Extra Dimensions in Space and Time / Edition 1

Extra Dimensions in Space and Time / Edition 1

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Springer New York

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Extra Dimensions in Space and Time / Edition 1

In physics, the idea of extra spatial dimensions originates from Nordstöm’s 5-dimensional vector theory in 1914, followed by Kaluza-Klein theory in 1921, in an effort to unify general relativity and electromagnetism in a 5 dimensional space-time (4 dimensions for space and 1 for time). Kaluza–Klein theory didn’t generate enough interest with physicist for the next five decades, due to its problems with inconsistencies. With the advent of supergravity theory (the theory that unifies general relativity and supersymmetry theories) in late 1970’s and eventually, string theories (1980s) and M-theory (1990s), the dimensions of space-time increased to 11 (10-space and 1-time dimension).

There are two main features in this book that differentiates it from other books written about extra dimensions: The first feature is the coverage of extra dimensions in time (Two Time physics), which has not been covered in earlier books about extra dimensions. All other books mainly cover extra spatial dimensions. The second feature deals with level of presentation. The material is presented in a non-technical language followed by additional sections (in the form of appendices or footnotes) that explain the basic equations and formulas in the theories. This feature is very attractive to readers who want to find out more about the theories involved beyond the basic description for a layperson. The text is designed for scientifically literate non-specialists who want to know the latest discoveries in theoretical physics in a non-technical language. Readers with basic undergraduate background in modern physics and quantum mechanics can easily understand the technical sections.

Part I starts with an overview of the Standard Model of particles and forces, notions of Einstein’s special and general relativity, and the overall view of the universe from the Big Bang to the present epoch, and covers Two-Time physics. 2T-physics has worked correctly at all scales of physics, both macroscopic and microscopic, for which there is experimental data so far. In addition to revealing hidden information even in familiar "everyday" physics, it also makes testable predictions in lesser known physics regimes that could be analyzed at the energy scales of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or in cosmological observations."

Part II of the book is focused on extra dimensions of space. It covers the following topics: The Popular View of Extra Dimensions, Einstein and the Fourth Dimension, Traditional Extra Dimensions, Einstein's Gravity, The Theory Formerly Known as String, Warped Extra Dimensions, and How Do We Look For Extra Dimensions?

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387776378
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 12/15/2009
Series: Multiversal Journeys Series
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 218
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Part I Two-Time Physics: The Unified View from Higher Dimensional Space and Time Itzhak Bars

1 A First Look at the Known Universe 7

2 Structure of Matter and Fundamental Forces 13

2.1 The Fundamentals at Subatomic Distances 13

2.2 Large Distances and Cosmology 21

3 What Is Space-Time? 29

3.1 Einstein's Relativistic View of Space-Time 33

3.2 Equivalence Principle, Symmetry, and General Relativity 38

4 Symmetry and Perspective 43

5 Why Higher Space or Time Dimensions? 47

5.1 Extra Space Dimensions 49

5.2 A Matter of Perspective in 2T Space-time 51

5.3 Why Two Times 54

5.4 The Shadows Allegory 56

6 The Role of Extra Space Dimensions in String Theory 59

7 Two-Time Physics 67

7.1 Historical Path to the Sp(2, R) Symmetry 67

7.2 Indistinguishable Position and Momentum and Sp(2, R) 72

7.3 How Does It Work? 75

7.3.1 Informal Discussion 77

7.3.2 Formal Discussion 78

7.4 Examples of Shadows and Hidden Information 81

8 Evidence of 4 + 2 as Subtle Effects in 3 + 1 Dimensions 89

8.1 H-Atom 89

8.2 The Fourth Space Dimension in Celestial Mechanics 95

9 Fundamental Universe as a Shadow from 4 + 2 Dimensions 99

9.1 The Standard Model as a 2T-Field Theory 101

9.2 2T-Gravity in 4 + 2 Dimensions 104

9.3 Dilaton-Driven Cosmic Phase Transitions 106

9.4 Electroweak Phase Transition 109

10 Current Status of 2T-Physics and Future Directions 113

11 Further Reading 123

References 123

Part II Extra Dimensions of Space John Terning

12 The Popular View of Extra Dimensions 129

12.1 Einstein and the Fourth Dimension 130

12.2 Traditional Extra Dimensions 141

12.3 Einstein's Gravity 146

12.4 The Theory Formerly Known as String 149

12.5 Warped Extra Dimensions 154

12.6 How Do We Look for Extra Dimensions? 158

12.7 Epilogue 165

References 165

13 Extra Material: The Equations Behind the Words 167

13.1 Units and Coordinates 167

13.2 Einstein and the Fourth Dimension 169

13.3 Quantum Mechanics 178

13.4 Traditional Extra Dimensions 182

13.5 Einstein's Gravity 185

13.6 The Theory Formerly Known as String 190

13.7 Warped Extra Dimensions 197

13.8 The Maxwell Equations 201

13.9 How Do We Look for Extra Dimensions? 208

About the Authors 211

Index 213

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