Contested Borderland: The Civil War in Appalachian Kentucky and Virginia

Contested Borderland: The Civil War in Appalachian Kentucky and Virginia

by Brian D. McKnight
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University Press of Kentucky


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Contested Borderland: The Civil War in Appalachian Kentucky and Virginia

During the four years of the Civil War, the border between eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia was highly contested territory, alternately occupied by both the Confederacy and the Union. Though this territory was sparsely populated, the geography of the region made it a desirable stronghold for future tactical maneuvers. As the war progressed, the Cumberland Gap quickly became the target of invasion and occupation efforts of both armies, creating a chaos that would strain not only the soldiers but all those who called the area their home. Contested Borderland examines the features of the region's geography and the influence of the attacks on borderlands caught in the crossfire of the Union and Confederate forces. The land surrounding the Kentucky-Virginia border contained valuable natural resources and geographic features considered essential to each army's advancement and proliferation. While the Appalachian Mountains barred travel through large parts of the region, the gaps allowed quick passages through otherwise difficult terrain and thus became hotly contested areas. Brian D. McKnight explores the tensions between the accomplishment of military goals and the maintenance of civilian life in the region. With Kentucky remaining loyal to the Union and Virginia seceding to the Confederacy, populations residing between the two states faced pressure to declare loyalty to one side. Roadside towns found themselves the frequent hosts of soldiers from both sides, while more remote communities became shelters for those wishing to remain uninvolved in the conflict. Instead of committing themselves to either cause, many individuals claimed a neutral stance or feigned dedication to whichever side happened to occupy their land. The dual occupation of the Union and Confederate armies consequentially divided the borderland population, creating hostilities within the region that would persist long after the war's conclusion. Contested Borderland is the first Civil War study exclusively devoted to the border separating eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia. McKnight's unprecedented geographical analysis of military tactics and civilian involvement provides a new and valuable dimension to the story of a region facing the turmoil of war.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780813123899
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Publication date: 03/31/2006
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 328
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Brian D. McKnight is a teaching fellow of history at the University of Virginia's College at Wise. His work has appeared in numerous books and journals, including the Historian, the Smithfield Review, and Ohio Valley History.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii

Map of the Kentucky-Virginia Borderland Region x

Introduction 1

1 The Central Appalachian Divide in Unity and Secession 9

2 Recruitment, Training, and Baptism: June-November 1861 29

3 Locking the Confederates into Virginia: December 1861-June 1862 53

4 The Kentucky Campaign, Cumberland Gap: July-October 1862 71

5 The Kentucky Campaign, Pound Gap: July-October 1862 91

6 An Aggressive Union Army: November 1862-February 1863 114

7 Return to Kentucky, Return to Virginia: February-April 1863 138

8 Southwestern Virginia Besieged: May-September 1863 151

9 East Tennessee Rescued, Southwestern Virginia Harassed: October 1863-March 1864 170

10 Impending Defeat: April-September 1864 188

11 Violent War, Violent Peace: October 1864-April 1865 206

Conclusion 227

Notes 235

Bibliography 275

Index 297

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Contested Borderland: The Civil War in Appalachian Kentucky and Virginia 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
When most of us close our eyes and try to picture the Civil War as it happened, I imagine most of us see long rows of uniformed men advancing toward one another with appropriate flags waving above them, in an open field lit with sunshine. We seem to picture the war as one great Pickett¿s Charge. All the men are true and brave, ready to die doing their duty. Of course, that¿s not the way it was. And that vision was especially untrue in the regions tucked away from the commerce and the traffic and the war¿s main events. The ridges of the Appalachians separated people. They defined borders between states, between free and slave, and for a while between a country trying to save itself and another wanting to begin on its own. Those mountains and the narrow valleys between them offered plenty of shade and shadows in which people of all sorts could seek refuge. Where they ended in northwestern Pennsylvania the lumber camps became havens for well-armed bands of Union deserters. Farther south, along the Kentucky- Virginia frontier, mixed bands of deserters from both sides hid in the forests and preyed upon the locals. ¿Volunteers¿ stepped forward under the shield of being soldiers to steal from whomever they didn¿t like. As Brian McKnight points out in this regional study of the war near the Cumberland Gap, although lightly populated, this area had points of military significance, the gap itself being but one. It was here that James A. Garfield first proved his worth in the field, managing his men so well that he quickly gained promotion to brigadier and appointment as Don Carlos Buell¿s chief-of-staff. McKnight, who teaches at the University of Virginia¿s College at Wise, located right in the center of the area covered by his book, does a great job of showing all the facets of the war as they happened there. He shows you the military side, but also the partisan and civilian sides, which was significant in this mountain country where grudges were quickly formed and rarely forgotten, and an assassin in the dark could just as easily dole out justice as could a judge or jury. This was, after all, where the Hatfields and McCoys would carry on their own private war not many years afterward. In his thoughtful introduction, the author provides a good historiography of other regional studies of the partisan war fought in other places in the Appalachians, as well as in Missouri where it was, perhaps, at its worst. And he correctly points out that the war around the Cumberland Gap has never been adequately covered before. It has now, thanks to his efforts now available in this excellent book.