An easy to follow, quick reference introductory guide for beginning professionals and students in filmmaking and postproduction. It explains all film laboratory procedures in the context of the wide range of technology that is used by filmmakers, explaining what happens and why at every stage. A technical understanding of film processing and printing, telecine and laboratory and digital processes will help you get the best results for your film. The book is particularly useful for those who have come to film making from other media - video or digital.
The book is based on the author's own experience as a lab technician and technical film consultant and provides answers to many frequently asked questions. The different pathways for film production and postproduction are demonstrated as well as the function of the lab at each stage of the process. The complete range of services is offered, with particular emphasis on the often confusing requirements for super 16 and the blow up to 35mm, the intricacies of negative cutting to match a non-linear edit and the process of grading and regrading for the answer print.
This new edition includes:
* An update on all digital formats of image and sound
* Revision sections on Super 16, Super 35
* Additional information on syncing rushes at telecine and to digital images
* The latest telecine machines
* A new, clear and simple glossary
Table of Contents
Film Technology in Context; Origins of Film and Video; Film and Video: the differences; Film Versus Video-or Film with Video; Digital Film; Post Production Pathways; Film Versus Video Production; Traditional Sprocket Edit, Film Finish; Non-Linear Edit, Film Finish; Non-Linear Edit, Video Finish; Supervision; Lab Estimates; Insurance, Liability, Troubleshooting Tests; Film Stock; 35mm Film; 16mm Film; Types of Colour Film Stock; Black and White Film Stocks; Film Processing; Additive and Subtractive Colour; Colour Specification and Perception; The Photographic Emulsion; Film Emulsion Layers; Developing the Image; The Processing Sequence; Process Control Standards; Units of Density; Gamma; Contrast and Latitude; Graininess; Black and White Negative; Pushing and Flashing; Cross-Processing; Bleach Bypass (Negative); Alternative Styles of Print; Film Printing; The Film Printing Machine; Colour Correction in Printers; Film Grading Techniques; Film Grading for Answer Print; Lad Exposure and Grading Line-up; Film Cleaning; Clean-up Processes; Wet Gate Printing; Work Prints: Negative Reports; Work Prints; Selecting and Screening; Technical Problems at Rushes; Negative Matching; Keykodes; Negative Cutting; Preparing for Negative Cutting; Cutting to an EDL; Extracting Select Negative; Splices; A- and B- Rolls; Laboratory Processes; Duplication; Emulsion Geometry; Super 16: Special Considerations; Making the Blow-Up(1); Making the Blow Up(2); Super 35; Other Film Formats; Frameline Masking; Optical Effects Printers; Optical Effects; Rostrum Camera; Titles; Printing from Black and White; Mixing Black and White and Colour Footage; Archival and Stock Footage; Trailers; Sound Transfer, Edit, Mix, Sync; The Final Mix; The Optical Sound Negative and Print; Analogue Soundtrack Prints; Syncing Picture and Sound Negatives; Analogue Soundtrack Quality; Digital Soundtracks; Grading, Answer Print, Release Prints; The Answer Print; Release Prints; The Film Projector; Release Prints in Use; Film Storage and Preservation; Archival Restoration; Telecine Transfers; Telecine Machines (1); Telecine Machines (2); Which Format: Tape or Disk?; Film and Video Frame Rates; Video Transfers: Hybrid Frames; Matching Film and Video Frame Counts; Timecode; Logging Keykodes and Timecodes (1); Logging Keykodes and Timecodes (2); Synchronizing Rushes (1); Synchronizing Rushes (2); Film for Telecine Transfer; Grading on Telecine: Rushes Transfers; Grading on Telecine: Masters; Masking for TV; Digital Television and Widescreen; Digital Processes; Digital Resolution; Digital Origination; Scanning and Recording; Calibrating the Film Recorder; Digital Grading; Digital Effects for Film; Kine Transfers: Video to Film; Digital Cinema; Glossary and Index.