Federal disaster policy is an important but overlooked aspect of federal action that has provided a rich arena for pursuing our more general research interests concerning federal program implementation and management. May brought to the research task both a familiarity with the broad issues of federal disaster policy-having recently completed a book (May, 1985) about disaster relief policy and politics-and an understanding of the day-to-day workings of emergency management at the federal level. Williams provided the "imple mentation perspective" that undergirds the book, having previously devel oped and applied the perspective in two books (Williams, 1980a, b) about social programs. The study focuses upon the intergovernmental implementation of selected emergency management programs, primarily as played out at the federal and state levels. Our fieldwork and resultant description of disaster policy implementation allow us: (I) to analyze the implementation of selected aspects of disaster policy and to discuss federal management choices in this area; (2) to gain a greater understanding of federal program implementation under "shared governance"-a term we develop more fully in the book in referring to programs under which the federal and subnational governments share responsibility for program funding and management; and (3) to con sider the relevance of the lessons of earlier social program implementation research to a very different policy setting. Many individuals assisted us with this research. Our greatest debt is to those federal and state officials who took time from their busy schedules to offer their implementation perspectives about emergency management.
Table of Contents1 Disaster Policy in Perspective.- Disaster Policy Dilemmas.- Shared Governance of Disaster Policy.- The Implementation Perspective.- Federal Management of Shared Governance.- A Quick Look Ahead.- I Implementation Issues and Disaster Policy.- 2 Intergovernmental Implementation.- Shared Governance.- Intergovernmental Program Implemention.- Shared Governance and Program Management.- 3 The Organizational Context.- Recasting the Organizational Structure.- The Birth of FEMA: A New Agency of Old Fiefdoms.- Reassessing Reorganization.- 4 Case Study Design.- Disaster Policy and Shared Governance.- Methodological Notes.- Overview of the Analysis.- II Intergovernmental Implementation of Disaster Policies.- 5 Floodplain Regulation.- The Federal Policy and Organizational Context.- Establishing a State Role.- Analyzing State-Level Variation in Floodplain Management.- Shared Governance and Floodplain Regulation.- 6 Dam Safety Mobilization.- The Federal Policy Context.- Mobilizing State Dam Safety Efforts.- Shared Governance and Dam Safety.- 7 Earthquake Preparedness Collaboration.- The Federal Policy and Organizational Context.- Federal and State Collaboration.- Shared Governance and Collaboration.- 8 Crisis Relocation Planning: Degenerative Collaboration.- The Federal Policy Context.- CRP Collaboration and Degeneration.- Responding to Resistance from Below.- Shared Governance and Degenerative Collaboration.- III Considering Federal Management Issues.- 9 Contrasting Implementation Experiences.- Contrasting Modes of Shared Governance.- Considering Program Specifics.- State Innovations.- Shared Governance and Program Management.- 10 Management Strategies for Disaster Policies.- Considering the Context.- FEMA’s Search for a Strategy.- Considering Management Choices.- Designing Future Management Strategies.- 11 Implementation Research Revisited.- Reassessing Implementation Propositions.- Concluding Observations.- References.- Appendix: List of Interviews.