Conjectures and Refutations / Edition 2

Conjectures and Refutations / Edition 2

by Karl Popper, Popper Karl
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Taylor & Francis
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Conjectures and Refutations / Edition 2

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error. Popper brilliantly demonstrates how knowledge grows by guesses or conjectures and tentative solutions, which must then be subjected to critical tests. Although they may survive any number of tests, our conjectures remain conjectures, they can never be established as true. What makes Conjectures and Refutations such an enduring book is that Popper goes on to apply this bold theory of the growth of knowledge to a fascinating range of important problems, including the role of tradition, the origin of the scientific method, the demarcation between science and metaphysics, the body-mind problem, the way we use language, how we understand history, and the dangers of public opinion. Throughout the book, Popper stresses the importance of our ability to learn from our mistakes. Conjectures and Refutations is essential reading, and a book to be returned to again and again.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780415285933
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 08/28/2002
Series: Routledge Classics Series
Edition description: REV
Pages: 608
Product dimensions: 5.25(w) x 7.75(h) x 1.92(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionxv
Preface to the Third Editionxvii
Introduction: On the Sources of Knowledge and of Ignorance3
1Science: Conjectures and Refutations43
AppendixSome Problems in the Philosophy of Science78
2The Nature of Philosophical Problems and their Roots in Science87
3Three Views Concerning Human Knowledge130
1The Science of Galileo and Its Most Recent Betrayal130
2The Issue at Stake134
3The First View: Ultimate Explanation by Essences139
4The Second View: Theories as Instruments144
5Criticism of the Instrumentalist View149
6The Third View: Conjectures, Truth, and Reality153
4Towards a Rational Theory of Tradition161
5Back to the Presocratics183
AppendixHistorical Conjectures and Heraclitus on Change206
6A Note on Berkeley as Precursor of Mach and Einstein224
7Kant's Critique and Cosmology237
1Kant and the Enlightenment238
2Kant's Newtonian Cosmology240
3The Critique and the Cosmological Problem241
4Space and Time242
5Kant's Copernican Revolution244
6The Doctrine of Autonomy246
8On the Status of Science and of Metaphysics249
1Kant and the Logic of Experience249
2The Problem of the Irrefutability of Philosophical Theories261
9Why are the Calculi of Logic and Arithmetic Applicable to Reality?272
10Truth, Rationality, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge291
1The Growth of Knowledge: Theories and Problems291
2The Theory of Objective Truth: Correspondence to the Facts302
3Truth and Content: Verisimilitude versus Probability309
4Background Knowledge and Scientific Growth322
5Three Requirements for the Growth of Knowledge326
AppendixA Presumably False yet Formally Highly Probable Non-Empirical Statement336
11The Demarcation Between Science and Metaphysics341
2My Own View of the Problem344
3Carnap's First Theory of Meaninglessness349
4Carnap and the Language of Science356
5Testability and Meaning368
6Probability and Induction377
12Language and the Body-Mind Problem395
2Four Major Functions of Language397
3A Group of Theses398
4The Machine Argument399
5The Causal Theory of Naming401
13A Note on the Body-Mind Problem403
14Self-Reference and Meaning in Ordinary Language409
15What is Dialectic?419
1Dialectic Explained419
2Hegelian Dialectic435
3Dialectic After Hegel445
16Prediction and Prophecy in the Social Sciences452
17Public Opinion and Liberal Principles467
1The Myth of Public Opinion467
2The Dangers of Public Opinion470
3Liberal Principles: A Group of Theses471
4The Liberal Theory of Free Discussion473
5The Forms of Public Opinion475
6Some Practical Problems: Censorship and Monopolies of Publicity475
7A Short List of Political Illustrations476
18Utopia and Violence477
19The History of Our Time: An Optimist's View489
20Humanism and Reason506
Addenda: Some Technical Notes517
1Empirical Content517
2Probability and the Severity of Tests522
4Numerical Examples535
5Artificial vs. Formalized Languages537
6A Historical Note on Verisimilitude (1964)538
7Some Further Hints on Verisimilitude (1968)541
8Further Remarks on the Presocratics, especially on Parmenides (1968)545
9The Presocratics: Unity or Novelty? (1968)556
10An Argument, due to Mark Twain, against Naive Empiricism (1989)557
Index of Mottoes558
Index of Names559
Index of Subjects567

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