ISBN-10:
0130914088
ISBN-13:
9780130914088
Pub. Date:
05/28/2001
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Developing Management Skills / Edition 5

Developing Management Skills / Edition 5

by David A. Whetten, Kim S. Cameron

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130914088
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 05/28/2001
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 672
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 11.34(h) x 0.99(d)

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Preface

Preparing to Meet the Challenges of the New Millennium

As you prepare for managerial careers in the new millennium, the environment that you will face will undoubtedly be very different from the one managers faced a decade ago, or the one facing you as you read this preface. In response, each of the business disciplines is equipping their students with new tools and techniques. Accounting and operations management majors learn how computing power has given them the ability to analyze financial information that provides new insights into operational and financial performance. Finance majors learn to appreciate the latest trading techniques in derivative markets. Human resource majors are learning how to assess programs and strategize how a planned global expansion will affect an organization's human resource needs. Marketing majors learn how scanner data can be analyzed so that they can better understand customer needs and preferences.

To complement this ever-expanding business tool kit, the objective of a management skills course is to prepare students to manage dynamic, constantly changing work environments—the kind that challenge individuals to continually adapt by learning new methods and adopting new goals. Specifically, it prepares future managers to address questions like: "How do I get my people to accept this new approach?," "How do I explain the need to change to my `old-timers' without creating a defensive reaction?," "How do I help the `survivors' of a downsizing manage with their sense of loss, grief, and guilt?," and "How do I use existing organizational rewards to reinforce the need for change?"

In other words, the businesspressures that spawned countless waves of reengineering, six-sigma quality efforts, downsizing, and speed-to-market initiatives have also increased the need for managers with outstanding "people skills." Their unusual ability to communicate, to motivate, to make decisions, to resolve conflicts, etc., acts as a sort of "management glue" that helps organizations that are undergoing seemingly endless change from splintering apart.

Will Rogers's dictum that "common sense ain't necessarily common practice" underscores the problem with most content-based discussions of management. It is one thing to catalogue the "best practices" associated with world-class quality, efficiency, or customer satisfactions. It is far more challenging to prepare the members of an organization to accept the need for change, to help them understand the new approach, to obtain their commitment to implement the proposal, to manage the transition period effectively, and to institutionalize the new approach by "hard wiring" it into the organization's communication, evaluation, and reward systems. As one experienced manager noted, "Good ideas are not in scarce supply. What is rare is the ability to translate a good idea into accepted practice."

The goal of this book is to provide current and prospective managers with the personal, interpersonal, and group skills necessary to reduce the gap between good ideas and accepted practice. Managers can hire content knowledge, but they cannot hire stand-ins to represent them in critical staff meetings, conversations with angry customers, scheduling discussions with their secretaries, counseling sessions with troubled employees, or performance evaluations. Skillful performance in these settings has been documented by literally dozens of studies (see the Introduction that immediately follows this Preface) as the essential and indispensable foundation of effective management practice.

Background of this Book

It has been nearly two decades since we became convinced that management skills need to be a crucial part of the business school and corporate training curricula. Not only does a well-known study of business school education (Porter and McKibbin, 1988) corroborate that view, but our experience with business school students and managers in executive education seminars has continually reaffirmed our commitment to the skill development approach.

Originally, the motivation for writing Developing Management Skills grew out of our frustration with teaching management courses following conventional methods. When we used texts based on the traditional "principles of management" framework, we felt uncomfortable with their lack of theoretical and research grounding. Because principles of management have been generally derived from recollections and interpretations of practicing managers, empirical research and theory regarding their validity in modern organizations is limited.

When we used an "organization and management theory approach," students complained that the practical relevance of the material was difficult to discern. Not enough "hows" were included to be useful to students who aspired to be practicing managers.

When we used a traditional "organizational behavior" approach, colleagues teaching the elective organizational behavior courses reported that students complained about redundancy. It became increasingly difficult to differentiate among topics covered by organizational behavior and management courses.

When we emphasized the "experiential learning" approach, centered around simulations, case discussions, and games, students complained they weren't gaining enough substantive knowledge about how to be effective managers. Few students brought enough practical experience, theoretical knowledge, or self-analytic skills to those exercises to get much benefit from them. As a result, the exercises were entertaining but not very educational.

After years of experimentation, we determined that while each approach had its place in the management curriculum and each could contribute to a student's education, none, taken alone, could help students develop into competent managers.

In our search for alternatives, we asked recent graduates and senior executives to evaluate their organizational behavior and management education in terms of their experiences as managers. In general, they criticized behavioral science courses for not teaching them job-relevant skills.

They were acutely aware of the challenges posed by "people problems" in their work, and they felt that their university education had not prepared them for that component of their job.

Based on this feedback, we began formulating a new teaching methodology by examining how skills-based courses in education, social work, engineering, medicine, and law are taught. We also drew heavily on recent innovations in training programs for practicing managers that emphasize behavior modification through role modeling. To identify the appropriate content for a management skills course, we surveyed over 400 managers in public and private organizations and combed the professional literature for statements by management experts regarding the characteristics of effective managers. As our teaching model began to evolve, it became apparent that a supporting textbook would need to be developed.

Early in this project it was clear that our text would be at variance with prevailing views regarding what behavioral science courses should offer management students. Typically, these courses either present an array of general principles and concepts derived from research in industrial/organizational psychology, sociology, OB, industrial administration, and so on, or they rely heavily on group exercises, games, or cases to illustrate certain management activities or functions. They either describe management practice and provide students with theories for analyzing common problems encountered by managers, or they eschew theory and research in favor of activity and involvement. Through our experience we became convinced that the strengths of each approach, used in combination, were needed for students to develop (not just know about) management skills. Therefore, the hallmark of this text is a balanced integration of theory and practice, understanding and application.

A Note to Teachers

Most of us are aware of a significant shift in the conversations about "good teaching" on our campuses. We are hearing less and less about improving teaching ("observe the best classroom performers and then reproduce their techniques and/or style") and more and more about improving student learning ("figure out what knowledge, skills, and attitudes your students need and then focus all aspects of the course on those outcomes").

We recently took a look at what authorities have said on the subject of student learning. Here's a sampler.

"Students learn what they care about, and remember what they understand" (Ericksen, 1984:51).

"All genuine learning is active, not passive. It is a process of discovery in which the student is the main agent, not the teacher" (Adler, 1982).

"Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in a class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves" (Chickering and Gamson, 1987:3).

Central to the increasing emphasis on student learning is the clarion call for more emphasis on "active learning." What exactly is active learning? In their classic book on this topic, Bonwell and Eison (1991) list seven characteristics of the active learning classroom (pp. 1-2):

  1. Students are involved in more than passive listening.
  2. Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).
  3. There is less emphasis placed on information transmission and greater emphasis placed on developing student skills.
  4. There is greater emphasis placed on the exploration of attitudes and values.
  5. Student motivation is increased, especially in adult learners.
  6. Students receive immediate feedback from their instructor and peers.
  7. Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation).

In brief, active learning involves "learning by doing." This is a pedagogical tradition with a long and distinguished heritage. For example, in the 5th century B.C., Sophocles observed, "One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it—you have no certainty until you try."

So why is active learning still viewed as the exception to the rule on college campuses? Bonwell and Eison (1991) list six commonly mentioned barriers to adopting this approach (pp. 5364):

  1. You cannot cover as much course content in the time available.
  2. Devising active learning strategies takes too much pre-class preparation.
  3. Large class size prevents implementation of active learning strategies.
  4. Most instructors think of themselves as being good lecturers.
  5. There is a lack of materials or equipment needed to support active learning approaches.
  6. Students often resist non-lecture approaches.

Given this formidable set of obstacles, it is easy to understand why many professors find it difficult to fully embrace the notion of active learning in their particular university classroom. In contrast, it is gratifying to frequently receive positive reports from countless colleagues who've used the skill development approach outlined in this text to make their courses more student focused and more outcome focused.

If you are new to this approach, we recommend that you carefully examine the five step skill development learning model described in the Introduction (immediately after the Preface), the list of teaching and learning supplements at the end of this Preface, and the suggestions for course design in Section 1 in the Instructor's Manual, to get a better understanding of how you can achieve the objectives of active, student-centered learning in your management course. In addition, the Prentice Hall Web site for our book contains a number of additional support tools that are worth exploring.

Organization of the Material

The purpose of this book is to help practicing managers and management students develop the skills necessary to cultivate and implement good ideas in organizations. Based on years of research and personal observation of effective managers, we have identified nine fundamental management skills, organized into three categories. Each chapter in this book addresses one of these skills.

  • Personal
    Developing Self-Awareness
    Managing Personal Stress
    Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively
  • Interpersonal
    Coaching, Counseling, and Supportive Communication
    Gaining Power and Influence
    Motivating Others
    Managing Conflict
  • Group Skills
    Empowering and Delegating
    Building Effective Teams and Teamwork

In addition to these core skills chapters, we have included three "supplements" focusing on specific, applied communications skills: "Making Written and Oral Presentations," "Conducting Interviews," and "Conducting Meetings."

The shift from learning management principles to developing management skills requires an associated shift in learning objectives. The goal of purely cognitive or content-oriented learning is understanding. In contrast, the goal of skill development is application. The goal of "changing my mind" is replaced with the goal of "changing my behavior." This qualitative shift in learning objectives requires an entirely new system of learning—one that focuses less on facilitating comprehension and more on enabling change. As noted in the following table, there is a close parallel between the five step learning model used to organize the skill development process in each chapter and the widely-recognized requirements for sustainable behavioral change.

Requirements for Change
Accept the need to change
Understand what/how to change
Commit to and practice/pilot change
Apply and monitor change

Skill Development Steps
Skill Assessment
Skill Learning and Skill Analysis
Skill Practice
Skill Application

Objectives for this Edition

Our primary objectives in preparing this edition were to (1) bring a stronger multi-cultural perspective to the skill development process; (2) streamline and simplify the conceptual material throughout the book and significantly alter the approach used in a couple of chapters; (3) update examples, cases, and exercises; (4) continue improving the quality of the accompanying Instructor's Manual; and (4) make available new supplemental teaching materials. We are confident that adopters familiar with previous editions will recognize improvements in these areas. The following are some highlights of the changes you will notice in this edition:

  • Added a multi-cultural perspective - In the Self Awareness chapter we included a new section on cultural values. This theme is continued throughout the book. We believe this additional perspective will enrich classroom discussions and improve actual skill practice.
  • Improved the organization of the conceptual material - Although the basic framework in each chapter has not been substantially altered, the presentation of the supporting material has been modified in several chapters. In addition, the Team Building chapter and the Conducting Meetings supplement have been substantially revised.
  • Updated examples, cases, and exercises - This is a continuous process, from edition to edition, punctuated with a few major changes in this edition. For example, we replaced the DeLorean case in the Power and Influence chapter and we added the Kolb Learning Style Inventory to the Self Awareness chapter.
  • Upgraded the Instructor's Manual
  • Added new supplements

Supplements

To augment the improvements in the text, the supplements have been revised and improved as well. The available supplements include:

  • Instructor's Manual - This revised manual features the following components:
    • Extensive overview of course philosophy
    • Section on organizing and designing a skill-building course
    • Sample course outlines and general guidelines for teaching the course
    • Suggestions for conducting role plays
    • Several new application exercises and activities for each chapter in the text
  • Test Item File - Features a variety of multiple-choice, scenario/application, and essay questions for each chapter and includes levels of difficulty and section headings for easy reference.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM with electronic Instructor's Manual, Win/PH Test Manager, and PowerPoint Electronic Transparencies - Containing all of the questions in the printed Test Item File, Test Manager allows educators to create and distribute tests for their courses easily, either by printing and distributing through traditional methods or by online delivery via a Local Area Network (LAN) server. The PowerPoint transparencies, a comprehensive package of text outlines and figures corresponding to the text, are designed to aid the educator and supplement in-class lectures.
  • Overhead Color Transparencies - Approximately 100 of the most critical PowerPoint electronic transparencies are chosen for inclusion in this package as full-color acetates and are provided on high quality Mylar.
  • New Part-Ending Skills Video Segments - These new segments, featuring key Management Skills topics, focus on a fictional Internet company. Each segment offers a scenario with two options, from which students select and evaluate their choices.
  • myPHLIP Web site - The new myPHLIP provides professors with a customized course Web site including new communication tools, one-click navigation of chapter content, and great PHLIP resources such as Current Events and Internet Exercises. It also features an online Study Guide for students.
  • Student Skills Guide - This Guide allows students to both tailor what they learn to their own needs and be more productive in the learning process. Updated from the fourth edition Self-Directed Manual, it is available in both print and electronic version.

Table of Contents


Preface     xvii
Introduction     1
The Critical Role of Management Skills     3
The Importance of Competent Managers     6
The Skills of Effective Managers     7
Essential Management Skills     8
What Are Management Skills?     9
Improving Management Skills     12
An Approach to Skill Development     13
Leadership and Management     16
Contents of the Book     18
Organization of the Book     19
Practice and Application     21
Diversity and Individual Differences     21
Summary     23
Supplementary Material     24
Diagnostic Survey and Exercises     24
Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS)     24
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager?     28
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise     30
Scoring Key and Comparison Data     42
Personal Assessment of Management Skills     42
Scoring Key     42
Comparison Data     42
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager?     43
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise     43
Personal Skills     44
DevelopingSelf-Awareness     45
Skill Assessment     46
Diagnostic Surveys for Self-Awareness     46
Self-Awareness Assessment     46
Emotional Intelligence Assessment     47
The Defining Issues Test     48
The Learning Style Inventory     52
Locus of Control Scale     54
Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale     56
Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES)     57
Skill Learning     58
Key Dimensions of Self-Awareness     58
The Enigma of Self-Awareness     59
The Sensitive Line     59
Understanding and Appreciating Individual Differences     61
Important Areas of Self-Awareness     62
Emotional Intelligence     63
Values     66
Ethical Decision Making and Values     74
Learning Style     75
Attitudes Toward Change     79
Core Self-Evaluation     83
Skill Analysis     88
Cases Involving Self-Awareness     88
Communist Prison Camp     88
Computerized Exam     89
Decision Dilemmas     90
Skill Practice     93
Exercises for Improving Self-Awareness Through Self-Disclosure     93
Through the Looking Glass     93
Diagnosing Managerial Characteristics     94
An Exercise for Identifying Aspects of Personal Culture: A Learning Plan and Autobiography     96
Skill Application     99
Activities for Developing Self-Awareness     99
Suggested Assignments     99
Application Plan and Evaluation     99
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     101
Self-Awareness Assessment     101
Scoring Key     101
Comparison Data     101
Emotional Intelligence Assessment     101
Scoring Key     101
Comparison Data     103
The Defining Issues Test     103
The Escaped Prisoner     103
The Doctor's Dilemma     104
The Newspaper     104
Learning Style Inventory     105
Scoring Key     105
Locus of Control     105
Scoring Key     105
Comparison Data     105
Tolerance of Ambiguity     106
Scoring Key     106
Comparison Data     106
Core Self-Evaluation Scale     106
Scoring Key      106
Comparison Data     107
Managing Personal Stress     109
Skill Assessment     110
Diagnostic Surveys for Managing Stress     110
Stress Management Assessment     110
Time Management Assessment     111
Type A Personality Inventory     112
Social Readjustment Rating Scale     113
Sources of Personal Stress     115
Skill Learning     116
Improving the Management of Stress and Time     116
The Role of Management     117
Major Elements of Stress     117
Reactions to Stress     118
Coping with Stress     119
Managing Stress     121
Stressors     121
Eliminating Stressors     124
Eliminating Time Stressors Through Time Management     125
Eliminating Encounter Stressors Through Collaboration and Emotional Intelligence     132
Eliminating Situational Stressors Through Work Redesign     134
Eliminating Anticipatory Stressors Through Prioritizing, Goal Setting, and Small Wins     136
Developing Resiliency     138
Physiological Resiliency     140
Psychological Resiliency     143
Social Resiliency      147
Temporary Stress-Reduction Techniques     148
Skill Analysis     151
Cases Involving Stress Management     151
The Turn of the Tide     151
The Case of the Missing Time     154
Skill Practice     159
Exercises for Long-Term and Short-Run Stress Management     159
The Small-Wins Strategy     159
Life-Balance Analysis     160
Deep Relaxation     162
Monitoring and Managing Time     163
Skill Application     165
Activities for Managing Stress     165
Suggested Assignments     165
Application Plan and Evaluation     166
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     168
Stress Management Assessment     168
Scoring Key     168
Comparison Data     168
Time Management Assessment     168
Scoring Key     168
Comparison Data     169
Type A Personality Inventory     169
Scoring Key     169
Comparison Data     169
Social Readjustment Scale     170
Comparison Data     170
Source of Personal Stress     170
Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively     171
Skill Assessment     172
Diagnostic Surveys for Creative Problem Solving     172
Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation     172
How Creative Are You?[Copyright]     173
Innovative Attitude Scale     175
Creative Style Assessment     176
Skill Learning     178
Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation     178
Steps in Analytical Problem Solving     178
Defining the Problem     178
Generating Alternatives     180
Evaluating Alternatives     180
Implementing the Solution     181
Limitations of the Analytical Problem-Solving Model     182
Impediments to Creative Problem Solving     182
Multiple Approaches to Creativity     183
Conceptual Blocks     187
Percy Spencer's Magnetron     189
Spence Silver's Glue     189
The Four Types of Conceptual Blocks     189
Review of Conceptual Blocks     198
Conceptual Blockbusting     198
Stages in Creative Thought     198
Methods for Improving Problem Definition     199
Ways to Generate More Alternatives      203
International Caveats     206
Hints for Applying Problem-Solving Techniques     207
Fostering Creativity in Others     207
Management Principles     208
Skill Analysis     214
Cases Involving Problem Solving     214
Admiral Kimmel's Failure at Pearl Harbor     214
Creativity at Apple     216
Skill Practice     219
Exercises for Applying Conceptual Blockbusting     219
Individual Assignment-Analytical Problem Solving (10 minutes)     219
Team Assignment-Creative Problem Solving (20 minutes)     220
Moving Up in the Rankings     221
Keith Dunn and McGuffey's Restaurant     222
Creative Problem-Solving Practice     225
Skill Application     227
Activities for Solving Problems Creatively     227
Suggested Assignments     227
Application Plan and Evaluation     227
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     229
Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation     229
Scoring Key     229
Comparison Data     229
How Creative Are You     229
Scoring Key     229
Comparison Data     230
Innovative Attitude Scale     230
Scoring Key     230
Creative Style Assessment     231
Scoring Key     231
Skill Practice: Applying Conceptual Blockbusting     231
Observer's Feedback Form     231
Answer to Matchstick Problem in Figure 3.4     233
Answer to Shakespeare Riddle in Figure 3.5     233
Some Common Themes Applying to Water and Finance     233
Answer to Name That Ship Problem in Figure 3.6     234
Answer to Nine-Dot Problem in Figure 3.7     234
Answer to Embedded Pattern Problem in Figure 3.8     235
Interpersonal Skills     236
Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively     237
Skill Assessment     238
Diagnostic Surveys for Supportive Communication     238
Communicating Supportively     238
Communication Styles     239
Skill Learning     242
Building Positive Interpersonal Relationships     242
The Importance of Effective Communication     243
The Focus on Accuracy     244
What Is Supportive Communication?     246
Coaching and Counseling     248
Coaching and Counseling Problems     249
Defensiveness and Disconfirmation     250
Principles of Supportive Communication     251
Supportive Communication Is Based on Congruence, not Incongruence     251
Supportive Communication Is Descriptive, not Evaluative     252
Supportive Communication Is Problem-oriented, not Person-oriented     254
Supportive Communication Validates Rather than Invalidates Individuals     255
Supportive Communication Is Specific (Useful], not Global (Nonuseful)     257
Supportive Communication Is Conjunctive, not Disjunctive     258
Supportive Communication Is Owned, not Disowned     259
Supportive Communication Requires Listening, not One-Way Message Delivery     260
The Personal Management Interview     264
International Caveats     267
Skill Analysis     270
Cases Involving Building Positive Relationships     270
Find Somebody Else     270
Rejected Plans     271
Skill Practice     273
Exercises for Diagnosing Communication Problems and Fostering Understanding     273
United Chemical Company     273
Byron vs. Thomas     275
Active Listening Exercise     276
Skill Application     278
Activities for Communicating Supportively     278
Suggested Assignments     278
Application Plan and Evaluation     278
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     280
Communicating Supportively     280
Scoring Key     280
Comparison Data     280
Communication Styles     280
Comparison Data     280
Skill Practice: Diagnosing Problems and Fostering Understanding: United Chemical Company and Byron vs. Thomas     281
Observer's Feedback Form     281
Gaining Power and Influence     283
Skill Assessment     284
Diagnostic Surveys for Gaining Power and Influence     284
Gaining Power and Influence     284
Using Influence Strategies     285
Skill Learning     287
Building a Strong Power Base and Using Influence Wisely     287
A Balanced View of Power     287
Lack of Power     287
Abuse of Power     289
Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power     290
The Necessity of Power and Empowerment     290
Sources of Personal Power     292
Sources of Position-Power     297
Transforming Power into Influence     302
Influence Strategies: The Three Rs     302
The Pros and Cons of Each Strategy     304
Acting Assertively: Neutralizing Influence Attempts     308
Skill Analysis     314
Case Involving Power and Influence     314
River Woods Plant Manager     314
Skill Practice     315
Exercise for Gaining Power     315
Repairing Power Failures In Management Circuits     315
Exercise for Using Influence Effectively     316
Ann Lyman's Proposal     317
Exercises for Neutralizing Unwanted Influence Attempts     318
Cindy's Fast Foods     318
9:00 to 7:30     319
Skill Application     321
Activities for Gaining Power and Influence     321
Suggested Assignments     321
Application Plan and Evaluation     322
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     323
Gaining Power and Influence     323
Scoring Key     323
Comparison Data     324
Using Influence Strategies     324
Scoring Key     324
Skill Practice: Neutralizing Unwanted Influence Attempts     324
Observer's Feedback Form     324
Motivating Others      327
Skill Assessment     328
Diagnostic Surveys for Motivating Others     328
Diagnosing Poor Performance and Enhancing Motivation     328
Work Performance Assessment     329
Skill Learning     330
Increasing Motivation and Performance     330
Diagnosing Work Performance Problems     330
Enhancing Individuals' Abilities     332
Fostering a Motivating Work Environment     334
Elements of an Effective Motivation Program     335
Establish Clear Performance Expectations     336
Remove Obstacles to Performance     338
Reinforce Performance-Enhancing Behavior     341
Provide Salient Rewards     349
Be Fair and Equitable     352
Provide Timely Rewards and Accurate Feedback     352
Skill Analysis     358
Case Involving Motivation Problems     358
Electro Logic     358
Skill Practice     365
Exercises for Diagnosing Work Performance Problems     365
Joe Chaney     367
Work Performance Assessment     368
Exercise for Reshaping Unacceptable Behaviors     368
Shaheen Matombo     368
Skill Application      371
Activities for Motivating Others     371
Suggested Assignments     371
Application Plan and Evaluation     372
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     374
Diagnosing Poor Performance and Enhancing Motivation     374
Scoring Key     374
Comparison Data     374
Work Performance Assessment     375
Scoring Key     375
Comparison Data     375
Skill Practice: Exercise for Reshaping Unacceptable Behaviors     375
Observer's Feedback Form     375
Managing Conflict     377
Skill Assessment     378
Diagnostic Surveys for Managing Conflict     378
Managing Interpersonal Conflict     378
Strategies for Handling Conflict     379
Skill Learning     380
Interpersonal Conflict Management     380
Mixed Feelings About Conflict     380
Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict     382
Conflict Focus     382
Conflict Source     384
Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach     387
Comparing Conflict Management and Negotiation Strategies     390
Selection Factors      390
Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach     394
A General Framework for Collaborative Problem Solving     395
The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving     396
Skill Analysis     409
Case Involving Interpersonal Conflict     409
Educational Pension Investments     409
Skill Practice     414
Exercise for Diagnosing Sources of Conflict     414
SSS Software Management Problems     414
Exercises for Selecting an Appropriate Conflict Management Strategy     422
Bradley's Barn     423
Avocado Computers     423
Phelps, Inc.     424
Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes     424
Freida Mae Jones     425
Can Larry Fit In?     427
Meeting at Hartford Manufacturing Company     428
Skill Application     435
Activities for Improving Managing Conflict Skills     435
Suggested Assignments     435
Application Plan and Evaluation     436
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     438
Managing Interpersonal Conflict     438
Scoring Key     438
Comparison Data      439
Strategies for Handling Conflict     439
Scoring Key     439
Skill Practice: Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes     439
Observer's Feedback Form     439
Group Skills     442
Empowering and Delegating     443
Skill Assessment     444
Diagnostic Surveys for Empowering and Delegating     444
Effective Empowerment and Delegation     444
Personal Empowerment Assessment     445
Skill Learning     447
Empowering and Delegating     447
A Management Dilemma Involving Empowerment     447
The Dirty Dozen     448
The Meaning of Empowerment     449
Historical Roots of Empowerment     450
Dimensions of Empowerment     451
Self-Efficacy     451
Self-Determination     452
Personal Consequence     453
Meaning     453
Trust     454
Review of Empowerment Dimensions     455
How to Develop Empowerment     455
Articulating a Clear Vision and Goals     456
Fostering Personal Mastery Experiences     457
Modeling     458
Providing Support      458
Emotional Arousal     459
Providing Information     460
Providing Resources     461
Connecting to Outcomes     461
Creating Confidence     462
Review of Empowerment Principles     463
Inhibitors to Empowerment     465
Attitudes About Subordinates     466
Personal Insecurities     466
Need for Control     466
Delegating Work     467
Advantages of Empowered Delegation     467
Deciding When to Delegate     468
Deciding to Whom to Delegate     469
Deciding How to Delegate Effectively     469
Review of Delegation Principles     474
International Caveats     475
Skill Analysis     478
Cases Involving Empowerment and Delegation     478
Minding the Store     478
Changing the Portfolio     479
Skill Practice     480
Exercises for Empowerment     480
Executive Development Associates     480
Empowering Ourselves     484
Deciding to Delegate     485
Skill Application     487
Activities for Empowerment and Delegation      487
Suggested Assignments     487
Application Plan and Evaluation     487
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     489
Effective Empowerment and Delegation     489
Scoring Key     489
Comparison Data     489
Personal Empowerment     489
Scoring Key     489
Comparison Data     490
Skill Practice: Deciding to Delegate: Analysis of "An Emergency Request"     490
Skill Practice: Analysis of Biological Warfare     490
Building Effective Teams and Teamwork     493
Skill Assessment     494
Diagnostic Surveys for Building Effective Teams     494
Team Development Behaviors     494
Diagnosing the Need for Team Building     495
Skill Learning     497
Developing Teams and Teamwork     497
The Advantages of Teams     498
An Example of an Effective Team     501
Team Development     502
The Forming Stage     502
The Forming Stage     503
The Storming Stage     505
The Performing Stage     507
Leading Teams     510
Developing Credibility     511
Establish Smart Goals and Everest Goals     513
International Caveats     515
Team Membership     516
Advantageous Roles     516
Providing Feedback     520
International Caveats     521
Skill Analysis     523
Cases Involving Building Effective Teams     523
The Tallahassee Democrat's Elite Team     523
The Cash Register Incident     525
Skill Practice     527
Exercises in Building Effective Teams     527
Team Diagnosis and Team Development Exercise     527
Winning the War on Talent     528
Team Performance Exercise     531
Skill Application     533
Activities for Building Effective Teams     533
Suggested Assignments     533
Application Plan and Evaluation     534
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     535
Team Development Behaviors     535
Scoring Key     535
Comparison Data     535
Diagnosing the Need for Team Building     535
Comparison Data     535
Leading Positive Change     537
Skill Assessment     538
Diagnostic Surveys for Leading Positive Change      538
Leading Positive Change     538
Reflected Best-Self Feedback[Trademark] Exercise     539
A Sample Email Request for Feedback     539
Machiavellianism Scale-Mach IV     540
Skill Learning     542
Leading Positive Change     542
Ubiquitous and Escalating Change     543
The Need for Frameworks     543
Tendencies Toward Stability     544
A Framework for Leading Positive Change     546
Establishing a Climate of Positivity     548
Creating Readiness for Change     554
Articulating a Vision of Abundance     557
Generating Commitment to the Vision     561
Institutionalizing the Positive Change     566
Skill Analysis     572
Cases Involving Leading Positive Change     572
Corporate Vision Statements     572
Lee Iacocca's Transformation of Chrysler-1979-1984     578
Skill Practice     585
Exercises in Leading Positive Change     585
Reflected Best-Self Portrait     585
Positive Organizational Diagnosis Exercise     586
A Positive Change Agenda     587
Skill Application     588
Activities for Leading Positive Change     588
Suggested Assignments     588
Application Plan and Evaluation     589
Scoring Keys and Comparison Data     591
Leading Positive Change     591
Scoring Key     591
Comparison Data     591
Reflected Best-Self Feedback[Trademark] Exercise     591
Machiavellianism Scale-Mach IV     591
Scoring Key     591
Comparison Data     592
Skill Analysis: Iacocca's Transformation of Chrysler-1979-1984     592
Specific Communication Skills     594
Learning Oral and Written Presentations     595
Skill Learning     596
Making Oral and Written Presentations     596
Essential Elements of Effective Presentations     597
Skill Practice     613
Exercises for Making Effective Oral and Written Presentations     613
Speaking as a Leader     613
Quality Circles at Battle Creek Foods     614
Conducting Interviews     623
Skill Learning     624
Planning and Conducting Interviews     624
Specific Types of Organizational Interviews     633
Skill Practice     638
Exercises for Conducting Special-Purpose Interviews     638
Evaluating the New Employee-Orientation Program     638
Performance-Appraisal Interview with Chris Jakobsen     641
Employment-Selection Interview at Smith Farley Insurance     647
Conducting Meetings     655
Skill Learning     656
Conducting Effective Meetings: A Short Guide for Meeting Managers and Meeting Participants     656
The Five Ps of Effective Meetings     656
Suggestions for Group Members     661
Skill Practice     664
Exercises for Conducting Meetings     664
Preparing and Conducting a Team Meeting at SSS Software     664
Role Diagnosis     664
Meeting Evaluation Worksheet     665
Glossary     677
References     687
Name Index     703
Subject Index     713
Combined Index     717

Preface

Preparing to Meet the Challenges of the New Millennium

As you prepare for managerial careers in the new millennium, the environment that you will face will undoubtedly be very different from the one managers faced a decade ago, or the one facing you as you read this preface. In response, each of the business disciplines is equipping their students with new tools and techniques. Accounting and operations management majors learn how computing power has given them the ability to analyze financial information that provides new insights into operational and financial performance. Finance majors learn to appreciate the latest trading techniques in derivative markets. Human resource majors are learning how to assess programs and strategize how a planned global expansion will affect an organization's human resource needs. Marketing majors learn how scanner data can be analyzed so that they can better understand customer needs and preferences.

To complement this ever-expanding business tool kit, the objective of a management skills course is to prepare students to manage dynamic, constantly changing work environments—the kind that challenge individuals to continually adapt by learning new methods and adopting new goals. Specifically, it prepares future managers to address questions like: "How do I get my people to accept this new approach?," "How do I explain the need to change to my `old-timers' without creating a defensive reaction?," "How do I help the `survivors' of a downsizing manage with their sense of loss, grief, and guilt?," and "How do I use existing organizational rewards to reinforce the need for change?"

In other words, the businesspressures that spawned countless waves of reengineering, six-sigma quality efforts, downsizing, and speed-to-market initiatives have also increased the need for managers with outstanding "people skills." Their unusual ability to communicate, to motivate, to make decisions, to resolve conflicts, etc., acts as a sort of "management glue" that helps organizations that are undergoing seemingly endless change from splintering apart.

Will Rogers's dictum that "common sense ain't necessarily common practice" underscores the problem with most content-based discussions of management. It is one thing to catalogue the "best practices" associated with world-class quality, efficiency, or customer satisfactions. It is far more challenging to prepare the members of an organization to accept the need for change, to help them understand the new approach, to obtain their commitment to implement the proposal, to manage the transition period effectively, and to institutionalize the new approach by "hard wiring" it into the organization's communication, evaluation, and reward systems. As one experienced manager noted, "Good ideas are not in scarce supply. What is rare is the ability to translate a good idea into accepted practice."

The goal of this book is to provide current and prospective managers with the personal, interpersonal, and group skills necessary to reduce the gap between good ideas and accepted practice. Managers can hire content knowledge, but they cannot hire stand-ins to represent them in critical staff meetings, conversations with angry customers, scheduling discussions with their secretaries, counseling sessions with troubled employees, or performance evaluations. Skillful performance in these settings has been documented by literally dozens of studies (see the Introduction that immediately follows this Preface) as the essential and indispensable foundation of effective management practice.

Background of this Book

It has been nearly two decades since we became convinced that management skills need to be a crucial part of the business school and corporate training curricula. Not only does a well-known study of business school education (Porter and McKibbin, 1988) corroborate that view, but our experience with business school students and managers in executive education seminars has continually reaffirmed our commitment to the skill development approach.

Originally, the motivation for writing Developing Management Skills grew out of our frustration with teaching management courses following conventional methods. When we used texts based on the traditional "principles of management" framework, we felt uncomfortable with their lack of theoretical and research grounding. Because principles of management have been generally derived from recollections and interpretations of practicing managers, empirical research and theory regarding their validity in modern organizations is limited.

When we used an "organization and management theory approach," students complained that the practical relevance of the material was difficult to discern. Not enough "hows" were included to be useful to students who aspired to be practicing managers.

When we used a traditional "organizational behavior" approach, colleagues teaching the elective organizational behavior courses reported that students complained about redundancy. It became increasingly difficult to differentiate among topics covered by organizational behavior and management courses.

When we emphasized the "experiential learning" approach, centered around simulations, case discussions, and games, students complained they weren't gaining enough substantive knowledge about how to be effective managers. Few students brought enough practical experience, theoretical knowledge, or self-analytic skills to those exercises to get much benefit from them. As a result, the exercises were entertaining but not very educational.

After years of experimentation, we determined that while each approach had its place in the management curriculum and each could contribute to a student's education, none, taken alone, could help students develop into competent managers.

In our search for alternatives, we asked recent graduates and senior executives to evaluate their organizational behavior and management education in terms of their experiences as managers. In general, they criticized behavioral science courses for not teaching them job-relevant skills.

They were acutely aware of the challenges posed by "people problems" in their work, and they felt that their university education had not prepared them for that component of their job.

Based on this feedback, we began formulating a new teaching methodology by examining how skills-based courses in education, social work, engineering, medicine, and law are taught. We also drew heavily on recent innovations in training programs for practicing managers that emphasize behavior modification through role modeling. To identify the appropriate content for a management skills course, we surveyed over 400 managers in public and private organizations and combed the professional literature for statements by management experts regarding the characteristics of effective managers. As our teaching model began to evolve, it became apparent that a supporting textbook would need to be developed.

Early in this project it was clear that our text would be at variance with prevailing views regarding what behavioral science courses should offer management students. Typically, these courses either present an array of general principles and concepts derived from research in industrial/organizational psychology, sociology, OB, industrial administration, and so on, or they rely heavily on group exercises, games, or cases to illustrate certain management activities or functions. They either describe management practice and provide students with theories for analyzing common problems encountered by managers, or they eschew theory and research in favor of activity and involvement. Through our experience we became convinced that the strengths of each approach, used in combination, were needed for students to develop (not just know about) management skills. Therefore, the hallmark of this text is a balanced integration of theory and practice, understanding and application.

A Note to Teachers

Most of us are aware of a significant shift in the conversations about "good teaching" on our campuses. We are hearing less and less about improving teaching ("observe the best classroom performers and then reproduce their techniques and/or style") and more and more about improving student learning ("figure out what knowledge, skills, and attitudes your students need and then focus all aspects of the course on those outcomes").

We recently took a look at what authorities have said on the subject of student learning. Here's a sampler.

"Students learn what they care about, and remember what they understand" (Ericksen, 1984:51).

"All genuine learning is active, not passive. It is a process of discovery in which the student is the main agent, not the teacher" (Adler, 1982).

"Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in a class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves" (Chickering and Gamson, 1987:3).

Central to the increasing emphasis on student learning is the clarion call for more emphasis on "active learning." What exactly is active learning? In their classic book on this topic, Bonwell and Eison (1991) list seven characteristics of the active learning classroom (pp. 1-2):

  1. Students are involved in more than passive listening.
  2. Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).
  3. There is less emphasis placed on information transmission and greater emphasis placed on developing student skills.
  4. There is greater emphasis placed on the exploration of attitudes and values.
  5. Student motivation is increased, especially in adult learners.
  6. Students receive immediate feedback from their instructor and peers.
  7. Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation).

In brief, active learning involves "learning by doing." This is a pedagogical tradition with a long and distinguished heritage. For example, in the 5th century B.C., Sophocles observed, "One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it—you have no certainty until you try."

So why is active learning still viewed as the exception to the rule on college campuses? Bonwell and Eison (1991) list six commonly mentioned barriers to adopting this approach (pp. 5364):

  1. You cannot cover as much course content in the time available.
  2. Devising active learning strategies takes too much pre-class preparation.
  3. Large class size prevents implementation of active learning strategies.
  4. Most instructors think of themselves as being good lecturers.
  5. There is a lack of materials or equipment needed to support active learning approaches.
  6. Students often resist non-lecture approaches.

Given this formidable set of obstacles, it is easy to understand why many professors find it difficult to fully embrace the notion of active learning in their particular university classroom. In contrast, it is gratifying to frequently receive positive reports from countless colleagues who've used the skill development approach outlined in this text to make their courses more student focused and more outcome focused.

If you are new to this approach, we recommend that you carefully examine the five step skill development learning model described in the Introduction (immediately after the Preface), the list of teaching and learning supplements at the end of this Preface, and the suggestions for course design in Section 1 in the Instructor's Manual, to get a better understanding of how you can achieve the objectives of active, student-centered learning in your management course. In addition, the Prentice Hall Web site for our book (www.prenhall.com/whetten) contains a number of additional support tools that are worth exploring.

Organization of the Material

The purpose of this book is to help practicing managers and management students develop the skills necessary to cultivate and implement good ideas in organizations. Based on years of research and personal observation of effective managers, we have identified nine fundamental management skills, organized into three categories. Each chapter in this book addresses one of these skills.

  • Personal
    Developing Self-Awareness
    Managing Personal Stress
    Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively
  • Interpersonal
    Coaching, Counseling, and Supportive Communication
    Gaining Power and Influence
    Motivating Others
    Managing Conflict
  • Group Skills
    Empowering and Delegating
    Building Effective Teams and Teamwork

In addition to these core skills chapters, we have included three "supplements" focusing on specific, applied communications skills: "Making Written and Oral Presentations," "Conducting Interviews," and "Conducting Meetings."

The shift from learning management principles to developing management skills requires an associated shift in learning objectives. The goal of purely cognitive or content-oriented learning is understanding. In contrast, the goal of skill development is application. The goal of "changing my mind" is replaced with the goal of "changing my behavior." This qualitative shift in learning objectives requires an entirely new system of learning—one that focuses less on facilitating comprehension and more on enabling change. As noted in the following table, there is a close parallel between the five step learning model used to organize the skill development process in each chapter and the widely-recognized requirements for sustainable behavioral change.

Requirements for Change
Accept the need to change
Understand what/how to change
Commit to and practice/pilot change
Apply and monitor change

Skill Development Steps
Skill Assessment
Skill Learning and Skill Analysis
Skill Practice
Skill Application

Objectives for this Edition

Our primary objectives in preparing this edition were to (1) bring a stronger multi-cultural perspective to the skill development process; (2) streamline and simplify the conceptual material throughout the book and significantly alter the approach used in a couple of chapters; (3) update examples, cases, and exercises; (4) continue improving the quality of the accompanying Instructor's Manual; and (4) make available new supplemental teaching materials. We are confident that adopters familiar with previous editions will recognize improvements in these areas. The following are some highlights of the changes you will notice in this edition:

  • Added a multi-cultural perspective - In the Self Awareness chapter we included a new section on cultural values. This theme is continued throughout the book. We believe this additional perspective will enrich classroom discussions and improve actual skill practice.
  • Improved the organization of the conceptual material - Although the basic framework in each chapter has not been substantially altered, the presentation of the supporting material has been modified in several chapters. In addition, the Team Building chapter and the Conducting Meetings supplement have been substantially revised.
  • Updated examples, cases, and exercises - This is a continuous process, from edition to edition, punctuated with a few major changes in this edition. For example, we replaced the DeLorean case in the Power and Influence chapter and we added the Kolb Learning Style Inventory to the Self Awareness chapter.
  • Upgraded the Instructor's Manual
  • Added new supplements

Supplements

To augment the improvements in the text, the supplements have been revised and improved as well. The available supplements include:

  • Instructor's Manual - This revised manual features the following components:
    • Extensive overview of course philosophy
    • Section on organizing and designing a skill-building course
    • Sample course outlines and general guidelines for teaching the course
    • Suggestions for conducting role plays
    • Several new application exercises and activities for each chapter in the text
  • Test Item File - Features a variety of multiple-choice, scenario/application, and essay questions for each chapter and includes levels of difficulty and section headings for easy reference.
  • Instructor's Resource CD-ROM with electronic Instructor's Manual, Win/PH Test Manager, and PowerPoint Electronic Transparencies - Containing all of the questions in the printed Test Item File, Test Manager allows educators to create and distribute tests for their courses easily, either by printing and distributing through traditional methods or by online delivery via a Local Area Network (LAN) server. The PowerPoint transparencies, a comprehensive package of text outlines and figures corresponding to the text, are designed to aid the educator and supplement in-class lectures.
  • Overhead Color Transparencies - Approximately 100 of the most critical PowerPoint electronic transparencies are chosen for inclusion in this package as full-color acetates and are provided on high quality Mylar.
  • New Part-Ending Skills Video Segments - These new segments, featuring key Management Skills topics, focus on a fictional Internet company. Each segment offers a scenario with two options, from which students select and evaluate their choices.
  • myPHLIP Web site - The new myPHLIP provides professors with a customized course Web site including new communication tools, one-click navigation of chapter content, and great PHLIP resources such as Current Events and Internet Exercises. It also features an online Study Guide for students.
  • Student Skills Guide - This Guide allows students to both tailor what they learn to their own needs and be more productive in the learning process. Updated from the fourth edition Self-Directed Manual, it is available in both print and electronic version.
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