From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory provides a comprehensive and systematic account of the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries—along with contemporary and emerging outlooks—to address the essential questions of political theory.
- Explores the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries while making clear distinctions for the reader between often-confused interpretations of ideologies
- Engaging 'reader friendly' style will appeal to students and facilitate sophisticated discussions
- Develops and defends pluralism as a broad public policy that is accepted by diverse political groups
- Supported by a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and other helpful student and instructor resources at www.blackwellpublishing.com/schumaker
|Product dimensions:||7.10(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.32(d)|
Table of Contents
1. Constructing Our Public Philosophies.
Public Philosophies and Political Ideologies.
Searching for an Underlying Consensus Within Pluralism.
Ideas Beyond the Underlying Consensus of Pluralism.
Part I: Participants in our Political Conversations.
2. Voices from the Major Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century.
Classical Liberalism: Building Democratic Capitalism.
Traditional Conservatism: Defending the Old Social Order.
Anarchism: Rebelling Against Authority.
Marxism: Pursuing a Classless Society.
3. Prominent Totalitarian and Pluralist Voices of the Twentieth Century.
Communism: Fighting Imperialism in Developing Societies.
Fascism and Nazism: Totalitarian Control to Strengthen the Collective.
Contemporary Liberalism: Reforming Capitalism and Democracy.
Contemporary Conservatism: Opposing Liberal and Socialist Programs.
4. Radical and Extremist Voices in Contemporary Politics.
The Radical Left: Seeking More Egalitarian and Communal Societies.
The Radical Right: Seeking More Economic Freedom or Moral Consensus.
The Extreme Right: Returning to More Homogeneous Societies.
The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Global Neoliberalism.
Part II: Philosophical Assumptions: Their Importance as Foundations for Political Principles.
5. Questions of Ontology.
Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing “The Great Chain of Being”.
Classical Liberals: Deism, Naturalism and Materialism.
Anarchists: Natural Interconnections, Ideas, and Conflicts.
Marxists: Economic Determinism.
Communists: Revising Dialectical Materialism.
Fascists and Nazis: Heroic Will and Racial Struggle.
Contemporary Liberals: Deemphasizing Ontology and Embracing Contingency.
Contemporary Conservatives: Accepting the World As It Is.
The Radical Right: Refuting Charges of Economic and Divine Determination.
The Extreme Right: Expecting a Divine Apocalypse.
The Radical Left: Tempering Material Forces with Socialist Ideals.
The Extreme Left: Releasing Human Imagination, Constrained by Ecological Limits.
6. Questions of Human Nature.
Classical Liberals: Humans as Equal and Rational Pursuers of Happiness.
Traditional Conservatives: Defining Humans by their Places in Society.
Anarchists: Seeing Human Altruism as Hindered by Conventional Institutions.
Marxists: Conceiving Humans as Creative Laborers.
Communists: Creating a “New Man”.
Fascists and Nazis: Energizing the Will of “the Herd”.
Contemporary Liberals: Fostering Autonomy, Reason, and Moral Development.
The Radical Left: Stressing our Common Humanity and Individual Differences.
Contemporary Conservatives: Accepting Human Imperfection.
The Radical Right: Embedding Humans in Free Markets and/or Moral Communities.
The Extreme Right: Regarding Humans as either Good or Evil.
The Extreme Left: Rejecting an Essential Human Nature.
7. Questions of Society.
Classical Liberals: Individuals Seeking Mutual Benefits Through a Social Contract.
Traditional Conservatives: Organic Societies that Come Before Individuals.
Anarchists: Natural Societies Built on Friendship.
Marxists: Transforming Class-Based Societies into Classless Ones.
Communists: Non-Proletarian Contributions to a Classless Society.
Fascists and Nazis: Defining Societies in Nationalist and Racist Terms.
Contemporary Liberals: Promoting Social Pluralism.
Contemporary Conservatives: Seeing Society as a Delicate Watch.
The Radical Right: Holding either Libertarian or Communitarian Visions of Society.
The Radical Left: Searching for More Communal and Egalitarian Societies.
The Extreme Right: Seeking Homogeneous Societies.
The Extreme Left: Longing for Societies of “Singularities Pursuing the Common”.
8. Questions of Epistemology.
Classical Liberals: Moving from Natural Rights to Utilitarianism.
Traditional Conservatives: Doubting Reason, Stressing Conventional Wisdom.
Anarchists: Depending on a Vision of Human and Social Possibility.
Marxists: A Science Showing the Inevitability, not the Goodness, of Communism.
Communists: Generating Truths from Authoritative Readings of Marx.
Fascists and Nazis: Finding Absolute Truth in the Intuitions of a Political Leader.
Contemporary Liberals: Emphasizing Pragmatism.
Contemporary Conservatives: Using a Social Science of Political Failure.
The Radical Right: Finding Meaning in Tradition and Truth through Science.
The Radical Left: Emphasizing Political Rationality.
The Extreme Right: Finding Truth in Authoritative Texts and Leaders.
The Extreme Left: Contesting and Deconstructing all Truths.
Part III: The Great Issues of Politics: Consensual and Contested Principles.
9. Questions of Community.
Classical Liberals: Presupposing the Primacy Of Nations.
Traditional Conservatives: Patriots Lacking Nationalist Fervor.
Anarchists: Rejecting Conventional Communities While Seeking Natural Ones.
Marxists: Identifying with the Working Class and Eventually Humanity.
Communists: Fighting Imperialism Through Nationalist Appeals.
Fascists and Nazis: Embracing a Unified Nation and an Aryan State.
Contemporary Liberals: Nations Built on Individual and Group Differences.
Contemporary Conservatives: Seeking Moral, but not Communitarian, Countries.
The Radical Right: Competing Global, National, and Sub-National Loyalties.
The Radical Left: Pursuing Solidarity among Diverse People in Many Polities.
The Extreme Right: Rejecting Multiple Community Identities.
The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Current Identities.
10. Questions of Citizenship.
Classical Liberals: Curbing Citizenship, Providing Limited Rights and Obligations.
Traditional Conservatives: Stressing Loyalty and Obedience to Authorities.
Anarchists: Comrades Without Political Obligations.
Marxists: Transforming Alienated Workers into Public-Spirited Comrades.
Communists: Transforming Oppressed People into Obedient Revolutionaries.
Fascists and Nazis: Mobilizing Dutiful Citizens for Purposes of State.
Contemporary Liberals: Pursuing Inclusion and Expanding Rights.
Contemporary Conservatives: Developing More Responsible Citizens.
The Radical Right: Privileging Property Rights and Instilling Virtue.
The Radical Left: Embracing Multiple and Deep Citizenships.
The Extreme Right: Restricting Citizenship.
The Extreme Left: Changing Passive Citizens into Contentious Ones.
11. Questions of Structure.
Classical Liberals: Designing Free Markets and Representative Democracies.
Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing Civil Society and Cultural Norms.
Anarchists: Rejecting All Conventional Structures.
Marxists: Stressing the Oppression of Capitalism.
Communists: Emphasizing Party Organizations.
Fascists and Nazis: Empowering Totalitarian States.
Contemporary Liberals: Balancing and Integrating Government and Capitalism.
Contemporary Conservatives: Reining in Strong States.
The Radical Right: More Freedom in the Marketplace and Less Cultural Freedom.
The Radical Left: Pursuing Market Socialism and Democratic Cultures.
The Extreme Right: Seeking Theocracies.
The Extreme Left: Fighting Globalization and Other New Forms of Domination.
12. Questions of Rulers.
Classical Liberals: Empowering Representatives While Holding Them Accountable.
Traditional Conservatives: Finding a Place for Elitism Within Democracy.
Anarchists: Rejecting All Rulers.
Marxists: The Need for a Temporary Dictatorship of the Proletariat.
Communists: The Need for a Vanguard of the Proletariat.
Fascists and Nazis: Concentrating Power in the Hands of a Single Leader.
Contemporary Liberals: More Representative and Responsive Democracies.
The Radical Left: More Inclusive and Participatory Democracies.
Contemporary Conservatives: More Formal Representative Democracy.
The Radical Right: Democracy as Freedom.
The Extreme Right: Imagining Conspiracies.
The Extreme Left: Seeing Formidable Obstacles to Global and Radical Democracy.
13. Questions of Authority.
Classical Liberals: Authorizing Limited Governments that Secure (Property) Rights.
Traditional Conservatives: Orchestrating Social Harmony.
Anarchists: Rejecting all Governmental Authority.
Marxists: Authority as Oppressive, then Necessary, and Finally Eliminated.
Communists: Justifying Massive Authority as a Means to Abolish the State.
Fascists and Nazis: Embracing Totalitarian State Authority.
Contemporary Liberals: From Limited Government to a Strong State.
Contemporary Conservatives: Limiting the Activity of Governments.
The Radical Right: Starving Government While Imposing Social Regulations.
The Radical Left: Enhancing the Public Sphere.
The Extreme Right: Resisting Authority that Disregards Sacred Texts.
The Extreme Left: Contesting Governmental Authority.
14. Questions of Justice.
Classical Liberals: Equal Dignity but Unequal Rewards.
Traditional Conservatives: Unequal Rights but Commensurate Responsibilities.
Anarchists: Right Conduct in the Absence of Just Institutions.
Marxists: Transcending the Circumstances of Justice.
Communists: Using Social Control to Build a Society in which All Needs are Met.
Fascists and Nazis: National or Racial Dominance as More Important than Justice.
Contemporary Liberals: Compensating for Undeserved Disadvantages.
The Radical Left: Pursuing a More Egalitarian Society.
Contemporary Conservatives: Criticizing Social Justice, Emphasizing Compassion.
The Radical Right: Focusing on Fair Procedures and the Pursuit of the Common Good.
The Extreme Right: Regarding Moral Goodness as the Basis of Just Outcomes.
The Extreme Left: Decrying Global Injustice while Striving to Share “the Common”.
15. Questions of Change.
Classical Liberals: Seeking Economic, Intellectual, and Moral Progress.
Traditional Conservatives: Slowing the Winds of Change.
Marxists: Predicting Revolution From Below.
Anarchists: Calling for Rebellion rather than Revolution.
Communists: Generating Revolutions While Deviating From Marxist Orthodoxy.
Fascists and Nazis: Revolutionary Change Toward Certain Conservative Values.
Contemporary Liberals: Achieving Fundamental Change Incrementally.
Contemporary Conservatives: Pursuing Reforms – of “Failed” Liberal Programs.
The Radical Right: Seeking Major Changes, even if they Enhance Inequalities.
The Extreme Right: Returning to a Past of Greater Moral Certainty.
The Radical Left: Evolutionary Change Toward More Democratic Equality.
The Extreme Left: Wholesale and Ongoing Change – Without Revolutions.