Implement effective assessment strategies in the classroom by:
- Reviewing the five key strategies of formative assessment in the classroom.
- Learning more than 50 practical techniques for classroom formative assessment.
- Examining research that states classroom formative assessment is the most impactful and cost-effective approach to raising student academic achievement.
- Exploring the use of classroom questioning, learning intentions and success criteria, feedback, collaborative and cooperative learning, and self-regulated learning to engineer effective learning environments.
- Discovering new insights into the current states of education and employment, and a discussion of how these changes affect student performance and teacher practice.
Changes for the Second Edition:
- Over 30 percent new content including new research, techniques, examples, and templates
- New insights into the current state of education and how these changes affect student performance and teacher practice
- A deeper discussion of educational neuroscience, including memory studies and dual-pathway theory
Chapter 1: Discovering Why Educational Achievement Matters
Chapter 2: Making the Case for Formative Assessment
Chapter 3: Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions and Success Criteria
Chapter 4: Eliciting Evidence of Learners' Achievement
Chapter 5: Providing Feedback That Moves Learning Forward
Chapter 6: Activating Students as Instructional Resources for One Another
Chapter 7: Activating Students as Owners of Their Own Learning
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Table of Contents
About the Author ix
Chapter 1 Why Educational Achievement Matters 5
The Increasing Importance of Educational Achievement 5
The Difficulties of Raising Student Achievement 8
Three Generations of School Effectiveness Research 15
The Impact of Teacher Quality 17
Ways to Increase Teacher Quality 22
Chapter 2 The Case for Formative Assessment 27
The Importance of Professional Development 27
The Origins of Formative Assessment 35
Definitions of Formative Assessment 39
Strategies of Formative Assessment 51
Assessment: The Bridge Between Teaching and Learning 52
Chapter 3 Clarifying, Sharing, and Understanding Learning Intentions and Success Criteria 57
The Importance of Learning Intentions 57
When to Use Learning Intentions 61
Issues in Constructing Learning Intentions and Success Criteria 67
The Case for and Against Rubrics 71
Practical Techniques 74
Chapter 4 Eliciting Evidence of Learning 83
Finding Out What Students Know 83
Discovering Where Students' Ideas Come From 85
Practical Techniques 90
Chapter 5 Providing Feedback That Moves Learning Forward 123
The Quality of Feedback 123
Feedback as a Recipe for Future Action 139
Practical Techniques 142
Chapter 6 Activating Learners as Instructional Resources for One Another 155
Effective Cooperative Learning 156
Practical Techniques 160
Chapter 7 Activating Learners as Owners of Their Own Learning 169
Student Self-Assessment 170
Self-Regulated Learning 174
Practical Techniques 180
Appendix: List of Techniques 191
References and Resources 195
What People are Saying About This
"Dylan Wiliam's latest work seamlessly weaves research with practicality, big ideas with accessible classroom examples, and grassroots movements with global trends. Wiliam is refreshingly honest in his analysis of what most impacts learning, and he leaves the reader more convinced than ever that assessment does indeed form the bridge between teaching and learning."
Myron Dueck, author and vice principal, Summerland Secondary School, Summerland, British Columbia
"In Embedded Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam uses theory and evidence to explain how the detailed strategies of formative assessment work to increase student engagement and learning. In so doing, he helps teachers gain a deep understanding of this powerful means for improving their practice."
Lorrie A. Shepard, distinguished professor, University of Colorado-Boulder
"Embedded Formative Assessment, second edition, furnishes key formative assessment processes boiled down to easy-to-implement procedures that result in increased student success. Wiliam provides an excellent balance between research and practice. His examples and implementation recommendations provide a clear path to successful classroom experiences."
Eileen Depka, author, Formative Assessment in the RTI Framework
"By comparing the failures of recent school-improvement efforts to the successes of pedagogies that include the five key strategies of formative assessment, Dylan Wiliam makes a compelling case for using formative assessment to improve the quality of teaching and increase student achievement. He demonstrates that improving teaching in this way is entirely feasible by introducing over seventy classroom-tested and research-based formative assessment techniques that can be implemented without extra resources. Every teacher, school leader, and educational researcher should read this book."
Heidi Andrade, associate professor, School of Education, University at Albany, State University of New York