Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach

Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach

Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach

Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach

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The highly anticipated second edition of Clinical Supervision is groundbreaking and science-informed, the comprehensive resource for the training and supervision of mental health professionals.

This new edition heralds the substantial progress that has taken place as competency-based clinical supervision has become acknowledged as a distinct professional competence, in keeping with the Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology (2014, 2015). Falender and Shafranske provide a unique bridge to practice for supervisors, helping them integrate the latest research findings and emerging practices into a multicultural frame. They cover key areas such as trauma-informed and assessment supervision and telesupervision, and bring empirical support, models, and research into every step of the supervision process.

This comprehensive text describes the essential knowledge, practical skills, and attitudes implicit in the supervisor competence needed to shape the practice of clinicians in training as well as professionals in all settings to enhance competence, develop their professional identity, and shape future practice. Supervisors, supervisees, training and program directors, administrators, students, thought leaders, and researchers will all benefit from this essential volume.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781433833601
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Publication date: 06/15/2021
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 497
Sales rank: 728,990
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Carol A. Falender, PhD, is co-author or co-editor of multiple books on clinical supervision and one on consultation, and has written many articles. She has conducted workshops and symposia internationally. She directed APA-accredited internship programs for over 20 years, was a member of the Supervision Guidelines Group of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), and was Chair of the Supervision Guidelines Task Force of APA. Dr. Falender is a fellow of APA (Divisions 29, 37, 43), adjunct professor of Pepperdine University, and clinical professor in the UCLA Psychology Department. She received the 2018 Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology Award from APA.

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD, ABPP, is Professor and Muriel Lipsey Chair in Clinical and Counseling Psychology, and directs the PsyD program in clinical psychology at Pepperdine University. He has published widely in the fields of clinical supervision and the applied psychology of religion. His publications with Dr. Falender have focused on the development of a comprehensive competency-based approach to clinical training and supervision. He has served twice as president of APA Division 36; is a fellow in Divisions 12, 29, and 36; and was honored for his contributions by the California Psychological Association. He has supervised first-year psychology students through postdoctoral trainees.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 The Practice of Clinical Supervision 3

Clinical Supervision: Responsibilities and Functions 4

Clinical Supervision: An Overview 5

Guidelines for the Practice of Clinical Supervision 9

Supervision Approaches 15

A Competency-Based Approach to Clinical Training and Supervision 17

Definition of Competence 18

Competency-Based Clinical Supervision 18

Values and Commitments in Competency-Based Clinical Supervision 21

Clinical Supervision: Context 22

Structure of the Book 23

2 What Makes for Good and Effective Clinical Supervision (or Not)? 25

Supervisee Competencies 27

Competencies That Describe Effective Supervision 28

Bad, Inadequate, and Harmful Supervision 29

Satisfaction as an Outcome 32

Effective Supervision? 32

Methodological Challenges to Studies 34

Factors That Impact Effective Supervision 35

Evaluation of Supervisor Competence 38

Mentoring 38

Preferred Supervisory Formats 41

What Does an Understanding of the "Best" and "Worst" Supervisors Contribute to the Actual Practice of Supervision? 43

New Developments 44

Emerging Developments 52

Initiation of Change 63


3 Building Clinical Competence and Facilitating Professional Development 65

Pillars, Principles, and Values 66

Pragmatics 68

The Learning Cycle and the Structure of the Supervision Session 82

Use of the Learning Cycle 91

Concluding Thoughts 92

4 Building Multiculturalism and Diversity Competence in Clinical Supervision 93

Cultural Humility: A Competence 95

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes in Multicultural Competence 96

Multicultural Diversity Supervision Competence 96

Social Justice, Human Rights, and Advocacy 101

Impact, Barriers, and Facilitators to the Integration of Diversity Into Psychology Training 102

Successful and Unsuccessful Multicultural Supervision 103

Group Supervision 104

Mentoring 104

Frameworks Integrating Multiple Dimensions 104

Emic Parameters and Their Relevance to Training 107

Specific Diversity Identities 109

What Enhances Multicultural Diversity Competence? 123

Measurement as a Step Toward Supervisory Competence 125

Multicultural Competency Implementation 126

Cultural Competencies for Supervisors: An Active Process 129

5 Alliance in Clinical Supervision 131

The Nature of Therapeutic and Supervisory Alliances 132

Supervisory Alliance 135

Supervisory Alliance: Contemporary Perspectives 141

Alliance Strains and Ruptures: An Overview 143

Strains and Ruptures: Breakdowns in the Supervisory Alliance 148

Harmful Supervision 152

A Process Model to Address Strains and Ruptures in Clinical Supervision 157

Concluding Remarks 160

6 Addressing Personal Factors in Clinical Supervision 163

Personal Factors and Therapist Effects in the Era of Evidence-Based Practice 164

An Approach to Personal Factors in Clinical Supervision 167

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes 167

Individual Differences and Therapist Effects 169

Alliance, Interpersonal Competencies, and Responsiveness 170

Relationship and Interpersonal Competencies in Supervision 175

Personal Reactions, Reactivity, and Countertransference 177

Values and Worldviews 177

Responsiveness, Reactivity, and Countertransference 183

Countertransference: History and Conceptual Issues 184

Responsiveness and Reactivity 188

Countertransference Management 193

Countertransference in the Learning Cycle 197

Supervisor Countertransference and Parallel Process 206

Concluding Thoughts 208

7 Ethical and Legal Perspectives and Risk Management 209

Translation of the Ethical Code to Supervision Practice 210

Supervisee Perceptions of Supervisory Ethics 213

Competence 216

Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Ethics 216

Ethical and Legal Dilemmas, and Infractions of Psychologists 217

Multiple/Dual Relationships 219

Sexual Misconduct 226

Prevention of Supervisee Sexual Misconduct 227

Supervisee Ethical Violations 228

Supervision-Related Ethical Issues 228

Supervisee Ethics Training 232

Psychoeducational Approaches 233

Ethical Problem-Solving and Decision Making in Multiple Relationships: Strategies to Prevent Harm 234

General Ethical Problem-Solving Approaches 235

Integration of Culture Into Every Step of Decision Making 239

Value Conflicts and the First Amendment 241

Professionalism and First Amendment Legal Cases 245

Malpractice and Liability 247

Duty to Warn and Duty to Protect 249

Documentation 253

Letters of Recommendation 254

Telepsychology 255

The Ethics of Social Media and the Internet 257

Risk Management 258

8 Evaluation in the Supervisory Process 261

Evaluation and the Learning Cycle 263

Evaluation of Supervision 268

Leniency 275

Feedback 276

Reflection 278

Implementation of Formative and Summative Evaluations 282

Formative and Summative Evaluation 282

Procedure for Competency-Based Evaluation 286

Alternative Evaluation Types 288

Evaluation or Its Lack as an Ethical Issue 288

Admission Criteria 290

Gatekeeping 291

Remediation 296

Dismissal 298

Summary 299

9 Future Directions in Competency-Based Clinical Supervision 301

Reviewing Recent Developments in Clinical Supervision 302

Enhancing the Value of Clinical Supervision 307


Appendix A Supervision Outcome Scale 311

Appendix B Minnesota Supervisory Inventory 313

Appendix C Supervisor Evaluation (Evaluation by Supervisee) 329

Appendix D Supervisee Needs Index 337

Appendix E Supervision Evaluation and Supervisory Competence Scale 341

Appendix F Supervision Evaluation and Supervisory Competence Scale-Short Form 345

Appendix G Self-Care Behavior Inventory 347

Appendix H Psychology Trainee Evaluation of Supervision Competencies 349

Appendix I Leeds Alliance in Supervision Scale 357

Appendix J Evaluation of Recorded Supervision Session 359

Appendix K Supervisor Competency Self-Assessment 371

Appendix L Graduate Program Climate Scale 375

Appendix M Multicultural Supervision Competencies Questionnaire 377

Appendix N Working Alliance Inventory 383

Appendix O Supervision Process Questionnaire 389

Appendix P Sample Supervision Contract Template 393

References 397

Index 471

About the Authors 497

What People are Saying About This

Ronald H. Rozensky

Having taught a graduate seminar in advanced psychotherapy and having been a clinical supervisor for many, many years, I view Falender and Shafranske’s new edition of Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach as a must-read for all supervisors and all those learning to become psychotherapists. Consistent with today’s competency-based education in psychology, this textbook covers key topics like the personal factors of psychotherapists; the supervision “contract;” multiculturalism; and ethical, legal, and risk management issues.

Emil Rodolfa

Carol Falender’s and Edward Shafranske’s text provides thorough coverage of recent literature and will stimulate significant thinking and discussion about the knowledge base, characteristics and processes of supervision, the supervisee, and the supervisor.

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