Migration has become a central issue in a heated political and media debate in Britain and throughout Europe. But the issues have often become confused and mythologised. This report seeks to contribute to a more mature public debate - and to more effective and just policy responses - through an in-depth study of the forces driving migration, and the strategies which seek to govern it."Exploding the Migration Myths" draws upon a year-long Fabian Society and Oxfam joint research project into the causes and consequences of migration. It looks in detail at the experience of migrants from Albania, the poorest country in Europe, their experience in the UK, and the impact on their home country, from remittances to the loss of human capital. By speaking to migrants themselves, whose voices are usually missing from this debate, the report identifies the real reasons behind migration and what drives those who undertake it. The report seeks a more holistic approach, linking development policy with domestic policies on entry and integration.The report makes a number of policy recommendations, arguing that the choice between allowing or stopping migration is a false one. Migration is a fact, which is affecting all countries in the developed and developing worlds. The real choices are in how we govern migration. "Exploding the Migration Myths" argues that either we create paths to legal migration, for unskilled as well as skilled workers, or migration will remain illegal, often controlled by transnational criminal gangs. As the report shows, migration can potentially benefit both the host societies and countries of origin. But an approach that seeks to maximise the benefits and to control the costs of migration depends centrally on how we choose to govern it.Accessible and though-provoking, "Exploding the Migration Myths" will be an invaluable resource for policy makers, researchers, and the general reader with an interest in migration and development.
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements A note on currencies EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Trends in international migration Albania and the EU context EU and UK policies on migration and the rights of migrants Albanian migration: a route out of poverty and a strategy for development? 2 EXPERIENCE OF ALBANIAN MIGRANTS IN THE UK: Migrant profiles: origins, reasons for migration, routes to the UK Work and self-improvement Access to social services and levels of integration and discrimination Remittance behaviour and gender roles 3 THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON HOUSEHOLDS IN ALBANIA: Regional settings and migration histories Migration as a route out of poverty in the mountainous North The interlocking of international and internal migration: the peri-urban spaces of Tirana and Durrës Receiving and managing remittances Use and impact of remittances Returning migrants, reintegration and business development 4 MIGRATION AND ITS LINK TO POVERTY: Migration, poverty and development: revisiting the debate in the light of the Albanian evidence Policy recommendations Boxes Tables Figures