Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews -- A History

Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews -- A History

by James Carroll


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780618219087
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Publication date: 04/01/2002
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 768
Sales rank: 154,051
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.25(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

James Carroll was raised in Washington, D.C., and ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1969. He served as a chaplain at Boston University from 1969 to 1974, then left the priesthood to become a writer. A distinguished scholar-
in-residence at Suffolk University, he is a columnist for the Boston Globe and a
regular contributor to the Daily Beast.

His critically admired books include Practicing Catholic, the National Book Award–winning An American Requiem, House of War, which won the first PEN/Galbraith Award, and the New York Times bestseller Constantine’s Sword, now an acclaimed documentary.

Read an Excerpt

Sign of Folly

The cross is made of stout beams, an intersection of railroad ties. It stands in a field of weeds that slopes down from the road. The field is abutted on one side by the old theater, where gas canisters were stored, also looted gold; where, much later, Carmelite nuns accomplished cloistered works of expiation, sparking fury; and where, now, a municipal archive is housed. On another side, the field runs up against the brick wall, the eastern limit of the main camp.
At more than twenty feet, the cross nearly matches the height of the wall, although not the wall’s rusted thistle of barbed wire. Immediately beyond are the camp barracks, the peaked roofs visible against the gray morning sky. The nearest building, close enough to hit with a stone thrown from the foot of the cross, is Barracks 13, also known as the death bunker or the starvation bunker. In one of its cells the Franciscan priest Maximilian Kolbe was martyred. He is now a saint of the Roman Catholic Church. Kolbe is the reason for this cross.
In 1979, Karol Wojtyla came home to nearby Kraków as Pope John Paul II. He celebrated Mass in an open field for a million of his countrymen, and on the makeshift altar this same cross had been mounted - hence its size, large enough to prompt obeisance from the farthest member of the throng. Visiting the death camp, the pope prayed for and to Father Kolbe, who had voluntarily taken the place of a fellow inmate in the death bunker. The pope prayed for and to Edith Stein, the convert who had also died in the camp, and whom he would declare a Catholic saint in 1998. She was a Carmelite nun known as Sister Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, but the Nazis murdered her for being a Jew. In his sermon that day, the pope called Auschwitz the “Golgotha of the modern world.”1 As he had at other times, John Paul II expressed the wish that a place of prayer and penance could be built at the site of the death camp to honor the Catholic martyrs and to atone for the murders: at Auschwitz and its subcamp, Birkenau, the Nazis killed perhaps as many as a quarter of a million non-Jewish Poles and something like a million and a half Jews. Fulfilling the pontiff’s hope, a group of Carmelite nuns moved into the old theater in the autumn of 1984. They intended especially to offer prayers in memory of their sister Teresa Benedicta. The mother superior of this group was herself named Teresa.2 The Carmelite presence at the gate of Auschwitz was immediately protested by leaders of Jewish groups throughout Europe and in the United States and Israel. “Stop praying for the Jews who were killed in the Shoah,” one group pleaded. “Let them rest in peace as Jews.”3 Jewish protesters invaded the grounds of the convent, carrying banners that said, “Leave Our Dead Alone!” and “Do Not Christianize Auschwitz and Shoah!”4 The protesters registered complaints about Father Kolbe, who before his arrest had been the publisher of a journal that had printed antisemitic articles, and about Edith Stein, whose conversion could only look to Jews like apostasy.
Polish Catholics from the nearby towns of Oswiecim and Birkenau rallied to the nuns’defense. Fights broke out. “One More Horror at Auschwitz,” read a headline in a British paper. “They crucified our God,” a boy screamed during one demonstration. “They killed Jesus.”5 At one point the nuns’ supporters arrived carrying the stout wooden cross from the papal altar in Kraków. They planted the cross in the field next to the old theater. However piously intended, it could seem a stark act of Christian sovereignty, a sacrilege. Eventually John Paul II intervened in the dispute, offering to fund a new convent building for the Carmelites a few hundred yards away. He prevailed on the nuns to move. The sisters did so in 1994. In the compromise that was worked out, Jewish leaders in turn accepted that the cross would remain in the field near the wall, but only temporarily.
In early 1998, the Polish government, perhaps responding to pressure from American senators friendly to Jews - pressure exerted just prior to the U.S. Senate’s vote on Poland’s admission to NATO - announced that the cross, like the convent before it, would be removed. “The cross overlooks the camp, which is unacceptable for Orthodox Jews,” a Polish official said, “because it imposes Christian symbols.” But a month later, before the removal had occurred, Poland’s Roman Catholic primate, Cardinal Jozef Glemp, insisted that the cross should remain where it was. Jewish leaders again protested, prompting an expression of concern from the Vatican. At Auschwitz itself, Polish Catholics began to plant new crosses, appropriate to a cemetery, making the poiint that Catholics, too, died at the camp. The dispute raged throughout 1998, with escalations even to the point of homemade explosive devices beinnnnng planted in the field by radical Catholics. More than one hundred small crosses were put in the ground. Finally, in 1999, in an odd “compromise,” the Polish parliament passed a law requiring the removal of the smaller crosses but making the papal cross permanent. The small crosses were taken away by Polish officials, but the large cross remains at Auschwitz to this day.
What does the cross of Jesus Christ mean at such a place? What does it mean to Jews? What does it mean to Christians? Or to Polish Catholics? Or to those for whom religious symbols are empty? What does the cross there signal about our understanding of the past? And what of the future? If Auschwitz has become a sacred center of Jewish identity, what does the cross there imply about the relations between Jews and Christians, and between Judaism and Christianity? These questions were in my mind one November morning as I stood alone before that cross.
I thought of the pope’s designation of this place as Golgotha, and I recognized the ancient Christian impulse to associate extreme evil with the fate of Jesus, precisely as a way of refusing to be defeated by that evil. At the Golgotha of the crucifixion, death became the necessary mode of transcendence, first for Jesus and then, as Christians believe, for all. But I also thought of that banner, “Do Not Christianize Auschwitz and Shoah!” Can mechanized mass murder be a mode of transcendence? I could imagine the narrowed eyes of a Jewish protester as he detected in prayers offered before the cross at Auschwitz echoes of the old refrain “Jews out!” - only now was it Jewish anguish that was expected to yield before Christian hope? If Auschwitz must stand for Jews as the abyss in which meaning itself died, what happens when Auschwitz becomes the sanctuary of someone else’s recovered piety?
Christians are not the only ones who have shown themselves ready to use the memory of the six million to advance an ideology: Orthodox Jews can see a punishment for secularism; Zionists can see an organizing rationale for the state of Israel; opponents of “land for peace” can see a justification for a permanent garrison mentality.6 The “memorialists,” who have raised the new temples of Holocaust museums and memorials in the cities of the West, have anointed memory itself as the deepest source of meaning. The legend engraved at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, the first Holocaust memorial, reads, “Forgetfulness is the way to exile. Remembrance is the way to redemption.” The God who led a people out of Egypt is, of course, a redeeming God, but at Auschwitz the question must have become, Are God’s saving acts only in the past? Some formerly religious Jews saw in the Holocaust only the absence of God, and moved on without faith. Other Jews went from atheism to the faith of Job, an affirmation devoid of piety. There are the Jewish voices, from Elie Wiesel to Richard Rubenstein to Emil Fackenheim, who reject the idea that suffering such as Jews underwent in the death camps - a million children murdered - can be meaningful. To value those deaths in such a way is to diminish their horror. And there are the voices of Emmanuel Levinas,7 who speaks of the Holocaust as a “tumor in the memory,”8 and Theodor Adorno, who, in a famous essay, argued that the entire enterprise of education must change after the Holocaust.9 “Auschwitz negates all systems, opposes all doctrines,” Wiesel argues. “They cannot but diminish the experience which lies beyond our reach.”10 These and other figures insist that the Holocaust shatters all previous categories of meaning, certainly including Christian categories. But isn’t the state of being shattered, once reflected upon and articulated, itself a category? Does the very act of thinking about the Holocaust, in other words, diminish its horror by refusing to treat it as unthinkable? The more directly one faces the mystery of the Holocaust, the more elusive it becomes.
Perhaps the voice a troubled Christian most needs to hear is that of the Jew who says the Holocaust must be made to teach nothing. “What consequences, then, are to be drawn from the Holocaust?” asks the theologian Jacob Neusner. “I argue that none are to be drawn, none for Jewish theology and none for the life of Jews with one another, which were not there before 1933. Jewish theologians do no good service to believers when they claim that ‘Auschwitz’ denotes a turning point.”11 That voice is useful because if Jewish responses to the Holocaust, which range from piety to nihilism, are complex and multifaceted, Christian interpretations of the near elimination of Jews from Europe, however respectfully put forth, must inevitably be even more problematic. The cross signifies the problem: When suffering is seen to serve a universal plan of salvation, its particular character as tragic and evil is always diminished.12 The meaningless can be made to shimmer with an eschatological hope, and at Auschwitz this can seem like blasphemy.
But what about an effort less ambitious than the search for meaning or the imposition of theology? What if the cross at Auschwitz is an object before which Christians only want to kneel and pray? And, fully aware of what happened there, what if we Christians want to pray for Jews? Why does that offend? How can prayers for the dead be a bad thing? But what if such prayers, offered with good intentions, effectively evangelize the dead? What if they imply that the Jews who died at Auschwitz are to be ushered into the presence of God by the Jesus whom they rejected? Are Jews then expected to see at last the truth to which, all their lives, they had been blind? Seeing that truth in the beatific vision, are they then to bow down before Jesus as Messiah in an act of postmortem conversion? Shall the afterlife thus be judenrein too? Elie Wiesel tells “a joke which is not funny.” It concerns an SS officer whose torment of a Jew consisted in his pretending to shoot the Jew dead, firing a blank, while simultaneously knocking him unconscious. When the Jew regained consciousness, the Nazi told him, “You are dead, but you don’t know it. You think that you escaped us? We are your masters, even in the other world.” Wiesel comments, “What the Germans wanted to do to the Jewish people was to substitute themselves for the Jewish God.”13 Here is the question a Christian must ask: Does our assumption about the redemptive meaning of suffering, tied to the triumph of Jesus Christ and applied to the Shoah, inevitably turn every effort to atone for the crimes of the Holocaust into a claim to be the masters of Jews in the other world?
Once, for Christians to speak among ourselves about the murder of the six million as a kind of crucifixion would have seemed an epiphany of compassion, paying the Jews the highest tribute, as if the remnant of Israel had at last become, in this way, the Body of Christ. Yet such spiritualizing can appear to do what should have been impossible, which is to make the evil worse: the elimination of Jewishness from the place where Jews were eliminated. The Body of Christ? If Jesus had been bodily at Auschwitz, as protesting Jews insisted, he would have died an anonymous victim with a number on his arm, that’s all. And he’d have done so not as the Son of God, not as the redeemer of humankind, not as the Jewish Messiah, but simply as a Jew. And in a twist of history folding back on itself, his crime would have been tied to the cross - “He killed our God!” That indictment, first brought as an explicit charge of deicide as early as the second century by a bishop, Melito of Sardis,14 was officially quashed by the bishops of the Second Vatican Council in 1965,15 yet it remains the ground of all Jew hatred. That, at bottom, is why it is inconceivable that any Jew should look with equanimity on a cross at Auschwitz, and why no Christian should be able to behold it there as anything but a blow to conscience. “Though there were other social and economic conditions which were necessary before the theological antecedents of antisemitism could be turned into the death camps of our times,” the Jewish theologian Richard Rubenstein has written, “only the terrible accusation, known and taught to every Christian in earliest childhood, that the Jews are the killers of the Christ can account for the depth and persistence of this supreme hatred.”16

I am certain that the first time I would have heard the word “Jew” was from the pulpit of St. Mary’s Church in Alexandria, Virginia, where I lived as a child. My father was an Air Force general working at the Pentagon, but we made our family life in the Old South river port down the Potomac, where the Catholic parish was the oldest in Virginia. It would have surely been one Holy Week when I was six or seven that I heard the mythic words proclaimed: “The Jews cried out with one voice, ‘Crucify him!’” But the first remembered time I heard the word “Jew” was from a boy who lived next door. Let’s call him Peter Seligman. The hint of something in his last name had registered with me not at all.
Peter and I were probably about ten years old. Though he went to the local public school - the Protestant school, to me - Peter was then my best friend. I loved running with him through the woods just south of Alexandria, slapping our thighs as if we rode in the cavalry - a word I was already confusing with Calvary - dodging branches, leaping the narrow creek that was our constant point of reference. I remember one summer day coming upon an overgrown stone wall surrounded by tall trees and choked by briars, the vestige of a former pasture or farmer’s field. The aura of a lost past drew us, and when Peter announced solemnly, “I bet this was built by slaves,” I stepped back. A door in my brain snapped open, and whenever I think of slavery, I think of that wall.
Perhaps it was the same wall that inspired a game we used to play, the two of us betraying our northern origins - I was born in Chicago; the Seligmans seemed, perhaps in stereotype, to be New Yorkers - by pretending to be Mosby’s Rangers. We called ourselves Jeb Stuart and Stonewall Jackson. I see now the shared loneliness in our romping fantasy, because the other boys with whom we might have played were native Virginians, defensive heirs of a rural culture that was being turned into suburb before their eyes, not only by outsiders, but by the ancient enemy - us. The other boys had shunned me and Peter as Yankees, which perhaps accounts for our rather desperate play at being not just Johnny Rebs but true Confederate heroes.
Sometimes our hard rides through the woods took us to Gum Springs, a shantytown with dusty, unpaved streets where Negroes lived, the hired laborers and croppers whom we often saw doing menial chores for the white contractors of the new subdivisions. In Gum Springs we saw black people with each other. Once - it must have been a Sunday - Peter and I crept up a deserted street to a small white- steepled church. We listened to the congregation singing hymns, glimpsing the men’s dark suits and ties, the ladies’ hats, the uplifted brown faces. When a deacon looked our way, we turned and ran.
After that, reciting the Lord’s Prayer with its confession of the sin of “trespass,” I thought of Gum Springs. Even now, the image of its shacks and dirt streets stabs me with guilt. Gum Springs, teaching me that I am white, laid bare another meaning of Mosby’s raids. I associate this first felt recognition of anti-black racism with Peter, my fellow would-be Reb, my fellow crypto-Yankee, my fellow white, my friend. Rarely would I share a sense of so many levels of complexity with another. But then Peter forced a next recognition, and it changed everything.
Within a year or two of our move to Alexandria, my father, an avid golfer, was elected to membership in the Belle Haven Country Club, an old Virginia enclave a mile or two up Fort Hunt Road from where we lived. As an Irish Catholic carpetbagger, Dad would have been decidedly unclubbable, but this was Red Scare time, and as head of Air Force counterintelligence, he was a spymaster with profile. I took the “privilege” entirely for granted, but at Belle Haven, too, I sensed the difference between me and the sons and daughters of the first families of Virginia. So one day I asked Peter why he and his parents never came to the swimming pool at Belle Haven.
“We don’t go there,” he said simply.
“Why not?” “Because it’s a club, and we’re Jews.” I do not recall what, if anything, the word “Jews” meant to me, but “club” - Peter and I were a club of two - seemed only friendly. I pushed, saying that Belle Haven was fun, that we could go there on our bikes.
Peter explained calmly what he knew, and what I had yet to admit: “Jewish” was a synonym for unwelcome. “Unwelcome,” he could have said, “in this case by you.” I was a notorious blusher, and I blushed then, I am sure.
“No big deal,” he said, but I saw for the first time that Peter and I were on opposite sides of a kind of color line. I took for granted that Negroes were unwelcome at Belle Haven, except as caddies. But Jews?
“No big deal” meant, We’re not discussing this further. Which was fine with me.
Later, I asked my mother, and she explained that the Seligmans’ being Jewish meant they did not believe what we believed. About Jesus, I knew at once. And those Holy Week readings from the pulpit at St. Mary’s must have come back to me: This has to do with Jesus and what they did to him. That easily, I was brought into the sanctuary of the Church’s core idea, even without removing my hat.
My mother added a phrase that served her as standard punctuation. “Live and let live,” she said with a shrug. “The Seligmans are good people.” Much later, I would understand the slogan and my mother’s coda as her own private rejection of the then reigning Catholic ethos of “Outside the Church there is no salvation,” but to me that day her reaction seemed dismissive. She had efficiently sidestepped the fear I had that my one friendship in that alien territory had somehow been put at risk. Indeed, my belated recognition of the Seligmans’ Jewishness in the context of their exclusion - Jewish means unwelcome - accounted for why my and Peter’s parents had extended to each other nothing beyond a minimal neighborliness. If the Seligmans were unwelcome at Belle Haven, they were just as unwelcome in our house. It would take many years before I began to understand the deadly effect that this introduction to Jewishness had on me. Even as I set myself against antisemitism,17 this essentially negative framing would condemn me to think of Jews as candidates for rejection. Although I self-consciously refused to reject Jews, I was still defining them by my refusal. Whether I am capable of allowing Jews to define themselves in purely positive terms, with no reference to a dominant Christian culture, whether anti- or philosemitic, remains an open question. That, in turn, underscores “the depth and persistence,” in Rubenstein’s phrase, “of this supreme hatred.” How could hatred have stood in any way between Peter and me? Yet now I see that it did.

Even when the cross of Jesus Christ is planted at Auschwitz as a sign of Christian atonement for that hatred, and not of anti-Jewish accusation, the problem remains. By associating the Jewish dead with a Christian notion of redemption, are the desperate and despised victims of the Nazis thus transformed into martyrs whose fate could seem not only meaningful but privileged? What Jew would not be suspicious of a Christian impulse to introduce that category, martyrdom, into the story of the genocide? Jews as figures of suffering - negation, denial, hatred, guilt - are at the center of this long history, although always, until now, their suffering was proof of God’s rejection of them. Is Jewish suffering now to be taken as a sign of God’s approval? Golgotha of the modern world18 - does that mean real Jews have replaced Jesus as the sacrificial offering, their deaths as the source of universal salvation? Does this Jew- friendly soteriology turn full circle into a new rationale for a Final Solution?
Uneasiness with such associations has prompted some Jews to reject the very word “holocaust” as applied to the genocide, since in Greek it means “burnt offering.” The notion that God would accept such an offering is deeply troubling.19 When the genocide is instead referred to as the Shoah, a Hebrew word meaning “catastrophe,” a wall is being erected against the consolations and insults of a redemptive, sacrificial theology of salvation. Shoah, in its biblical usage, points to the absence of God’s creative hovering, the opposite of which is rendered as “ruach.” Ruach is the breath of God, which in Genesis drew order out of chaos. Shoah is its undoing.20 Such subtleties of terminology were not on my mind when I went to Auschwitz as a writer working on a magazine article. I am a novelist and an essayist, and in presuming to relate a history that culminates at the cross at Auschwitz, I do so with an eye to details and connections that a historian might omit or that a scholar might dismiss. I am looking for turns in the story in which one impulse overrode another, one character reversed the action of another, all with unanticipated, ever-graver consequences. And if I am a professional writer, it is not irrelevant to my purpose that I am an amateur Catholic - a Catholic, that is, holding to faith out of love. Yet love for the Church can look like grief, even anger. Nevertheless, my intensity of feeling is itself what has brought me here. So my life as a storyteller and my faith as a Catholic qualify me to detect essential matters in this history that a more detached, academic examination, whatever its virtues, might miss.
Yet in coming to Auschwitz, I knew enough to be suspicious of emotional intensity, as if what mattered here were the reactions of a visitor. So I had summoned detachment of another kind. In coming to the death camp, I had resolved to guard against conditioned responses, even as I felt them: the numbness, the choked-back grief, the supreme sentimentality of a self-justifying Catholic guilt. I had visited the barracks, the ovens, the naked railway platform, the stark field of chimneys, more or less in control of my reactions. But before the cross something else took over. Even as I knew to guard against the impulse to “Christianize the Holocaust,” I was doing it - by looking into this abyss through the lens of a faith that has the cross embedded in it like a sighting device. Perhaps I was Christianizing the Holocaust by instinctively turning it into an occasion of Christian repentance. The Shoah throws many things into relief - the human capacity for depravity, the cost of ethnic absolutism, the final inadequacy both of religious language and of silence. But it also highlights the imprisonment of even well-meaning Christians inside the categories with which we approach death and sin. Christian faith can seem to triumph over every evil except Christian triumphalism. When I found myself standing at the foot of that cross, on the transforming edge of a contemporary Golgotha, I knew just what the pope meant when he evoked that image. Yet I reacted as I imagine a Jew might have. The cross here was simply wrong.
Even so, perhaps I was just another Christian presuming to supply a Jewish reaction. But perhaps not. Because of the insistence of Jewish voices - protesters at the cross at Auschwitz and Jewish thinkers who have claimed a preemptive right to interpret the Holocaust in terms consistent with Jewish tradition - the old Christian habit of seeing “the jews”21 as a scrim on which to project Christian meanings no longer goes unchallenged. I love the cross, the sign of my faith, yet finally the sight of it here made me, in the words of the spiritual, tremble, tremble, tremble. Because of a resounding Jewish response, I saw the holy object as if it were a chimney. But also, Christian that I am, I saw it through the eyes of the man I have always been. The primordial evil of Auschwitz has now been compounded by the camp’s new character as a flashpoint between Catholics and Jews. So the ancient Christian symbol here, despite my knowledge that it was wrong, was a revelation. I was seeing the cross in its full and awful truth for the first time.

Copyright © 2001 by James Carroll

Table of Contents

Contents Part one The Cross at Auschwitz 1. Sign of Folly 3 2. Stumbling Block to Jews 13 3. The Journey 19 4. My Mother’s Clock 24 5. Passion Play 31 6. My Rabbi 37 7. Between Past and Future 58 Part two New Testament Origins of Jew Hatred 8. My Great-Uncle 67 9. Jesus, a Jew? 71 10. The Threshold Stone 89 11. Destroy This Temple 100 12. The Healing Circle 122 13. Paul, the Martyr of Shalom 135 14. Parting of the Ways 144 15. The Lachrymose Tradition: A Cautionary Note 150 Part three Constantine, Augustine, and the Jews 16. The Heart of This Story Is a Place 155 17. The Story of Constantine 165 18. The Cross and the Religious Imagination 172 19. The Vision of Constantine 178 20. The True Cross 195 21. Augustine Trembling 208 22. The Seamless Robe 220 23. The Danger of Ambivalence 229 Part four From Crusades to Conversionism 24. The War of the Cross 237 25. The Incident in Trier 246 26. Mainz Anonymous 257 27. The Blood Libel 268 28. Anselm: Why God Became Man 278 29. Abelard and Hélodse 290 30. Thomas Aquinas: Reason Against the Jews 301 Part five The Inquisition: Enter Racism 31. One Road 313 32. My Inquisition 319 33. Convivencia to Reconquista 322 34. Convert-Making: The Failure of Success 333 35. Expulsion in 1492 343 36. The Roman Ghetto 363 37. The Religious Response of the Jews 385 38. Shema Yisrael! 391 Part six Emancipation, Revolution, and a New Fear of Jews 39. Karl Marx, Second Son of Trier 401 40. Spinoza: From Rabbis to Revolution 406 41. Voltaire and the False Promise of Emancipation 414 42. Jew as Revolutionary, Jew as Financier 426 43. Revolution in Rome: The Pope’s Jews 439 44. Alfred Dreyfus and La Croix 450 45. The Uses of Antisemitism 464 46. Lucie and Madeleine 467 Part seven The Church and Hitler 47. From Christian Anti-Judaism to Eliminationist Antisemitism 475 48. Setting a Standard: The Church Against Bismarck 479 49. Eugenio Pacelli and the Surrender of German Catholicism 495 50. The Seamless Robe in 1933 501 51. Maria Laach and Reichstheologie 511 52. Pius XII: Last Days of the Roman Ghetto 523 53. Edith Stein and Catholic Memory 536

Part eight A Call for Vatican III 54. The Broad Relevance of Catholic Reform 547 55. Agenda for a New Reformation 559 56. Agenda Item 1: Anti-Judaism in the New Testament 561 57. Agenda Item 2: The Church and Power 570 58. Agenda Item 3: A New Christology 577 59. Agenda Item 4: The Holiness of Democracy 588 60. Agenda Item 5: Repentance 599 Epilogue: The Faith of a Catholic 605 Acknowledgments 619 Chronology 622 Notes 628 Bibliography 696 Index 720

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Constantine's Sword 4.1 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 31 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book reads like a novel. It reveals fascinating facts about Christianity at every turn. For example, the cross as a symbol of Christianity did not appear until around 300 AD. It is an extremely insightful look into the development of the Christian Church and it's relationship to Judaism. What makes this book really credible is the fact this prize winning author was actually ordained a Catholic priest. Throughout the book the author intertwines history with his own deep feelings while visiting some of the most important historic sites in Christendom. The author makes the point that the Church did not have to develop the way it did and if it had taken other turns in history the tragic events of the 20th century need not have happened. Unfortunately, despite the efforts of recent popes, the same mistakes are being repeated today as exemplified by the recent erection of a cross at the site of Auschwitz. This book is a must read for anyone who wants to understand the real roots of anti-semitism. It will make you realize that the ground work for a Hitler had been layed long before. The author, who still cherishes his religion, is to be commended for his courageous exposure of facts Catholism would rather keep in the closet.
Guest More than 1 year ago
The beauty of this book is that it is a critical analysis of historical events, rather than just chronicles of events. Carroll has tackled a profoundly complicated and controversial topic and explains it very well.

The book is complicated, and yes, it is filled with big words. It would be tough for the average layperson (non-academic or theologian) to get through as quick bedtime reading. However, this book is quite palatable: Carroll's passion helps drive what could otherwise be a very dry read. This history is tough to breeze through, but in the end, its worth the effort.

I'm disappointed in the negative review, below, by Christopher Galiardo. His haughty, high-falutin' wording assigned, he seems to have missed the point: Carroll isn't arguing all Christians are anti- Semites. Rather, Christian doctrine and policy has had anti-Semitism enshrined in it, which Christians must work at and rectify. Second, of course the book glosses over the advances of the past two generations: this is a 2000-year history; the last 50 years are merely epilogue. However, this lack of appreciation of historical record and analysis makes sense: no self-respecting historian would show off a pedigree of universities in a review, suggesting that Galiardo is merely showing off. (I was at a cafe in Paris; does this men I studied history in France?) And finally, the ad hominem attack on Carroll's mental state by suggesting he suffers from psychological disorders is downright hitting below the belt.

This is a brilliant but controversial historical read. It may be tough to read, but it's never dry. If you want a book that talks about how cool Christians have been to Jews from the first century to 1945, I suggest visiting the fantasy section.

Guest More than 1 year ago
I agree completely with Ron. This book does not paint Christians as anti-Semites, it merely argues the need for change in Catholic (and Christian) doctrine. The "Call for Vatican III" portion of the text along with the fact that he himself is a Christian, and I can't see him saying he's anti-Semitic, demonstrate that he's merely addressing several problems that have become institutionalized over the centuries. As a graduate student in history, that has read NUMEROUS historical works, I must say this is the most honest work I've ever read. Carroll's introspective examination required more courage than most people can muster. While the "dry" history would be interesting to me by itself, the work was made infinitely more gripping by the flashbacks and inclusions of personal perspective that reoccur throughout. I think this is a monumental work and incredibly well-written (anyone who has trouble with the big words, just read it with a dictionary at your side). I think this is a work with a VERY wide appeal that reexamines long-held assumptions and searches for their causes and historical roots. If this isn't a book for everyone, then it should certainly be a book for everyone who defines themselves as Christian. I think, however, that it is abook for anyone who is disturbed by the near-obliteration of the European Jewry that occurred in Nazi Germany...and who isn't?
Guest More than 1 year ago
James Carroll outdoes himself with this book. so long in coming to the world, the truth that needed to be told. As a Carroll, I cried, and as a Jew. Reconciliation for our family as well. Mary Carroll-Bower
Guest More than 1 year ago
This is one of the best historical books I have ever read. There is so much information on Christianity and Judaism in it that I may have to read it again. This book traces the truth about Christianity and Judaism. I recommend it especially to clergy who make statements that are not necessarily historically correct. His recommendations for the church are especially enlightening and would do a lot to dispel antisemitism as it exists even now.
Guest More than 1 year ago
The most unique aspect of James Carroll's recounting of the tragic relationship of the Church and the Jews is how he relates so personally to the entire 2,000 year story. A former priest and still a devout Catholic, he begins the story displaying his naivete and innocent biases. He even had a Seder with some Jewish students at Boston U. and switched a ritual over matzo for a eucharist ceremony. He early in his quest felt as many Christians do that once Jesus is understood in his Jewishness than Jews will accept him. Obviously 2,000 years of baggage on both sides that make the above a ridiculous fantasy. The Church has had a 'Jewish Problem' from its very origins as here is the parent faith which by and large never accepted the theology of the new one. The book than recounts the terrible history and Carroll makes no excuses for any of it. But as a continued devout Catholic he insists that the Church itself as well as each individual member of it must take responsibility for this history. While he admires Pope John Paul II for his visit to Israel and his belated apology, he realizes that the Church itself and not just its members must own up to its responsibilities. Throughout the book he relates the stories of Constantine, Augustine, Abelard, the Crusades, the Inquisition, the Dreyfus affair and even the Holocaust to his own personal life. In this way he allows the history to live in all of us who read his words and shows us how seriously we need to take the healing process if this tragic relationship is ever to be corrected. It may be that his suggestions for a Vatican III and a revamping of Catholic theology may be asking a bit much for this essentially conservative institution, but at least he seems to be asking the right questions.
Gofair More than 1 year ago
Enjoyed the book immensely, but would have liked to have a bit less of the personal experiences; sometimes the personal experiences would disrupt the flow of the book, but otherwise all the information was great throughout.
DKO1946 More than 1 year ago
One of the most informative and objective books I've read on the role of the Roman Catholic Church with anti-Semitism. A must read for those who do not want to repeat the worst of religious intolerance.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Not at all boring - exciting - relates Christianity's development in a chronological, neat fashion, interspersed with personal vignettes. The entire Western world should read to learn and understand why we are where we are - politically and religiously. I have read many of Carroll's sources but none of them present the big picture...Carrol does.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is extremely fascinating. Touching on an epoch when anti-Semitism was encouraged by the greatest religious body of the world, it explains a lot about a stereotype that persists until today and hatred against a people which few can explain. A perfect answer to the question, 'Why is there so much anti-Semitism in the world?'
Guest More than 1 year ago
The book was good in some respects, but it had a lot of unnecessary material in it. I got about 400 pages through and had to put it down. The book should have been cut down by at least 200-250 pages.
Wheatland on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
A National Book Award deservedly went to this work by James Carroll. A former Roman Catholic priest, he deals at length and in depth with anti-Semitism in the European Catholic, and later Protestant, tradition. He is caught between the horror of centuries of horrific oppression of Jews in Europe and his love of his Church. The author's honesty is palpable on each page as he resolutely lays bare the depth and implications of anti-Semitism in the long history of the western Catholic church. It's a history that must be faced by all Christians, because significant Christian teachings have been and continue to be soaked with anti-Jewish attitudes. I( personally know that even in the most liberal towns in the US, there are Jews who fear to appear on the streets during Holy Week--the week preceding Easter Sunday.) The author also provides some useful insight into how this anti-Semitism could have arisen within Christian memory and tradition.
mwhel on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
This excellent book directly confronts the question of religious justification for war. it asks where people got the idea that it is alright to kill in the name of a God. In the modern world God is no longer commanding his people to eradicate all men, women, children and living thing of the opposing peoples (with the convenient exception of female virgins Numbers 31:18). The monotheistic religions in particular rationalize their divine warmongering edicts in more abstract ways in today's world. The author is particularly sensitive to the plight of Jews, of whom Jesus was a purportedly peace-loving member who curiously confessed to bring not peace, but a sword Matthew 10:34.An interesting observation made in the book is that the cross/sword was not a symbol used by the early Christians, and that its adoption has cast a sinister shadow over the true teachings of Jesus.
ashergabbay on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Contantine the Great was the Roman emperor that embraced Christianity in the 4th century and gave this religion the necessary means to propagate itself throughout the Roman Empire and become, over time, the world's largest religion. The story goes, that on the eve of the crucial Milvian Bridge battle of Rome in 312, Constantine saw a vision of a cross in the night sky with the words In Hoc Signo Vinces ("with this sign you shall win") across it. He pledged that if he would be victorious, he would embrace Christianity. Thus, "Constantine's Sword" became a symbol of the power of the cross combined with the sword, the power of the Christian Church.James Carroll used to be a Catholic priest, and nowadays he's a writer-historian with a mission in life: to reform the Catholic Church. For Carroll, the fundamental flaw and central issue in the church's thinking since its inception, the "defining sin" if you like, is the church's attitude towards Jews. In this book, Carroll describes almost 2,000 years of how the church thought, preached and acted towards Jews. It is an extended version of J'accuse, an indicting statement against the Catholic chruch through the ages. What Carroll tries to show is that an alternative path could have been chosen by the church's leaders at various points in this bloody and murderous journey, a path that would have defined the Christian-Jewish debate in completely different terms.Carroll strips traditional Christian beliefs apart, showing how they were formed and why they are flawed. He does so by starting the obvious: Jesus lived and died as Jew, wanting to renew and reform his fellow Jews. It was only much later, within the context of the debate between his followers and the Jewish majority and in response to the persecution by the Roman emperors, that the concept of the "other" was formed and a line separating the two religions began to form. He does so also by unravelling the political and economic factors hiding behind the church's leaders' so-called theological decisions through the ages: from Constantine's "conversion of convenience", through the murder and explusion of Jews for "religious reasons", culminating the in unholy pact between Pope Pius XII and Hitler shortly after the latter came to power.This book is, strictly speaking, not a history book. Many would undoubtedly argue, and with justice, that Carroll is not an historian and his use of secondary (and selective) sources to prove his point of view is not rigorously academic. But I don't think that was his intent. This is very much a personal story, of how Carroll fell in love with the Catholic Church, how he became a priest, why he decided to remove his habit, his journeys through Europe and his ideas about chruch reform. This combination of historical facts with a personal story is very powerful. Although it does become a little too personal for my likeing when he tells us about his erotic attraction to his pious mother, who took him to see the seamless robe of Jesus in Trier.I read this book during and after a course I took about Jews and Christians in medieval times. It was a good companion to the course and helped me frame many historical events in their proper context. It is not an easy book to read (not least because of its length) but it's a must read for anyone wanting to understand the core values that drove, and to a certain extent are still driving, the attitude of the Catholic church towards Jews.
Atomicmutant on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
This is a grand, sweeping, dense, and above all, splendid book. Carroll has crafted something that¿s a blend of history, memoir, theology, hopes and dreams. His writing is captivating throughout. This is one of the most engaging and unique history books I¿ve ever read.A straightforward recitation of the history and injustice of the church¿s relationship with the Jews would have been sobering on its own. Perceptively, Carroll realizes that each of us cannot help but read this history through our own lens. He therefore exposes his own journey along with the narrative and shares in deeply heartfelt ways how the research has affected his own thoughts. This device is human and effective throughout.At one point, he makes the comment that with any complicated case, one must step back, in order to ¿see the rope, not the threads¿. Thus have my perceptions of isolated moments in history been knitted together by his efforts in this book.His indictment of the church is devastating, but is created from a position of faith and love for the institution and what it can represent. He¿s not out to ¿get¿ anyone, but certainly calls for brutal honesty that has been lacking for too long. It¿s not a stretch to call for the institution to search its conscience in a similar fashion to his own journey.In the main body, the book covers in sweeping and fluid fashion, the full 2000 year arc of the story, examining unforgettable characters and events along the way, connecting the threads from Christ¿s crucifixion through the Holocaust, and to the papacy of John Paul II. You¿ll meet Christian and Jewish philosophers, secular and sacred warriors, kings and peasants, and watch, slack-jawed, as devastating events inexorably unfold through Carroll¿s resonant prose.The final section of the book is the most beautifully written, and evocative. He makes an honest attempt at crafting a method by which the church, and we as individuals, can make a run at atonement, reconciliation, and re-imagining, of what Christian faith can be. I was swept up in his writing. The hitch here, is that his thinking is very liberal, and somewhat naïve with regards to what¿s possible. I fear that Carroll¿s continuing faith in the face of the unmitigated horror that he¿s uncovered is alive only in the future fantasy of reconciliation that he¿s beautifully concocted.There is a haunting section where he imagines a silent ceremony, dismantling the cross at Auschwitz, that is as elegiac and moving as it is improbable and wistful. Ah, but that things were as he imagines they could be.We all must find a way to make accommodation within ourselves for history, with its majesty and majestic warts, as we discover it. This book is a wonderful way to frame the unthinkable, the inconsiderable, but the undeniable story of Christianity and the ¿imagined other¿ as enemy of the faith.Please read this book.
joe13 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
probably the best book i've read in years. so much stuff i never knew about the history of the jews as they a seen through christian eyes.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Constantine's Sword is a sorrowful read, a journey over nearly two thousand years of often brutal anti-Semitism on the part of Christianity that ultimately led to the Holocaust. James Carroll does a masterful job of telling a story many want shunted away into the dark corners of church history so that the good the church has done can get most of the attention. But Mr. Carroll knows that the truth left untold is no better than a lie and he will have no part in lies. This book should be read . . . by everyone.
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EugeneTX More than 1 year ago
First, I gave the writer high marks for taking a very difficult subject and putting it in a well-organized and readable form. With his background as a former Priest, I have to conclude that generally he knows what he is talking about and he does quite well in telling the story. I was disappointed to see him give Paul (Saint) more or less a free pass on his early activities when we know from Paul's writings that he "persecuted those of the way unto death." In fact, he had just participated in a Temple riot in which he siezed a faggot of nwood and started assailing others. James, the brother of the Lord was thrown down from the Temple steps head first and broke one, if not nboth legs. Paul pursued the Essene community with authorizing letters from the Temple Pharisees. Doctinally, Paul essentially reversed the teaching of the community on the Law (Torah), circumcision, and table fellowship. Paul's acts were about as Anti-Semitic as one could get yet the authore broad brushes this and does not criticize it. Additionally, there can be no excuse for the church's silence during the period of holocaust killings. Turning you head the other way just doesn't cut it. As your past actions have clearly shown, the church as such, has all the pomp, trappings, and ceremony, along with the Golden Throne but no real clout. This is a sad, sad record for any organization but for it ti have been the most respected religious organiztion in the worl, your impotence is staggering.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago