Pub. Date:
Cambridge University Press
Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids

Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids

by David S. Wilkinson
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900521624946
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 12/01/2000
Series: Cambridge Solid State Science Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 290
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Table of Contents

Principal symbolsxv
Part AOverview1
1Introduction to mass transport mechanisms3
1.1Mass transport processes3
1.2Statement of Fick's First Law4
1.3Mechanisms of diffusion6
1.4Diffusion in solids7
1.4.1Interstitial diffusion8
1.4.2Vacancy diffusion11
1.4.3Diffusion in alloys13
1.4.4Diffusion in compounds14
1.5Diffusion in liquids14
1.6Diffusion in gases15
1.7Diffusion data17
1.8Mass transport by convection19
1.9Further reading20
1.10Problems to chapter 120
Part BSolid-state diffusion in dilute alloys23
2Steady-state diffusion25
2.1Fick's First Law26
2.2Applications to steady-state problems26
2.2.1Measurement of the diffusion coefficient26
2.2.2Permeability of gases through a solid29
2.2.3Diffusion in parallel through a composite solid35
2.3Growth of surface layers--pseudo steady state39
2.3.1Growth of oxide films39
2.3.2Slip casting43
2.4Further reading44
2.5Problems to chapter 244
3Transient diffusion problems47
3.1Fick's Second Law47
3.2Solutions to Fick's Second Law50
3.2.2Approaches to solving transient diffusion problems51
3.3Solutions to Fick's Second Law at short time (far from equilibrium)54
3.3.1Plane initial source54
3.3.2Diffusion from a distributed source60
3.3.3Diffusion from a surface at fixed concentration64
3.3.4Diffusion between two solids with different initial solute concentration68
3.4The nominal diffusion distance68
3.5Solution methods for Fick's Second Law at longer time (near equilibrium)72
3.5.1Diffusion in a slab from a plane initial source72
3.5.2Use of image sources73
3.5.3General solutions to Fick's Second Law77
3.6Standard solutions to long-time transient diffusion problems80
3.6.1Uniform initial concentration C[subscript i] and fixed surface concentration C[subscript s]80
3.6.2Uniform initial concentration C[subscript i] with fixed surface flux J*85
3.6.3Uniform initial concentration but different boundary conditions86
3.6.4Diffusion through a hollow cylinder or sphere88
3.6.5Other solutions89
3.7Further reading90
3.8Problems to chapter 390
4Applications to problems in materials engineering96
4.2Boundary conditions97
5Applications involving gas--solid reactions99
5.2Simple gas--solid reactions100
5.3Reactions involving gas mixtures104
5.4Semiconductor doping105
5.5Gas/solid interfaces without local equilibrium107
5.6Further reading109
5.7Problems to chapter 5109
6Heat treatment of binary alloys114
6.2Changing temperature within a two-phase field115
6.2.1Solution valid at short time117
6.2.2Solution valid at long time117
6.3Particle dissolution120
6.3.1Dissolution of plates120
6.3.2Dissolution of spherical particles123
6.4Growth of second-phase particles by solute rejection125
6.4.1Planar growth125
6.4.2Precipitation of spherical particles130
6.5Cooperative growth processes132
6.6Further reading136
6.7Problems to chapter 6136
Part CMass transport in concentrated alloys and fluids147
7Diffusion in concentrated alloys and fluids149
7.1Concept of counter diffusion150
7.2Kirkendall effect in solids153
7.2.1Interdiffusion coefficient153
7.2.2Diffusion couples157
7.3Solid-state diffusion couples involving immiscible phases159
7.3.1Simple diffusion couples for immiscible solids with no intermediate phases159
7.3.2Couples with intermediate phases162
7.4Diffusion in quiescent fluids166
7.4.1Simple evaporation167
7.4.2Evaporation involving reactions at a front169
7.4.3Particle condensation during evaporation171
7.5Near-surface internal precipitation in alloys173
7.6Further reading176
7.7Problems to chapter 7176
8Mass transport in the presence of convection183
8.1Transient diffusion in fluids183
8.2Mass transport at a flowing interface185
8.3Mass transfer coefficient187
8.3.1Mass transfer to spheres188
8.3.2Mass transfer coefficient for other geometries190
8.4Models for mass transfer191
8.4.1Stagnant film model191
8.4.2Higbie penetration model192
8.4.3Application to modelling evaporation from molten metal194
8.5Quiescent systems containing internal reactions195
8.6Further reading197
8.7Problems to chapter 8197
9Advanced topics202
9.1Overall mass balance202
9.2Multi-phase resistances206
9.3Topochemical reaction kinetics209
9.3.1Reduction of oxide pellets209
9.3.2Gas diffusivity in porous solids212
9.4Further reading214
9.5Problems to chapter 9214
Part DAlternative driving forces for diffusion221
10General driving force for diffusion223
10.2Diffusion due to an electrical field226
10.3Diffusion due to mechanical stress227
10.3.1Vacancy diffusion due to local forces227
10.3.2Application to diffusion creep230
10.4Diffusion due to surface curvature231
10.5Diffusion due to an activity gradient232
10.5.1Application to 'uphill' diffusion233
10.6Further reading234
10.7Problems to chapter 10234
AMathematical methods for the solution of Fick's Second Law236
A.1Separation of variables method236
A.2Laplace transform method240
BSelected diffusion data242
B.1Self-diffusivity of the elements242
B.2Solute diffusivity in compounds242
B.3Solute diffusivity in alloys243
CSelected binary and pseudo-binary phase diagrams244
DSolving problems by developing conceptual models258
D.2General method (to be adapted for particular cases)259
D.4Problems on modelling264
EUseful fundamental constants and conversions267

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