Gases in Plant and Microbial Cells

Gases in Plant and Microbial Cells

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Overview

Gases in Plant and Microbial Cells by Hans-Ferdinand Linskens

Modern Methods of Plant Analysis When the handbook Modern Methods of Plant Analysis was first introduced in 1954 the considerations were: 1. the dependence of scientific progress in biology on the improvement of existing and the introduction of new methods; 2. the difficulty in finding many new analytical methods in specialized journals which are normally not accessible to experimental plant biologists; 3. the fact that in the methods sections of papers the description of methods is frequently so compact, or even sometimes so incomplete that it is difficult to reproduce experiments. These considerations still stand today. The series was highly successful, seven volumes appearing between 1956 and 1964. Since there is still today a demand for the old series, the publisher has decided to resume publication of Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. It is hoped that the New Series will be just as acceptable to those working in plant sciences and related fields as the early volumes undoubtedly were. It is difficult to single out the major reasons for success of any publication, but we believe that the methods published in the first series were up-to-date at the time and presented in a way that made description, as applied to plant material, complete in itself with little need to consult other publications. Contributing authors have attempted to follow these guidelines in this New Series of volumes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642833489
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/14/2011
Series: Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis Series , #9
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Oxygen.- O2Evolution and Uptake Measurements in Plant Cells by Mass Spectrometry.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Theory.- 2.1 Determination of Uo.- 2.2 Determination of Eo.- 2.3 Determination of DR.- 2.4 Correction of Eo and Uo Against Withdrawal of Gas.- 3 Equipment.- 3.1 Mass Spectrometers.- 3.2 Inlet Systems.- 4 O2 Exchange of Higher Plants (Whole Plants, Single Leaves).- 4.1 Determination of Uo and Eo over Long Periods of Time.- 4.2 Determination of Uo and Eo over Short Time Intervals.- 5 O2 Exchange of Aquatic Suspensions (Algae, Chloroplasts).- 5.1 Determination of Uo and Eo over Long Periods of Time.- 5.2 Determination of Uo and Eo over Short Time Intervals.- References.- Microassay of O2 Evolution from Single Plant Cells.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Historical Background.- 3 Culture, Preparation and Incubation of Bacteria and Protoplasts.- 3.1 Bacteria.- 3.2 Isolation of Protoplasts.- 3.3 Evacuolation and Electrofusion of Protoplasts.- 3.4 Assay of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution.- 4 Evaluation of the Microtechnique.- 4.1 Microphotographic Studies.- 4.2 Discrimination Between Aerotactic and Chemotactic Responses.- 4.3 Semiquantitative Assay of Changes in O2 Concentration.- 4.4 Kinetic Studies.- 5 Applications.- 5.1 Protoplast Viability as Assayed with Pseudomonas Versus Conventional Techniques.- 5.2 Integrity of Manipulated Protoplasts and Hybrids of Mesophyll Cells After Electrofusion.- 6 Summary.- References.- O2 Exchange Measurement Using a Platinum Polarographic Electrode.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Basic Components of a Polarographic System.- 1.2 O2 Exchange Measurements.- 2 Polarographic Principles.- 2.1 Basic Principles.- 2.2 O2 Reduction.- 2.3 The Silver Anode and Electrolyte Medium.- 3 Electrode Systems.- 3.1 The Membrane-Covered (Clark-Type) Electrode.- 3.2 The Bare Electrode.- 3.3 Choice of Electrode Type.- 3.4 The Modulated Polarographic Electrode.- 3.5 Improvements in Bare Platinum Electrode Systems.- 4 Photosynthesis Studies.- 4.1 Photosynthetic Action Spectra.- 4.2 Chromatic Transients.- 4.3 O2 Evolution and the S-State Hypothesis.- 4.4 Measurement of the Activity of O2-Evolving Particles.- 4.5 Hydrostatic Pressure Effects.- 4.6 Electron Transfer Reactions.- 4.7 Simultaneous Measurement of O2 Exchange and Variable Chlorophyll a Fluorescence.- 4.8 Light-Dependent O2 Uptake.- 4.9 Measurement of Oxygen Evolution by Leaf Discs (The Hansatech Electrode).- 5 The Future of Polarographic O2 Exchange Measurement.- 6 Commercial Suppliers of Polarographic Systems.- 6.1 Clark-Type Systems.- 6.2 The Hansatech Electrode.- 6.3 Bare Electrode Systems.- References.- Measurement of O2 Evolution in Chloroplasts.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Principle of Polarographic O2 Electrode.- 3 Reaction Vessels and Electronic Circuits.- 4 General Directions for Measurement of O2 Evolution.- 5 Additional Remarks.- 6 Typical Experimental Conditions.- References.- Carbon Dioxide.- Analytical Gas Exchange Measurements of Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Historical Perspective.- 1.2 Current Interest.- 2 The Basic Measurements.- 2.1 Units.- 2.2 Combined Gas Exchange and Biochemical Measurements.- 3 Measuring CO2 Uptake.- 3.1 Compensating Systems.- 3.2 Differential Systems.- 3.3 Combined Systems.- 3.4 Kinetic Systems.- 3.5 CO2 Analyzers.- 3.6 Considerations for Handling CO2.- 3.7 CO2 Source Gas.- 3.8 CO2 Absorbers.- 4 Measuring Water Loss.- 4.1 Differential Systems.- 4.2 Closed Systems.- 4.3 Water Vapor Detectors.- 4.4 Considerations for Handling Water Vapor.- 4.5 Water Vapor Absorbers.- 5 Vapor Pressure Difference.- 5.1 Humidity in the Air.- 5.2 Humidity Inside the Leaf.- 6 Chambers.- 7 Putting the System Together.- 7.1 Mass Flow Meters.- 7.2 Barometer.- 7.3 Tubing Fittings.- 8 Three Different System Designs.- 8.1 Laboratory-Based System.- 8.2 Expedition Size Field System.- 8.3 Personal Size Portable System.- References.- Respiration Measurements in Plant Roots Throughout Development.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Defining the Problem.- 3 Mitochondria.- 3.1 Factors Affecting Respiratory Measurements.- 3.2 Isolation of Mitochondria.- 4 Root Segments.- 4.1 Factors Affecting Respiratory Measurements.- 5 Intact Excised Roots.- 6 Intact Plants.- 7 Roots Grown in Liquid Culture.- 8 Problems Associated with Inhibitors.- 8.1 Disulfiram.- 8.2 SHAM.- 8.3 Antimycin A.- 8.4 Uncouplers.- 9 Measuring Respiration Rates.- 9.1 Apportioning Respiratory Activity.- 9.2 Rotenone-Resistant Respiration.- 10 Adjunct Methods.- References.- Water Vapor.- Psychrometric Water Potential Analysis in Leaf Discs.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Theory of Thermocouple Psychrometers.- 2.1 Concepts of Water Potential.- 2.2 Principles of Operation.- 3 Types of Thermocouple Psychrometers.- 4 Psychrometric Method.- 4.1 Preparation of Psychrometers.- 4.2 Calibration.- 4.3 Measurement Procedure.- 4.4 Temperature and Vapour Pressure Equilibration.- 5 Techniques for Sampling Leaf Discs.- 5.1 Leaf Selection for Tissue Sampling.- 5.2 Location and Selection of Leaf-Disc Samples.- 5.3 Method of Leaf-Disc Excision.- 5.4 Effects of Evaporative Losses.- 5.5 Use of Multiple Leaf Discs.- 5.6 Handling of Leaf Discs.- 6 Components of Leaf Water Potential.- 7 Interpretation of Psychrometric Water Potential Measurements.- 7.1 Accuracy of Psychrometer Measurements.- 7.2 Types of Leaf Material.- 7.3 Water Potential Changes Following Leaf-Disc Excision.- 7.4 Leaf Tissue in Relation to the Size of the Sample Chamber.- 7.5 Water Adsorption by Thermocouple Psychrometer Assemblies.- 7.6 The Cut Edge and Evaporative Losses During Sampling.- 7.7 Thermal Gradients and Zero Offsets.- 7.8 Problems Associated with Equilibration Times.- 7.9 Interpretation of the Psychrometer Output Plateau.- 7.10 Considerations for Statistical Analysis.- 7.11 Consistency in Methodology.- 8 Conclusion.- References.- In Situ Measurement of Plant Water Potential.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Background.- 1.2 Measurement Theory.- 1.3 Measurement Methods.- 2 Vapour Transfer Methods.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 General Principles.- 2.3 Practical Aspects.- 3 Psychrometry.- 3.1 Principles.- 3.2 Psychrometric Methods.- 3.3 Peltier Cooled (Spanner) Psychrometers.- 3.4 Wet Loop or Droplet Psychrometer.- 4 Dew Point Methods.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Four-Wire Hygrometer.- 4.3 Pulsed Dew Point Hygrometer.- 4.4 Continuous Monitoring.- 4.5 Comparison of Dew Point Methods.- 4.6 Dew Point Versus Psychrometric Methods.- 5 In Situ Measurement at Particular Sites.- 5.1 Leaf.- 5.2 Stem.- 5.3 Roots.- 6 Conclusion and Final Recommendation.- References.- Dehydration and Rehydration During Pollen Development, Pollination, and Fertilization.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Flower Development.- 3 Dehydration of Pollen.- 3.1 Dehydration During Development.- 3.2 Dehydration of Pollen After Anthesis and Some Consequences of Dehydration.- 4 Pollination and Rehydration of Pollen.- 5 Water Potential and Its Measurement in Reproductive Tissues.- 6 Humidity Measurement.- 7 Measurement of Water Content.- 7.1 1H-NMR.- 7.2 1H-NMR Imaging.- 7.3 31P-NMR for Membranes.- 7.4 Freeze Fracture Replicas for Membranes.- 7.5 Calorimetric Analysis.- 7.6 Other Methods.- 8 Summary.- References.- Exchange Determination of Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen, Ethylene, and Other Gases of Fruits and Vegetables.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Physical Laws of Gas Diffusion.- 3 Steady State Determination of Parameters of Gas Exchange.- 3.1 Theoretical Basis.- 3.2 Determination of Surface Area.- 3.3 Determination of the Rate of Flux.- 3.4 Determination of the Concentration Gradient.- 3.5 Calculation of Permeability Coefficients.- 4 Nonsteady State Methods for Determination of Resistance to Gas Diffusion.- 5 Morphology and Other Gas Exchange Methodologies.- 6 Applications of Methodology.- 6.1 Studying Paths of Gas Exchange Through Stem Scar, Stomata, Cuticle, and Lenticels.- 6.2 Effects of Individual Seal-Packaging and Waxing on Gas Exchange of Fruits.- 6.3 Resistance Network Approach.- References.- Nitrogen.- Methods for Measurement of Dinitrogen Fixation in Microorganisms and Symbiotic Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Determination of N2 Fixation by Increases in Total Nitrogen.- 2.1 Digestion of Samples by a Microkjeldahl Procedure.- 2.2 Analysis of Ammonia by Distillation Followed by Titration.- 3 Use of 15N2 to Determine Dinitrogen Fixation.- 3.1 Preparation of 15N2 from 15N-Labelled Ammonium Salts.- 3.2 Exposure of Samples to 15N2 Gas Mixtures.- 3.3 Conversion of $$^{15}NH_4^ + $$ to 15N2 for Analysis in a Mass Spectrometer.- 3.4 Analysis of 15N2 Data.- 3.5 Analysis of 15N Abundance by Emission Spectrometry.- 4 Use of 13N2 to Determine Dinitrogen Fixation.- 4.1 Cyclotron Methods.- 4.2 Linear Accelerator.- References.- Methods for Uptake and Assimilation Studies of Nitrogen Dioxide.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Nitrogen Dioxide Uptake.- 2.1 Gas Flux Studies.- 2.2 Nitrogenous Compound Extraction and Determination.- 2.3 15N Studies.- 2.4 Comparative Rates of Nitrogen Dioxide Uptake.- 3 Nitrogen Dioxide Assimilation.- 3.1 Increase in Organic Nitrogen.- 3.2 Increase in Nitrogen Pathway Enzymes.- 3.3 Nitrogen Dioxide as a Plant Nutrient.- References.- Immunological Detection of Nitrogenase.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Characteristics of the Nitrogenase Complex.- 3 Purification of Nitrogenase for Antibody Production.- 3.1 Immunological Techniques.- 3.2 Immunological Relationships of Nitrogenases.- 3.3 Immunodetection of Nitrogenase.- 3.4 Immunodetection by Western Blotting.- 3.5 Quantitation of Nitrogenase on Western Blots.- 4 Conclusions.- Appendices.- References.- Analysis of Volatile Nitrogen (NO and NO2) Release from Plants.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 NO(X) Emissions from Herbicide-Treated Soybean.- 1.2 Association of NO(X) Evolution with the NR Enzyme.- 2 Volatile N Carried in Water Vapor from Intact Plants.- 3 Methods of Detecting N Oxides.- 3.1 Greiss-Saltzman Colorimetric Assay.- 3.2 Gas Chromatography (GC).- 3.3 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).- Conditions.- References.- Other Gases.- Hydrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria:Methods Used in Their Investigation.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Methods for the Determination of H2-Oxidizing Activity.- 2.1 Practical and Theoretical Considerations in the Use of H2 as a Reagent.- 2.2 Gas Chromatographic Assay of H2-Oxidizing Activity.- 2.3 Spectrophotometric Assay of H2-Oxidizing Activity.- 2.4 Amperometric Determination of H2-Oxidizing Activity.- 2.5 Use of 3H2 in the Measurement of Hydrogenase Activity.- 2.6 Mass Spectrometric Measurements of H2 Metabolism.- 2.7 Other Methods for Measuring Activity of Hydrogenases.- 3 Methods Other Than Activity Determinations.- 4 Summary.- References.- Methane Estimation for Methanogenic and Methanotropic Bacteria.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Cultivation.- 3 Methods for Estimating Methane.- 3.1 Sampling Procedures.- 3.2 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Gases and Substrates.- 3.3 Isotope Methods for Gases.- 4 Methods for Methanogenic Bacteria.- 4.1 Preparing Methanogenic Cell Suspensions and Extracts.- 4.2 Enzymatic Methane Production.- 5 Methods for Methanotrophic Bacteria.- 5.1 Respirometric Analysis.- 5.2 Methane Monooxygenase Activity.- 6 Calculating Methane and Other Gases.- References.- Methods for the Quantification of Ethylene Produced by Plants.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Bioassays.- 3 Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Ethylene.- 3.1 Columns.- 3.2 Detectors.- 4 Continuous Flow Systems.- 4.1 Purification of Air.- 4.2 Sample Chambers.- 4.3 Collection Trap for Ethylene Analysis.- 5 Analysis of Ethylene in Aqueous Samples.- 5.1 Head Space Analysis.- 5.2 Liquid Injection on Gas Chromatographic Columns.- 5.3 Vacuum Extraction.- 5.4 Gas Stripping.- 6 Summary.- References.- Determination of Extra-and Intracellular pH Values in Relation to the Action of Acidic Gases on Cells.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Methods and Applications.- 2.1 pH-Measurements in Leaf Extracts with Glass Electrodes.- 2.2 Intracellular pH Measurements with Microelectrodes.- 2.3 Distribution of Weak Acids:pH in Neutral or Alkaline Cellular Compartments.- 2.4 Distribution of Weak Bases:pH in Acidic Cellular Compartments.- 2.5 Fluorescent pH Indicators and pH-Sensitive Dyes.- 2.6 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (31P-NMR).- 2.7 Metabolite Determinations.- 3 Conclusions.- References.

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