From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory / Edition 1

From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory / Edition 1

by Paul Schumaker
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From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory / Edition 1

From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory provides a comprehensive and systematic account of the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries—along with contemporary and emerging outlooks—to address the essential questions of political theory.

  • Explores the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries while making clear distinctions for the reader between often-confused interpretations of ideologies
  • Engaging 'reader friendly' style will appeal to students and facilitate sophisticated discussions
  • Develops and defends pluralism as a broad public policy that is accepted by diverse political groups
  • Supported by a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and other helpful student and instructor resources at

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781405168366
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 01/28/2008
Pages: 504
Product dimensions: 7.10(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.32(d)

Table of Contents


1. Constructing Our Public Philosophies.

Public Philosophies and Political Ideologies.

Political Theory.

Searching for an Underlying Consensus Within Pluralism.

Ideas Beyond the Underlying Consensus of Pluralism.


Part I: Participants in our Political Conversations.

2. Voices from the Major Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century.

Classical Liberalism: Building Democratic Capitalism.

Traditional Conservatism: Defending the Old Social Order.

Anarchism: Rebelling Against Authority.

Marxism: Pursuing a Classless Society.


3. Prominent Totalitarian and Pluralist Voices of the Twentieth Century.

Communism: Fighting Imperialism in Developing Societies.

Fascism and Nazism: Totalitarian Control to Strengthen the Collective.

Contemporary Liberalism: Reforming Capitalism and Democracy.

Contemporary Conservatism: Opposing Liberal and Socialist Programs.


4. Radical and Extremist Voices in Contemporary Politics.

The Radical Left: Seeking More Egalitarian and Communal Societies.

The Radical Right: Seeking More Economic Freedom or Moral Consensus.

The Extreme Right: Returning to More Homogeneous Societies.

The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Global Neoliberalism.


Part II: Philosophical Assumptions: Their Importance as Foundations for Political Principles.

5. Questions of Ontology.

Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing “The Great Chain of Being”.

Classical Liberals: Deism, Naturalism and Materialism.

Anarchists: Natural Interconnections, Ideas, and Conflicts.

Marxists: Economic Determinism.

Communists: Revising Dialectical Materialism.

Fascists and Nazis: Heroic Will and Racial Struggle.

Contemporary Liberals: Deemphasizing Ontology and Embracing Contingency.

Contemporary Conservatives: Accepting the World As It Is.

The Radical Right: Refuting Charges of Economic and Divine Determination.

The Extreme Right: Expecting a Divine Apocalypse.

The Radical Left: Tempering Material Forces with Socialist Ideals.

The Extreme Left: Releasing Human Imagination, Constrained by Ecological Limits.


6. Questions of Human Nature.

Classical Liberals: Humans as Equal and Rational Pursuers of Happiness.

Traditional Conservatives: Defining Humans by their Places in Society.

Anarchists: Seeing Human Altruism as Hindered by Conventional Institutions.

Marxists: Conceiving Humans as Creative Laborers.

Communists: Creating a “New Man”.

Fascists and Nazis: Energizing the Will of “the Herd”.

Contemporary Liberals: Fostering Autonomy, Reason, and Moral Development.

The Radical Left: Stressing our Common Humanity and Individual Differences.

Contemporary Conservatives: Accepting Human Imperfection.

The Radical Right: Embedding Humans in Free Markets and/or Moral Communities.

The Extreme Right: Regarding Humans as either Good or Evil.

The Extreme Left: Rejecting an Essential Human Nature.


7. Questions of Society.

Classical Liberals: Individuals Seeking Mutual Benefits Through a Social Contract.

Traditional Conservatives: Organic Societies that Come Before Individuals.

Anarchists: Natural Societies Built on Friendship.

Marxists: Transforming Class-Based Societies into Classless Ones.

Communists: Non-Proletarian Contributions to a Classless Society.

Fascists and Nazis: Defining Societies in Nationalist and Racist Terms.

Contemporary Liberals: Promoting Social Pluralism.

Contemporary Conservatives: Seeing Society as a Delicate Watch.

The Radical Right: Holding either Libertarian or Communitarian Visions of Society.

The Radical Left: Searching for More Communal and Egalitarian Societies.

The Extreme Right: Seeking Homogeneous Societies.

The Extreme Left: Longing for Societies of “Singularities Pursuing the Common”.


8. Questions of Epistemology.

Classical Liberals: Moving from Natural Rights to Utilitarianism.

Traditional Conservatives: Doubting Reason, Stressing Conventional Wisdom.

Anarchists: Depending on a Vision of Human and Social Possibility.

Marxists: A Science Showing the Inevitability, not the Goodness, of Communism.

Communists: Generating Truths from Authoritative Readings of Marx.

Fascists and Nazis: Finding Absolute Truth in the Intuitions of a Political Leader.

Contemporary Liberals: Emphasizing Pragmatism.

Contemporary Conservatives: Using a Social Science of Political Failure.

The Radical Right: Finding Meaning in Tradition and Truth through Science.

The Radical Left: Emphasizing Political Rationality.

The Extreme Right: Finding Truth in Authoritative Texts and Leaders.

The Extreme Left: Contesting and Deconstructing all Truths.


Part III: The Great Issues of Politics: Consensual and Contested Principles.

9. Questions of Community.

Classical Liberals: Presupposing the Primacy Of Nations.

Traditional Conservatives: Patriots Lacking Nationalist Fervor.

Anarchists: Rejecting Conventional Communities While Seeking Natural Ones.

Marxists: Identifying with the Working Class and Eventually Humanity.

Communists: Fighting Imperialism Through Nationalist Appeals.

Fascists and Nazis: Embracing a Unified Nation and an Aryan State.

Contemporary Liberals: Nations Built on Individual and Group Differences.

Contemporary Conservatives: Seeking Moral, but not Communitarian, Countries.

The Radical Right: Competing Global, National, and Sub-National Loyalties.

The Radical Left: Pursuing Solidarity among Diverse People in Many Polities.

The Extreme Right: Rejecting Multiple Community Identities.

The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Current Identities.


10. Questions of Citizenship.

Classical Liberals: Curbing Citizenship, Providing Limited Rights and Obligations.

Traditional Conservatives: Stressing Loyalty and Obedience to Authorities.

Anarchists: Comrades Without Political Obligations.

Marxists: Transforming Alienated Workers into Public-Spirited Comrades.

Communists: Transforming Oppressed People into Obedient Revolutionaries.

Fascists and Nazis: Mobilizing Dutiful Citizens for Purposes of State.

Contemporary Liberals: Pursuing Inclusion and Expanding Rights.

Contemporary Conservatives: Developing More Responsible Citizens.

The Radical Right: Privileging Property Rights and Instilling Virtue.

The Radical Left: Embracing Multiple and Deep Citizenships.

The Extreme Right: Restricting Citizenship.

The Extreme Left: Changing Passive Citizens into Contentious Ones.


11. Questions of Structure.

Classical Liberals: Designing Free Markets and Representative Democracies.

Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing Civil Society and Cultural Norms.

Anarchists: Rejecting All Conventional Structures.

Marxists: Stressing the Oppression of Capitalism.

Communists: Emphasizing Party Organizations.

Fascists and Nazis: Empowering Totalitarian States.

Contemporary Liberals: Balancing and Integrating Government and Capitalism.

Contemporary Conservatives: Reining in Strong States.

The Radical Right: More Freedom in the Marketplace and Less Cultural Freedom.

The Radical Left: Pursuing Market Socialism and Democratic Cultures.

The Extreme Right: Seeking Theocracies.

The Extreme Left: Fighting Globalization and Other New Forms of Domination.


12. Questions of Rulers.

Classical Liberals: Empowering Representatives While Holding Them Accountable.

Traditional Conservatives: Finding a Place for Elitism Within Democracy.

Anarchists: Rejecting All Rulers.

Marxists: The Need for a Temporary Dictatorship of the Proletariat.

Communists: The Need for a Vanguard of the Proletariat.

Fascists and Nazis: Concentrating Power in the Hands of a Single Leader.

Contemporary Liberals: More Representative and Responsive Democracies.

The Radical Left: More Inclusive and Participatory Democracies.

Contemporary Conservatives: More Formal Representative Democracy.

The Radical Right: Democracy as Freedom.

The Extreme Right: Imagining Conspiracies.

The Extreme Left: Seeing Formidable Obstacles to Global and Radical Democracy.


13. Questions of Authority.

Classical Liberals: Authorizing Limited Governments that Secure (Property) Rights.

Traditional Conservatives: Orchestrating Social Harmony.

Anarchists: Rejecting all Governmental Authority.

Marxists: Authority as Oppressive, then Necessary, and Finally Eliminated.

Communists: Justifying Massive Authority as a Means to Abolish the State.

Fascists and Nazis: Embracing Totalitarian State Authority.

Contemporary Liberals: From Limited Government to a Strong State.

Contemporary Conservatives: Limiting the Activity of Governments.

The Radical Right: Starving Government While Imposing Social Regulations.

The Radical Left: Enhancing the Public Sphere.

The Extreme Right: Resisting Authority that Disregards Sacred Texts.

The Extreme Left: Contesting Governmental Authority.


14. Questions of Justice.

Classical Liberals: Equal Dignity but Unequal Rewards.

Traditional Conservatives: Unequal Rights but Commensurate Responsibilities.

Anarchists: Right Conduct in the Absence of Just Institutions.

Marxists: Transcending the Circumstances of Justice.

Communists: Using Social Control to Build a Society in which All Needs are Met.

Fascists and Nazis: National or Racial Dominance as More Important than Justice.

Contemporary Liberals: Compensating for Undeserved Disadvantages.

The Radical Left: Pursuing a More Egalitarian Society.

Contemporary Conservatives: Criticizing Social Justice, Emphasizing Compassion.

The Radical Right: Focusing on Fair Procedures and the Pursuit of the Common Good.

The Extreme Right: Regarding Moral Goodness as the Basis of Just Outcomes.

The Extreme Left: Decrying Global Injustice while Striving to Share “the Common”.


15. Questions of Change.

Classical Liberals: Seeking Economic, Intellectual, and Moral Progress.

Traditional Conservatives: Slowing the Winds of Change.

Marxists: Predicting Revolution From Below.

Anarchists: Calling for Rebellion rather than Revolution.

Communists: Generating Revolutions While Deviating From Marxist Orthodoxy.

Fascists and Nazis: Revolutionary Change Toward Certain Conservative Values.

Contemporary Liberals: Achieving Fundamental Change Incrementally.

Contemporary Conservatives: Pursuing Reforms – of “Failed” Liberal Programs.

The Radical Right: Seeking Major Changes, even if they Enhance Inequalities.

The Extreme Right: Returning to a Past of Greater Moral Certainty.

The Radical Left: Evolutionary Change Toward More Democratic Equality.

The Extreme Left: Wholesale and Ongoing Change – Without Revolutions.





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