Changing Methodologies in TESOL

Changing Methodologies in TESOL

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Introduces core concepts in methods and teaching approachesCovering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of language, learning technologies, learners, and their socio-cultural world.Three main areas in TESOL methods are covered: the impact of learner needs, context and culture on language, learning and teaching approaches; knowledge of language and its impact on methods, from the word to whole texts; and multiple literacies and competences for the modern world, including academic literacy and web literacy, socio-cultural and intercultural competence. The impact on teacher choices and methods of World Englishes, approaches to grammar, and learner development is also discussed. Each chapter illustrates core principles in practice using case studies of English teaching worldwide. Guided tasks, including article critique, case study analysis, and small-scale classroom research, prepare you to engage critically with research literature and use this analysis to inform your own practice.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780748646197
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Publication date: 05/01/2013
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Jane Spiro is Learning and Teaching Development Leader at the Oxford Brookes University.

Table of Contents

Useful Abbreviations vi

Teaching Case Studies vii

Series Editors' Preface viii

Acknowledgements xi

1 The Meaning of Methods 1

Introduction 1

1.1 Defining Methods 2

1.2 Practice Before Methods 4

1.3 Methods and Post-methods 6

1.4 Conclusion 7

Section 1 Methods and the Language Learner

2 Learning Theories and Methods 11

Introduction 11

2.1 An Overview of Learning Theories: Beliefs and Practices 11

2.2 An Overview of Teaching Methods: Methods into Practice 19

2.3 The Forces of Change: Methodologies and Where We Are Now 25

2.4 Further Reading 29

2.5 Conclusion 29

2.6 Guided Reading 30

3 The Place of the Learner in Methods 35

Introduction 35

3.1 The Individual Learner and Methods 36

3.2 Learner Contexts 44

3.1.1 Where Learning Happens: Location 44

3.1.2 How Learning Happens: Professional Culture 45

3.1.3 Why Learning Happens: Needs Analysis 46

3.3 Language Contexts: Which English? 48

3.4 Further Reading 55

3.5 Conclusion 55

3.6 Guided Reading 55

Section 2 The Language in Methods

4 Grammar in Methods Paul Wickens 59

Introduction 59

4.1 What Is Grammar? Exploring Our Conceptions of Grammar 61

4.2 What Should Teachers Know about Learning Grammar? 68

4.3 Learning Grammar, Teaching Grammar 73

4.4 Further Reading 77

4.5 Conclusion 77

4.6 Guided Reading 78

5 Vocabulary in Methods 81

Introduction 81

5.1 Teaching Vocabulary: Trends, Influences, Understandings 81

5.2 What Does It Mean to Know a Word? 86

5.3 Developing Strategies for Acquiring Vocabulary 98

5.4 Further Reading 106

5.5 Conclusion 106

5.6 Guided Reading 106

6 Teacher Knowledge and the Four Language Skills: Understanding Written and Spoken Language in the Twenty-First-Century World 109

Introduction 109

6.1 Teacher Knowledge of the Written Word: What Should the Teacher Know? 111

6.1.1 What Should Teachers Know about the Reading Process? 113

6.1.2 What Should Teachers Know about the Writing Process? 118

6.2 Teacher Knowledge of the Spoken Word: What Should the Teacher Know? 122

6.3 Teacher Knowledge of Pronunciation: What Should the Teacher Know? 131

6.4 Further Reading 141

6.5 Conclusion 141

6.6 Guided Reading 142

7 Methods and Principles for Integrating the Four Skills: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening 145

Introduction 145

7.1 Design Principles for Integrating the Skills 145

7.2 Designing the Written Word into the Lesson: Reading and Writing 152

7.3 Designing Talk into the Lesson: Speaking and Listening 161

7.4 Further Reading 166

7.5 Conclusion 167

7.6 Guided Reading 167

Section 3 The World in the Classroom

8 Multiple Literacies: Professional, Academic and Web Literacies in Methods 171

Introduction 171

8.1 What Are Multiple Literacies? with Lynn Errey 171

8.2 Teaching for Academic and Professional Literacies 174

8.3 Teaching for Web Literacies Liam Murray with John Eyles 179

8.4 Further Reading 187

8.5 Conclusion 187

8.6 Guided Reading 188

9 Cultural Competences in Methods 191

Introduction 191

9.1 The Interface Between Teaching Language and Teaching Culture 192

9.2 Teaching for Social and Pragmatic Competence 198

9.3 Teaching for Intercultural Competence 204

9.4 Further Reading 207

9.5 Conclusion 207

9.6 Guided Reading 208

10 Windows into TESOL Classrooms: Where Are We and Where Are We Going? 211

10.1 Windows into TESOL Classrooms with classroom examples by John Eyles 211

10.2 TESOL Present and Future: Where Are We and Where Are We Going? 215

10.3 Teacher as Reflective Practitioner and the Primacy of Experience 218

Bibliography 221

Index 239

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