ISBN-10:
099711715X
ISBN-13:
9780997117158
Pub. Date:
01/28/2017
Publisher:
Chicago Business Press
Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management

by David Lepak, Mary Gowan
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780997117158
Publisher: Chicago Business Press
Publication date: 01/28/2017
Edition description: Older Edition
Sales rank: 169,727
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

David Lepak is Professor of Human Resource Management and Chairperson of the Human Resource Management department in the School of Management and Labor Relations at Rutgers University. He received his PhD in management from the Pennsylvania State University. He teaches and conducts research on a variety of human resource topics with an emphasis on strategic human resource management and has presented his research to domestic and international audiences. He is associate editor of Academy of Management Review and has served on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal , Journal of Management, Human Resource Management, British Journal of Management, and Journal of Management Studies.

Mary Gowan is Professor of Management and Dean of the Martha and Spencer Love School of Business at Elon University. She received her PhD in business administration from the University of Georgia. In addition to her administrative responsibilities as a dean, she teaches and conducts research in human resource management with a focus on career management and international human resources. She has published her research in academic and practitioner journals, is on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Management and Human Resource Management. She is also a member of the SHRM Foundation Board, the Alamance Country Chamber of Commerce, and the Piedmont Triad Leadership Initiative. Her consulting experience is with major corporations such as Lockheed-Martin and Harris Teeter Corporation as well as with government and nonprofit agencies.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 MANAGING EMPLOYEES FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

MANAGING EMPLOYEES
What's In a Name?
The Costs and Benefits of Managing HR
FRAMEWORK FOR THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEES
PRIMARY HR ACTIVITIES
Work Design and Workforce Planning
Job Design
Workforce Planning
Managing Employee Competencies
Recruitment
Selection
Training
Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviors
Performance Management
Compensation and Incentives
Employee Benefits, Health, and Wellness
HR Activities Alignment
HR CHALLENGES
Challenge 1 – Meeting Organizational Demands
Strategy
Company Characteristics
Organizational Culture
Employee Concerns
Challenge 2 –Environmental Influences
Labor Force Trends
Technology
Globalization
Ethics and Social Responsibility
Challenge 3 – Legal Compliance
THE PLAN FOR THIS BOOK
Part 1 – HR Challenges
Part 2 –Work Design and Workforce Planning
Part 3 – Managing Employee Competencies
Part 4 – Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviors
Part 5 – Special Topics
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study – The New Job

PART ONE: HR CHALLENGES

CHAPTER 2 ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT
MEETING ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
Low Cost Strategy and Managing Employees
Differentiation Strategy and Managing Employees
Company Characteristics
Company Size
Stage of Development
Organizational Culture
Employee Concerns
Work / Life Balance
Justice
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force Trends
The Aging Workforce
Demographic Diversity
Technology
Globalization
International Strategies
Global Factors
Implications of Global Factors on Managing Employees
Ethics and Social Responsibility
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study - Kay Johnson at Human Capital Consultants (HCC)

CHAPTER 3: LEGAL COMPLIANCE

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY AND OTHER WORKPLACE LAWS
INTRODUCTION TO EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY AND DISCRIMINATION
Protected Classification
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification and Business Necessity
Discriminatory Practices
Disparate Treatment
Disparate Impact
Harassment
Retaliation
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT LEGISLATION
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Race and Color Discrimination
Religious Discrimination
Gender Discrimination
National Origin Discrimination
Civil Rights Act of 1991
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
EEO RESPONSIBILITIES OF MULTINATIONAL EMPLOYERS
FILING PROCESS FOR DISCRIMINATION CHARGES
EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
Executive Order 11246
Affirmative Action
RELATED EMPLOYMENT LEGISLATION
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
Vietnam Era Veteran’s Readjustment Act of 1974
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Act of 1994
FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES
LEGAL COMPLIANCE AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

PART TWO: WORK DESIGN AND WORKFORCE PLANNING

CHAPTER 4 JOB DESIGN

THE IMPORTANCE OF JOB DESIGN
JOB DESIGN
Efficiency Approaches to Job Design
Motivational Approach to Job Design
Changing Job Tasks
Increasing Responsibility and Participation
Employee Teams
Which Approach to Use? Balancing Efficiency and Motivational Approaches
JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND JOB SPECIFICATIONS
JOB ANALYSIS
Job Information
Observations and Diaries
Interviews
Questionnaires
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
Job Analysis Techniques
JOB DESIGN IN PRACTICE: MEETING ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy and Job Design
Structure of Jobs
Tasks, Duties, and Responsibilities Needed
Company Characteristics and Job Design
Formalization of Job Design
Breadth and Depth of Tasks
Culture and Job Design
Managerial choices of job design tactics
Employee acceptance of job design decisions
Employee Concerns and Job Design
Perception of Fairness of Job Duties
Need for Flexible Work Arrangements
JOB DESIGN IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force Trends and Job Design
Skill availability to perform tasks
The aging labor force
Technology and Job Design
Telecommuting
Virtual Teams
Globalization and Job Design
Need to Address Cross-Cultural Issues
Relevant Labor Market
Ethics and Job Design
Concerns about Types of Tasks Required
Attitudes Toward Physical Conditions of Job Design
JOB DESIGN IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
Importance of Identifying Essential and Non-Essential Job Duties
Attending to how job design may impact employee safety
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

Appendix to Chapter 4 – Standardized and Customized Approaches to Job Analysis
STANDARDIZED APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS
Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
CUSTOMIZED APPROACHES TO JOB ANALYSIS
Critical Incidents
Task Inventories
Job Element Approach

CHAPTER 5 WORKFORCE PLANNING

PURPOSE OF WORKFORCE PLANNING
FORECASTING LABOR SUPPLY AND LABOR DEMAND
Internal Considerations
Turnover
Promotions, Transfers, and Demotions)
Employee Productivity
Company Performance
Strategic Direction
External Considerations
Local Labor Market
Economic Conditions
Industry Trends
TACTICS TO BALANCE SUPPLY AND DEMAND
Labor Shortage Tactics
Employee Overtime
Contingent Labor
Employee Retention
Promotions, Transfers and Demotions
New Hires
Labor Surplus Tactics
Layoffs
Attrition and Hiring Freezes
Early Retirement
Promotions, Transfers and Demotions
WORKFORCE PLANNING IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
Speed to deal with shortages and surpluses
Criticality of employee groups
Company Characteristics
Amount of labor slack
The relative impact of labor shortages or surpluses
Who performs workforce planning
Culture
Likelihood of using different tactics
Employee reactions to workforce planning tactics
Employee Concerns
Stress & Work/Life Balance
Perceptions of procedural and distributive justice
WORKFORCE PLANNING IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force Trends
Availability of internal/external workers
Which tactics to use
Technology
Whether or not employees are need
The Types of workers that are needed
The quality of workforce planning forecasts
Globalization
Where the workers are
Which workforce planning tactics to use
Ethics
Community Reactions to workforce planning tactics
Helping employees cope
WORKFORCE PLANNING IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
Requirements for mass layoffs and plant closings
Temporary employees
Summary
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

PART THREE: MANAGING EMPLOYEE COMPETENCIES

CHAPTER 6 RECRUITMENT

PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT
RECRUITMENT PROCESS
INTERNAL RECRUITMENT
Internal Recruitment Methods
Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment
EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT
Advertising
Educational Institutions
Employment Agencies and Employee Search Firms
Professional Associations
Temporary Employees
Employee Referrals
Sourcing Applicants
Re-recruiting
Advantages and Disadvantages of External Recruitment
MAXIMIZING RECRUITMENT EFFECTIVENESS
Preparing the Recruitment Advertisements
Developing a Recruitment Value Proposition
Writing the Recruitment Message
Recruiters
Realistic Job Previews
Recruitment Follow-Up
Recruitment Effectiveness
RECRUITMENT IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy and Recruitment
Content of Recruitment Message
Choice of Recruitment Methods
Company Characteristics and Recruitment
Use of Internal vs. External Recruiting
Who Manages Recruitment
Culture and Recruitment
Recruitment Value Proposition
Balance of Internal vs. External Recruiting
Employee Concerns and Recruitment
Appraisal of Recruitment Message
Perception of Fairness of Process
RECRUITMENT IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force and Recruitment
Who is Targeted for Recruitment
How Much Recruitment is Needed
Technology and Recruitment
How Recruitment is Managed
Skills Recruited
Globalization and Recruitment
Recruiting Strategy
How Recruiting is Done
Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Recruitment
Value Proposition Offered
Target of Recruitment
RECRUITMENT AND THE LAW
Content of Recruitment Message
Recruiter Words and Actions
Recordkeeping
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

Appendix to Chapter 5: Evaluating Recruiting Effectiveness

CHAPTER 7 SELECTION

SELECTION AND FIRM PERFORMANCE
Selection Defined
Selection and Firm Performance
PERSON-JOB FIT
STANDARDS FOR EFFECTIVE SELECTION
Reliability
Validity
Bias
Personal Characteristics
Contrast Effect
Halo/Devil’s Horns Effect
Impression Management
SELECTION METHODS: INITIAL SCREENING
Applications and Résumés
Screening Interview
Reference Checks, Credit Reports, Background Checks, and Honesty Tests
SELECTION METHODS: FINAL SCREENING
Employment Tests
Ability Tests
Achievement/Competency Tests
Personality Inventories
When to Use Employment Tests
Interviews
Unstructured Interviews
Structured Interviews
Interview Process and Outcomes
Assessment Centers
Biodata
Drug and Alcohol Tests
Medical Exams
MAKING THE FINAL DECISION
Compensatory Approach
Multiple Hurdle Approach
Multiple Cutoff Approach
Choice of Method
SELECTION IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy and Selection
Core Competencies
Criteria for Person-Job Fit
Methods of Selection
Company Characteristics and Selection
Degree of Structure
Substance and Form of Process
Culture and Selection
Person-Organization Fit
Promotion from Within Policy
Who Participates in the Selection Process
Employee Concerns and Selection
Fair and Equal Treatment
Impact of Job on Family Life
SELECTION IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Market
Types of Applicants Available
Willingness of Applicants to Accept Jobs
Technology and Selection
Process of Selection
Verification of Credentials
Globalization and Selection
Labor market at home
Labor market abroad
Ethics and Selection
Concerns about Privacy
Amount and Type of Information for Applicants
SELECTION IN PRACTICE: THE LAW
Procedures for Using Selection Measures
Definition of Applicant
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

Appendix to Chapter 7: Reliability and Validity

CHAPTER 8 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

PURPOSE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and Development Defined
DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE TRAINING PROCESS
Part 1: Needs Assessment
Organization Analysis
Task Analysis
Person Analysis
Part 2: Design
Instructional Objectives
Lesson Planning
Principles of Learning
Learning Styles
Learning Agility
Self-efficacy
Interest in training program
Location
Part 3: Implementation
Training Methods
On-the-job training
Operations and procedures manuals
Classroom
E-learning
Audiovisual
Simulations
Blended Learning
Coaching and Mentoring
Types of Training
Compliance training
Legal compliance
Diversity training
Knowledge training
Skills training
Behavioral training
Employee orientation
Onboarding
Part 4: Evaluation
Level 1: Reaction
Level 2: Learning
Level 3: Behavior
Level 4: Results
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy and Training
Level of Investment
Emphasis of Investment
Company Characteristics and Training
Where Training is Done
Who Does the Training
Type of Training
How Training is Provided
Culture and Training
Focus of Training
Employee Willingness to Participate
Employee Concerns and Training
Fairness and Equity
Work/Life Balance
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Market
Who needs training
Type of training
Technology
Skills Inventories
Method of Delivery
Communication of Options
Globalization and Training
Where Training will be offered
When Training will be offered
How Training will be offered
What Training will be offered
Ethics and Training
Obligation to Train
Content of Training
Use of Training to Change Behavior
TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT, AND THE LAW
Accessibility of Training and Employee Development Opportunities
Type of Training Needed
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

PART FOUR: MANAGING EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS

CHAPTER 9 - PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Administrative
Developmental
Strategic Alignment
WHAT IS EVALUATED?
Reliability
Validity
Specificity
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION APPROACHES
Individual Comparisons
Ranking
Bell-Curve / Forced Distribution
Forced Choice
Absolute Approaches – Measuring traits and Behaviors
Graphic Rating Scales
Mixed Standards
Critical Incidents
Behavioral Observation Scale
Behavioral-Anchored Rating Scales
Assessment Centers
Results Based
Direct Measures
Management by Objectives / Goal Setting
SOURCES OF PERFORMANCE DATA
360 Degree Performance Evaluation
Self Evaluations
MINIMIZING RATER ERRORS
Psychological Errors
Distributional Errors
PROVIDING PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK
Conducting the Performance Appraisal meeting
Improving Performance
Employee Development Plans
Coaching
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
Criteria used for performance management
Extent of use of performance management
Company Characteristics
Formalization of process
Nature of process (e.g., dynamic or static)
Culture
Focus on process or outcomes
How process is perceived
Employee Concerns
Procedural and distributive justice
Signals from process about work/life balance
Confidentiality of information
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force
Expectations of feedback
Format for feedback
Need for feedback
Technology
Process of appraisal
Availability and ease of monitoring employees
Globalization
Content of performance appraisal
Who manages process
Criteria for evaluation
Ethics/Social Responsibility
Relationship between performance management and rewards
Nature of grievance process
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
Need for eliminating bias in performance management
Quality of performance management
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

CHAPTER 10 - COMPENSATION

EQUITY AND WAGE THEORY
REGULATION OF COMPENSATION
Fair Labor Standards Act
Minimum Wage
Exempt versus Non-Exempt Status
Child Labor Regulations
Overtime
Davis-Bacon Act
Walsh-Healy Act
FMLA
PAY STRUCTURES
Job Based Pay Structures
Internal Equity
Job Evaluation Approaches
Job Ranking
Job Classification
Point System
Factor Comparison
External Equity – matching the market
Identifying Key Jobs
Collecting Market Survey Data
Pricing Jobs
Establishing Pay Policy Line
Pay Ranges
Pay Grades
Administration
Communication
Evaluation
Skill Based Pay Structures
Competency Based Pay Structures
Broadbanding
Salary Compression
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
Strategies
Compensation Committees
COMPENSATION IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
What is rewarded
Frequency of rewards
Nature of rewards
Company Characteristics
Ability to provide rewards
Levels of rewards provided
Form of rewards
Culture
Expectations about rewards
Attitudes toward rewards
Employee Concerns
Equity versus equality
Fairness of rewards
Appropriateness of rewards
COMPENSATION IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force
Levels of compensation expected
Types of compensation desired
Market wages
Technology
Pay structure
How pay is delivered
Globalization
Basis for compensation
Acceptableness of compensation
Ethics/Social Responsibility
Willingness to provide compensation
Focus of compensation
Attitudes toward living wage, comparable worth, etc.
COMPENSATION IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
Required compensation
Who must be compensated
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

CHAPTER 11- INCENTIVES AND REWARDS

EXPECTANCY THEORY
TYPES OF INCENTIVE PLANS
Individual Incentives
Merit Raises
Piece Rate System
Standard Hour Plan
Bonuses
Sales Incentives
Group/Organizational Incentives
Team Incentives
Profit Sharing Plans
Gainsharing Plans
Employee Ownership Plans
Executive Incentives
Advantages and Disadvantages of different incentive plans
INCENTIVES AND REWARDS IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
Percent of variable pay vs. fixed pay
What is incentivized and rewarded
Value placed on incentives & rewards
Level for rewards (individual, team, etc.)
Company Characteristics
Ability to provide incentives
Acceptableness of incentives
Role of incentives in total rewards plan
Culture
What incentives signal
Expectations about incentives
Employee Concerns
Fairness
What is being signaled
INCENTIVES AND REWARDS IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force
Desirability of types of rewards
Whether more or less pay is acceptable
Technology
Tracking of performance
Employee access to rewards information and policies
Globalization
Form of incentive
Acceptability of incentives
Ethics/Social Responsibility
Attitudes toward system design
Concern over wage gaps
INCENTIVES AND REWARDS IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
How incentives are taxed
Non-discrimination practices

Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

CHAPTER 12: EMPLOYEE BENEFITS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS

ROLE OF BENEFITS
MANDATORY BENEFITS
Social Security
Unemployment Insurance
Workers Compensation Insurance
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
Family Medical Leave Act
Older Workers' Benefit Protection Act
VOLUNTARY BENEFITS
Health Care
Insurance
Wellness programs
Prevention
Health Promotion
Employee Assistance
Disease/Case Management
Life Insurance
Unemployment Insurance
Retirement
Paid Time Off
Flex Benefits Programs
Flex Accounts
Cafeteria Plans
EMPLOYEE BENEFITS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS IN PRACTICE: ORGANIZATIONAL DEMANDS
Strategy
Role of benefits in total rewards package
Funds available for benefits
Company Characteristics
Standardization of benefits
Types of benefits offered
Culture
Who gets nonmandated benefits
Employee Concerns
Desirability of benefits
Whether needs for benefits are met
EMPLOYEE BENEFITS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS IN PRACTICE: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
Labor Force
What benefits are needed to attract workers
What benefits need to be offered
Technology
How benefits information is delivered
Employee access to their benefit information
Globalization
Types of benefits offered
Policies about benefits equalization
Ethics/Social Responsibility
Focus of benefits on issues such as stress reduction

EMPLOYEE BENEFITS, HEALTH AND WELLNESS IN PRACTICE: LEGAL COMPLIANCE
Which benefits must be offered
How changes in benefits have to be handled (e.g., early retirement)
Information companies can collect on employees
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

PART FIVE: SPECIAL TOPICS

CHAPTER 13 - LABOR UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT

WHY DO WORKERS ORGANIZE?
TYPES OF UNIONS
National and International Unions
Types of Unions
Local Unions
Closed Shop
Open Shop
Union Shop
Agency Shop
GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF LABOR UNIONS
The Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932
The Wagner Act of 1935
The National Labor Relations Board
Unfair Employer Labor Practices
The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
Unfair Union Labor Practices
The Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959
Rights of Union Members
UNION ORGANIZING CAMPAIGNS
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
Good faith bargaining
Bargaining power
Bargaining Topics
Impasses
Impasse Resolution
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND DISPUTE RESOLUTIONS
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

CHAPTER 14 – CREATING HIGH PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATIONS

ALIGNMENT AMONG HR ACTIVITIES
HR systems versus HR practices
Types of HR systems
Commitment
Control
Quality
ALIGNMENT OF HR ACTIVITIES WITH HR CHALLENGES
Strategies and HR systems
Creating the culture with HR activities
Aligning HR systems with Employee Contributions
Core knowledge employees
Job-based employees
Contingent workers
External Partners and Consultants
MEASURING HR SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS
Balanced Scorecard
Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Learning Exercise
Case Study

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Integrative Cases
Appendix B: Careers in Human Resource Management
Appendix C: Planning Your Career
Appendix D: Resources for Research on Employee Management Issues

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