Discoveries of new types of marine mineral occurrences during the last decade, and specifically the massive sulfide deposits at spreading ridges on the ocean floor, have significantly advanced geologic concepts about the origin of ore deposits in a very short period of time. These discoveries also renewed interest in all marine mineral occurrences including the well-known manganese nodules, and led to more wide-ranging and thorough examination of cobalt-rich manganese crusts, expanded mapping of phosphorites of continental shelves, and the initiation of several new surveys for placer minerals in shallow waters. The result of these activities is already noticeable in an increasingly broader variety of minerals being found on and below the ocean floor. This upsurge of scientific interest and research in marine minerals provided the impetus to organize an Advanced Research Workshop under auspices of the NATO Science Council and its Special Program Panel on Marine Sciences. The workshop was held in the United Kingdom at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, June 10-16, 1985, under the theme "Marine Minerals--Resource Assessment Strategies. " The timing of this workshop was propitious in many ways. First, marine surveys and expeditions to chart the mineral resources of the world's oceans had increased in number in recent years, involving a growing number of nations interested in obtaining firsthand information.
Table of ContentsSummary Reports.- Report of the working group on placer minerals.- Report of the working group on marine phosphorites.- Report of the working group on manganese nodules and crusts.- Report of the working group on marine sulfides.- Contributed Papers.- Placers.- Sedimentary models to estimate the heavy-mineral potential of shelf sediments.- Exploring the offshore area of N.E. Greece for placer deposits.- Marine placers: Reconnaissance exploration technology.- The development of techniques for marine geological surveys.- Phosphorites.- Model of Tertiary phosphorites on the world’s continental margins.- Open-ocean phosphorites: In a class by themselves?.- Some mineral resources of the West African continental shelves related to Holocene shorelines: Phosphorite (Gabon, Congo), glauconite (Congo) and ilmenite (Senegal, Mauritania).- Exploration and genesis of submarine phosphorite deposits from the Chatham Rise, New Zealand: A review.- Manganese nodules and crusts.- Controls on the nature and distribution of manganese nodules in the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean.- Growth history and variability of manganese nodules of the Equatorial North Pacific.- Chemistry and growth history of central Pacific Mn-crusts and their economic importance.- Geochemical methods in manganese nodule exploration.- Analysis and metallurgy of manganese nodules and crusts.- Nodule exploration: Accomplishments, needs and problems.- Deep-ocean near-bottom surveying techniques.- Metalliferous sulfides.- Seafloor polymetallic sulfides: Scientific curiosities or mines of the future?.- Sulfide deposits of the seafloor: Geological models and resource perspectives based on studies in ophiolite sequences.- Recent hydrothermal metal accumulation, products, and conditions of formation.- The chemistry of submarine ore-forming solutions.- Trace element and precious metal concentrations in East Pacific Rise, Cyprus and Red Sea submarine sulfide deposits.- Possibility of mineral enrichment in the Black Sea.- Seafloor volcanism and polymetallic sulfide deposits in ancient active margins: The case of the Iberian pyrite belt.- Scientific rationale for establishing long-term ocean bottom observatory/laboratory systems.- Electrical methods in the exploration of seafloor mineral deposits.- Resource assessment and geostatistics.- Sources of confusion: What are marine mineral resources?.- Thoughts on appraising marine mineral resources.- Estimation of the probability of occurrence of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits on the ocean floor.- Resource assessments, geological deposit models and offshore minerals with an example of heavy-mineral sands.- Aspects of marine placer minerals: Economic potential of coastal deposits in Italy, testing procedures and market conditions.- Geostatistical problems in marine placer exploration.- Geostatistical reserve modeling and mining simulation of the Atlantis II Deepl’s metalliferous sediments.- An investigation of the applicability of trend surface analysis to marine exploration geochemistry.- List of Participants of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Marine Minerals: Resource Assessment Strategies.