seen as the book was about blizzards, they said everything associated with them. From when they happen, how they happen, why they happen, and where they happen. They talked about side effects of blizzards and where they come from. During the winter there is snow. What determines a snowstorm from a blizzard? In this book they say all reasons in depth. During winter if there is any kind of precipitation, it will be in the book. Even though I am a high school student, I might recommend this to an older high school student and definetly a college student studying to be a meteorologist. This is also a good source of information for anybody in general too. Even if you were to skim through it, there is enough pictures to help you understand it. The thing that is debatable is was the title. They always say never to judge a book by its title. Well with it being Blizzards it might drive people away thinking that it is all the book is about not knowing there is everything in winter in the book. Then again the title is pretty much the title of the whole book.