Pub. Date:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology: A Practical Engineering Guide / Edition 3

Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology: A Practical Engineering Guide / Edition 3

by Walter Fischer
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"Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology – A Practical Engineering Guide" deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring techniques and of measuring practice, in each case consolidating the knowledge imparted with numerous practical examples. This book is directed primarily at the specialist working in the field, on transmitters and transmission equipment, network planning, studio technology, playout centers and multiplex center technology and in the development departments for entertainment electronics or TV test engineering. Since the intire field of electrical communications technology is traversed in a wide arc, those who are students in this field are not excluded either.
The third edition of this well established reference work includes the new formats MPEG-4 und IPTV, and it already gives an outlook to the newest standards like DVB-SH and DVB-T2.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642261756
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/25/2012
Series: Signals and Communication Technology
Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 3rd ed. 2010
Pages: 800
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.80(d)

About the Author

Walter Fischer, Dipl.Ing.(FH), born 2.6.1961, Studies of Electrical Engineering 1979-83, diploma thesis in technique of TV measurement at Prof. Mäusl, FH München. Since 1985 employed at Rohde&Schwarz Munich. Until 1999 in the area of development of technique of TV measurement. Since 1999 coach at Rohde&Schwarz Training Center Munich for the sector analog and digital technique of TV. Numerous seminars in the field of DVB world wide (more than 3000 participants).

Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Analog Television     7
Scanning an Original Black/White Picture     10
Horizontal and Vertical Synchronization Pulses     12
Adding the Color Information     14
Transmission Methods     17
Distortion and Interference     18
Signals in the Vertical Blanking Interval     20
Measurements on Analog Video Signals     24
The MPEG Data Stream     31
The Packetized Elementary Stream (PES)     35
The MPEG-2 Transport Stream Packet     38
Information for the Receiver     42
Synchronizing to the Transport Stream     43
Reading out the Current Program Structure     44
Accessing a Program     46
Accessing Scrambled Programs     46
Program Synchronisation (PCR, DTS, PTS)     48
Additional Information in the Transport Stream (SI/PSI/PSIP)     51
Non-Private and Private Sections and Tables     52
The Service Information according to DVB (SI)     60
The PSIP according to the ATSC     73
ARIB Tables according to ISDB-T     76
DMB-T (China) Tables     78
Other Important Details of the MPEG-2 Transport Stream     78
The Transport Priority     78
The Transport Scrambling Control Bits     79
The Adaptation Field Control Bits     79
The Continuity Counter     80
Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601)     81
High Definition Television - HDTV     87
Transforms to and from the Frequency Domain     91
The Fourier Transform     93
The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)     95
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)     97
Implementation and Practical Applications of DFT and FFT     99
The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)     100
Time Domain Signals and their Transforms in the Frequenc Domain     102
Systematic Errors in DFT or FFT, and How to Prevent them     104
Window Functions     107
MPEG-2 Video Coding     109
Video Compression     109
Reducing the Quantization from 10 Bits to 8     111
Omitting the Horizontal and Vertical Blanking Intervals     111
Reduction in Vertical Color Resolution (4:2:0)     112
Further Data Reduction Steps     113
Differential Pulse Code Modulation of Moving Pictures     114
Discrete Cosine Transform Followed by Quantization      119
Zig-Zag Scanning with Run-Length Coding of Zero Sequences     127
Huffman Coding     127
Summary     128
Structure of the Video Elementary Stream     132
More Recent Video Compression Methods     133
MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding     134
Compression of Audio Signals to MPEG and Dolby Digital     143
Digital Audio Source Signal     143
History of Audio Coding     144
Psychoacoustic Model of the Human Ear     147
Basic Principles of Audio Coding     151
Subband Coding in Accordance with MPEG Layer I, II     153
Transform Coding for MPEG Layer III and Dolby Digital     155
Multichannel Sound     157
Teletext, Subtitles and VPS for DVB     159
Teletext and Subtitles     159
Video Program System     163
A Comparison of Digital Video Standards     167
MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, VCD and DVD, M-JPEG and MiniDV/DV     167
MPEG-3, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and MPEG-21     170
Physical Interfaces for Digital Video Signals     174
Parallel and Serial CCIR 601     174
Synchronous Parallel Transport Stream Interface (TS Parallel)     176
Asynchronous Serial Transport Stream Interface (TS ASI)     177
Measurements on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream     179
Loss of Synchronisation (TS_sync_loss)     181
Errored Sync Bytes (sync_byte_error)     182
Missing or Errored Program Association Table (PAT) (PAT_error)     182
Missing or Errored Program Map Table (PMT) (PMT_error)     183
The PID_Error     184
The Continuity_Count_Error     185
The Transport_Error (Priority 2)     186
The Cyclic Redundancy Check Error     187
The Program Clock Reference Error (PCR_Error, PCR_Accuracy)     187
The Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS_Error)     189
The Conditional Access Table Error (CAT_Error)     190
Service Information Repetition Rate Error (SI_Repetition_Error)     191
Monitoring the NIT, SDT, EIT, RST and TDT/TOT Tables     192
Undefined PIDs (Unreferenced_PID)     192
Errors in the Transmission of Additional Service Information     193
Faulty tables NIT_other_error, SDT_other_error, EIT_other_error     194
Monitoring an ATSC-Compliant MPEG-2 Transport Stream     194
Picture Quality Analysis of Digital TV Signals     197
Methods for Measuring Video Quality     199
Subjective Picture Quality Analysis      200
Double Stimulus Continual Quality Scale Method DSCQS     201
Single Stimulus Continual Quality Evaluation Method SSCQE     201
Objective Picture Quality Analysis     201
Basic Principles of Digital Modulation     209
Introduction     209
Mixer     211
Amplitude Modulator     213
IQ Modulator     215
The IQ Demodulator     223
Use of the Hilbert transform in IQ modulation     228
Practical Applications of the Hilbert Transform     230
Channel Coding/Forward Error Correction     232
Transmitting Digital Television Signals by Satellite - DVB-S/S2     237
The DVB-S System Parameters     240
The DVB-S Modulator     242
Convolutional Coding     248
Signal Processing in the Satellite     253
The DVB-S Receiver     254
Influences Affecting the Satellite Transmission Link     257
DVB-S2     261
DVB-S Measuring Technology     269
Introduction     269
Measuring Bit Error Ratios     269
Measurements on DVB-S Signals using a Spectrum Analyzer     272
Approximate Determination of the Noise Power N      273
C/N, S/N and Eb/N[subscript 0]     274
Finding the E[subscript B]/N[subscript 0] Ratio     275
Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation     276
DVB-S Receiver Test     276
Broadband Cable Transmission According to DVB-C     279
The DVB-C Standard     280
The DVB-C Modulator     282
The DVB-C Receiver     283
Interference Effects on the DVB-C Transmission Link     284
Broadband Cable Transmission According to ITU-T J83B     289
Measuring Digital TV Signals in the Broadband Cable     291
DVB-C/J83A, B, C Test Receivers with Constellation Analysis     292
Detecting Interference Effects Using Constellation Analysis     296
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)     296
Phase Jitter     299
Sinusoidal Interferer     300
Effects of the I/Q Modulator     300
Modulation Error Ratio (MER)     303
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)     305
Measuring the Bit Error Ratio (BER)     305
Using a Spectrum Analyzer for Measuring DVB-C Signals     306
Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation     308
Measuring the Ripple or Tilt in the Channel     309
DVB-C/J83A,B,C Receiver Test      309
Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM)     311
Why Multi-Carrier?     313
What is COFDM?     316
Generating the COFDM Symbols     320
Supplementary Signals in the COFDM Spectrum     329
Hierarchical Modulation     332
Summary     332
Terrestrial Transmission of Digital Television Signals (DVB-T)     333
The DVB-T Standard     335
The DVB-T Carriers     337
Hierarchical Modulation     343
DVB-T System Parameters of the 8/7/6 MHz Channel     345
The DVB-T Modulator and Transmitter     354
The DVB-T Receiver     357
Interference on the DVB-T Transmission Link and its Effects     362
DVB-T Single-Frequency Networks (SFN)     370
Minimum Receiver Input Level Required with DVB-T     378
Measuring DVB-T Signals     385
Measuring the Bit Error Ratio     387
Measuring DVB-T Signals Using a Spectrum Analyzer     389
Constellation Analysis of DVB-T Signals     393
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)     394
Phase Jitter     394
Interference Sources     394
Echoes, Multipath Reception      395
Doppler Effect     395
I/Q Errors of the Modulator     395
Cause and Effect of I/Q Errors in DVB-T     399
Measuring the Crest Factor     408
Measuring the Amplitude, Phase and Group Delay Response     408
Measuring the Impulse Response     409
Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation     410
DVB-H - Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds     415
Introduction     415
Convergence between Mobile Radio and Broadcasting     417
Essential Parameters of DVB-H     418
DSM-CC Sections     419
Multiprotocol Encapsulation     421
DVB-H Standard     422
Summary     426
Digital Terrestrial TV to North American ATSC Standard     429
The 8VSB Modulator     434
8VSB Gross Data Rate and Net Data Rate     442
The ATSC Receiver     444
Causes of Interference on the ATSC Transmission Path     444
ATSC/8VSB Measurements     447
Bit Error Ratio (BER) Measurement     447
8VSB Measurements Using a Spectrum Analyzer     448
Constellation Analysis on 8VSB Signals     449
Measuring Amplitude Response and Group Delay Response      452
Digital Terrestrial Television according to ISDB-T     455
Introduction     455
ISDB-T Concept     456
Digital Audio Broadcasting - DAB     459
Comparing DAB and DVB     461
An Overview of DAB     464
The Physical Layer of DAB     469
DAB - Forward Error Correction     478
DAB Modulator and Transmitter     483
DAB Data Structure     487
DAB Single-Frequency Networks     492
DAB Data Broadcasting     494
DVB Data Services: MHP and SSU     497
Data Broadcasting in DVB     498
Object Carousels     499
The Multimedia Home Platform MHP     501
System Software Update SSU     503
DMB-T and T-DMB     505
DMB-T     505
T-DMB     508
IPTV - Television over the Internet     511
DRM - Digital Radio Mondiale     513
Audio source encoding     517
Forward Error Correction     517
Modulation Method     518
Frame structure     519
Interference on the transmission link     520
DRM data rates     521
DRM transmitting stations and DRM receivers     522
Structure of DTV Networks and Transmitting Stations     523
The DVB-T SFNs Southern and Eastern Bavaria     523
Playout Center and Feed Networks     527
Technical Configuration of the Transmitter Sites     527
Mount Wendelstein Transmitter     528
Olympic Tower Transmitter, Munich     537
Brotjacklriegel Transmitter     539
Digital Television throughout the World - an Overview     543
Bibliography     547
Definition of Terms     553
TV Channel Tables     567
Index     573

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