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Introduction to the US Food System: Public Health, Environment, and Equity / Edition 1

Introduction to the US Food System: Public Health, Environment, and Equity / Edition 1

by Roni Neff
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118063385
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 10/20/2014
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 576
Sales rank: 352,972
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.70(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

RONI NEFF, PHD, EDITOR, is an assistantprofessor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at theJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and directs theFood System Sustainability Program at the Johns Hopkins Center fora Livable Future (CLF). She has worked in a wide variety of foodsystem and public health research, policy, and practice rolesthroughout her career.

THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE (CLF) is aninterdisciplinary academic center focused on the interrelationshipsbetween food and public health.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables ix

Introduction xvii

Acknowledgments xxv

About the Editor xxvi

Author Affiliations xxvii

About the Center for a Livable Future xxxiii

Chapter 1 Food Systems 1
Roni A. Neff and Robert S. Lawrence

The Food System as a System 2

Focus 1.1. Complex Adaptive Systems 5

Focus 1.2. Food in the Food System 6

Public Health 8

The US Food System: An Overview 9

Perspective 1.1. When Your Boat Rocks, You Want Resilience NotEfficiency 12

Focus 1.3. Principles of a Healthy, Sustainable Food System14


Chapter 2 Food System Public Health Effects 25
Brent F. Kim and Jennifer L.Wilkins

Dietary Health 26

Perspective 2.1. Gut Bacteria, Diets and Inflammation 28

Occupational and Environmental Health 33

Focus 2.1. Pesticides and Children’s Health 35

Focus 2.2. Food System Workers at Risk 39

Food Safety 40

Focus 2.3. Bisphenol-A: A Ubiquitous Food System Contaminant42

Chapter 3 Ecological Threats to and from Food Systems51
Molly D. Anderson

Status of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services Essential toFood Systems 53

Focus 3.1. Assessing Ecological Integrity of Food Systems 54

Focus 3.2. Farmland Protection 57

Focus 3.3. Virtual Water and Food Systems 60

Processes Through Which Ecological Health isThreatened 64

Moving Toward More Environmentally Sustainable Practices 68

Perspective 3.1. A Farmer’sThoughts on DefiningSustainable Farming 70

Perspective 3.2. Consumer Perceptions of EnvironmentallySustainable Foods 73

Chapter 4 The Food System and Health Inequities 79
Roni A. Neff, Anne M. Palmer, Shawn E. McKenzie, and Robert S.Lawrence

Health Inequities and Food Systems in the United States 81

Perspective 4.1. Foodies on a Mission 84

Elaborating the Pathways 85

Perspective 4.2. Realizing Justice in Local Food Systems 90

Perspective 4.3. The People Who Touch Your Food 93

Perspective 4.4. Contract Chicken Farming 94

Perspective 4.5. Food, Equity, and Health: Making theConnections in Public Health Practice 97

Chapter 5 Public Health Implications of Household FoodInsecurity 107
Mariana Chilton, Amanda Breen, and Jenny Rabinowich

Definition, Distribution, and Determinants of Food Insecurity108

Perspective 5.1. Witnesses to Hunger: Participation byThose WhoKnow Poverty and Hunger Firsthand 112

Nutrition Assistance Programs 114

Perspective 5.2. The Wrong Path Forward: Restricting FoodChoices in SNAP 118

Perspective 5.3. A Defense of Excluding Foods of MinimalNutritional Value from SNAP 119

Perspective 5.4. The Public Health Case for Universal FreeSchool Meals 121

Focus 5.1. What Do People Do When They Are Worried about FeedingTheir Families? 124

Broader Perspectives 125

Chapter 6 Community Food Security 135
Anne M. Palmer,Wei-Ting Chen, and MarkWinne

History and Evolution of CFS 137

Focus 6.1. Food Hubs: Supporting Healthy Farms, Healthy People,Healthy Economy 139

Measuring Community Food Security 141

CFS Policies at Multiple Levels 144

How Does CFS Change Happen? 146

Focus 6.2. Case Study: Iowa Food Systems Council, aSecond-Generation Food Policy Council 147

CFS and Public Health 148

Challenges for the CFS Field 148

Perspective 6.1. The City That Ended Hunger 150


Chapter 7 Food System Economics 159
Rebecca Boehm, Sean B. Cash, and Larissa S. Drescher

Economics Boiled Down: Models, Optimization, Equilibrium, andSocial Optimality 160

Agriculture and Food Production 163

Food Manufacturing and the Food Supply Chain 168

Focus 7.1. Price Transmission in the Distribution System: RetailResponses to Supply Price Changes 170

Food Consumption 171

Focus 7.2. US Farm Subsidies Do Not Make Americans Fat 174

Focus 7.3. Recent Progress in Private Sector VoluntaryInitiatives to Promote Healthy Eating 177

Chapter 8 Policies That Shape the US Food System185
Mark Muller and DavidWallinga

Federal Food System Legislation:The Process 189

Focus 8.1. Turning Policy Ideas into Legislative Realities190

How Alliances Shape Policy 190

Focus 8.2. A Brief Look at Agenda-Setting, Policy Analysis, andFood Systems 192

The Policy-Making Process and the Role of Stakeholders: The FarmBill as an Example 193

The History of US Food and Agriculture Policy: An Overview194

Perspective 8.1. Why America’s Food is Still Not Safe198

Perspective 8.2. Produce Imports 200

The Politics of Food System Policy:The Farm Bill as an Example203

How PolicyDrives the Future Food System: The Role of Price204

State and Local Policy 207

Focus 8.3. Preemption and Local Food and Agriculture Policies208

Chapter 9 Food, Culture, and Society 215
Sarah Chard and Erin G. Roth

Culture and Food 217

Perspective 9.1. Beyond White Bread, a Better Society? 217

Foodways and Identity 219

Food As Ritual 221

Focus 9.1. Food and Faith 222

Food, Healing, and Health Beliefs 225

Food and Gender 226

Food, Power, and Politics: Food Movements 228

Perspective 9.2. Zombies, Food Writing, and AgribusinessApocalypse 229

Implications For Food Systems 232

Chapter 10 Promotional Marketing: A Driver of the Modern FoodSystem 237
Corinna Hawkes

What Are Food Marketing and Promotion? 238

Types of Food Promotion 239

Focus 10.1. “Supermarketing” and the Impact on FoodChoice 240

Segmentation and Targeting in Food Promotion 242

Focus 10.2. POP! Point-of-Purchase Nutrition Labels AreEverywhere: Who Benefits? 244

Extent of Food Promotion 245

Where Promotional Marketing Fits Into the Modern Food System246

Dietary Effects of Promotional Marketing 250

Perspective 10.1. Front Groups: Who is Shaping the Conversationabout Health and Wellness? 252

Responses From Government and Industry 253


Chapter 11 Crop Production and Food Systems 265
Charles A. Francis

History of Farming Systems—From Local to Industrial266

Traditional Systems in the United States 267

Emergence of an Industrial Agriculture 267

Perspective 11.1. The Relevance of Genetically Engineered Cropsto Sustainable Agriculture 269

Industrial Crop Farming: An Overview 271

Focus 11.1. The Proliferation of Corn 273

Farms Producing for Local and Regional Markets 274

Perspective 11.2. A Bright Future for Farmers in the“Middle”? 274

Agroecology and Organic Farming 277

Crop Production—Impacts on Environment, Food Security,Public Health, and Society 278

Chapter 12 Food Animal Production 289
Brent F. Kim, Leo Horrigan, David C. Love, and Keeve E.Nachman

Focus 12.1. Seafood Harvest and Production 292

Industrialization of Food Animal Production 294

Perspective 12.1. Husbandry and Industry: Animal Agriculture,Animal Welfare, and Human Health 294

Public Health Impacts of IFAP 300

Focus 12.2. A Case Study in Rural Community Exposures: YakimaValley, Washington 303

Perspective 12.2. Living in Duplin County 304

Global and Ecological Concerns 307

Agroecological Approaches to Food Animal Production 308

Policy and Dietary Change 309

Focus 12.3. The Pew Commission on IFAP: Policy Recommendationsand Barriers to Reform 309

Chapter 13 Food Processing and Packaging 317
George A. Cavender

Food Processing 318

Perspective 13.1. Food Technology: Equal Partner for a HealthyFuture 321

Perspective 13.2. Ten Food Secrets You Need to Know 323

How Do We Process Foods? 324

Focus 13.1. On the History of Freshness 328

Food Packaging 331

Food Processing and Packaging: Challenges 335

Perspective 13.3. Ultra-Processing and a New Classification ofFoods 338

Food Processing and the Environment 340

Chapter 14 Food Distribution 345
EdwardW. McLaughlin and Miguel I. Gómez

Primary Segments of the Food Distribution System 348

Evolution of US Food Distribution 352

Perspective 14.1. The Impact of Walmart 353

Perspective 14.2. Walmarting the Food Chain 355

Focus 14.1. The Growth of Private Label Products in the USSupermarket Sector 358

System Trends in Consumer Expenditures 361

Focus 14.2. Regional Food Systems 363

Focus 14.3. Local Food Systems 363

The Future of Retail Food Distribution 365


Chapter 15 Food Consumption in the United States373
Alanna Moshfegh

Changing Eating Patterns 376

Focus 15.1. Methods for Assessing Diets of Individuals 377

Focus 15.2. National Dietary Surveys in the United States378

Perspective 15.1. The Supersizing of America: A Time for Action381

Meal Patterns—When We Eat 383

What We Eat 387

Focus 15.3. What about the Food That’s Not Eaten? FoodWaste in America and Its Ecological Impacts 392

Chapter 16 Nutrition 399
Courtney A. Pinard, Amy L. Yaroch, and Teresa M. Smith

Perspective 16.1. Consumer Perspectives 401

What Is Nutrition? 403

Nutrients 101 403

Focus 16.1. The Science behind Food and Addiction and thePotential Impact on the Food System 405

Other Nutrients 411

Other Considerations: Additives and Naturally OccurringChemicals In Food; Organic Food 416

Perspective 16.2. Reasonable Certainty of No Harm? 416

Public Health Nutrition Approaches 418

Chapter 17 Healthy Food Environments 425
Patricia L. Truant and Roni A. Neff

What Is a Food Environment? 426

Focus 17.1. Measuring the Food Environment 429

Equity 431

Perspective 17.1. Connecting Civil Rights to Contemporary FoodJustice 434

Homes, Schools, Workplaces 435

Perspective 17.2. Striving for “Food Service for aSustainable Future” 439

The Built Food Environment 440

Focus 17.2. Is There a Map forThat? Using GIS Maps to UnderstandOur Food Systems 441

Focus 17.3. Connecting People andTheir Food Systems: Why GardensMatter 447

Chapter 18 Intervening to Change Eating Patterns: How CanIndividuals and Societies Effect Lasting Change throughTheir EatingPatterns? 457
Linden Thayer, Molly DeMarco, Larissa Calancie, MelissaCunningham Kay, and Alice Ammerman

Designing Successful Dietary Change Interventions 460

Focus 18.1. Framing Public Health Messages to Improve Diet:Taking Measures to Avoid Weight Stigma 463

Case Studies 466

Focus 18.2. Meatless Monday: A Simple Idea That Sparked aMovement 467

Focus 18.3. Real Food Challenge 470

Perspective 18.1. Building a Better Food Environment 473

Future Directions For Dietary Change Interventions 477

Glossary 483

Photo Credits 501

Index 511

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