ISBN-10:
0134319656
ISBN-13:
9780134319650
Pub. Date:
01/19/2016
Publisher:
Pearson
Mechanics of Materials / Edition 10

Mechanics of Materials / Edition 10

by Russell C. Hibbeler

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780134319650
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/19/2016
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 896
Sales rank: 133,656
Product dimensions: 8.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

R.C. Hibbeler graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana with a BS in Civil Engineering (majoring in Structures) and an MS in Nuclear Engineering. He obtained his PhD in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics from Northwestern University. Professor Hibbeler’s professional experience includes postdoctoral work in reactor safety and analysis at Argonne National Laboratory, and structural and stress analysis work at Chicago Bridge and Iron, as well as at Sargent and Lundy in Chicago. He has practiced engineering in Ohio, New York, and Louisiana.

Professor Hibbeler currently teaches both civil and mechanical engineering courses at the University of Louisiana– Lafayette. In the past, he has taught at the University of Illinois at Urbana, Youngstown State University, Illinois Institute of Technology, and Union College.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is intended to provide the student with a clear and thorough presentation of both the theory and application of the fundamental principles of mechanics of materials. Understanding is based on the explanation of the physical behavior of materials under load and then modeling this behavior to develop the theory. Emphasis is placed on the importance of satisfying equilibrium, compatibility of deformation, and material behavior requirements.

New Features

Several changes have been made in preparing this, the fourth edition. The following is a list of some of the more important ones.

  • Improved Pedagogy. The "procedure for analysis" sections, along with a new feature, "important points," are presented using a bulleted list format in order to aid in problem solving and review. Also, clarity throughout n the text has been improved, and new examples have been provided.
  • Photographs. Many new photographs are used throughout the book to explain how the principles of mechanics of materials apply to real-world situations. In some sections they show how materials deform or fail under load in order to provide a better understanding of the terms and concepts.
  • Problems. Many new problems have been added throughout the book, providing a better balance between easy, medium, and difficult applications. In addition, some problems require solution by computer. More than ever before, extra care has been taken in the presentation and solution of the problems, and all the problem sets have been reviewed and the solutions checked and rechecked to ensure both their clarity and numericalaccuracy.
  • Revison of Material. Some rewriting was done throughout the book to further refine the explanation of the concepts and, in some cases, broaden their scope. In particular, the material in Chapter 9 now contains a better development of sress transformation, and it includes two new sections involving combined stresses, which can be included under the alternative coverage scheme described below.

Contents

The subject matter is organized into 14 chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a review of the important concepts of statics, followed by a formal definition of both normal and shear stress, and a discussion of normal stress in axially loaded members and average shear stress caused by direct shear. In Chapter 2 normal and shear strain are defined, and in Chapter 3 a discussion of some of the important mechanical properties of materials is given. Separate treatments of axial load, torsion, and bending are presented in Chapters 4, 5, and 6, respectively. In each of these chapters, both linear-elastic and plastic behavior of the material are considered. Also, topics related to stress concentrations and residual stress are included. Transverse shear is discussed in Chapter 7, along with a discussion of thin-walled tubes, shear flow, and the shear center. Chapter 8 provides a partial review of the material covered in the previous chapters, in which the state of stress resulting from combined loadings is discussed. In Chapter 9 the concepts for transforming multiaxial states of stress are presented. In a similar manner, Chapter 10 discusses the methods for strain transformation, including the application of various theories of failure. Chapter 11 provides a means for a further summary and review of previous material by covering design applications of beams and shafts. In Chapter 12 various methods for computing deflections of beams and shafts are covered. Also included is a discussion for finding the reactions on these members if they are statically indeterminate. Chapter 13 provides a discussion of column buckling, and lastly, in Chapter 14 the problem of impact and the application of various energy methods for computing deflections are considered.

Sections of the book that contain more advanced material are indicated by a star (*). Time permitting, some of these topics may be included in the course. Furthermore, this material provides a suitable reference for basic principles when it is covered in other courses, and it can be used as a basis for assigning special projects.

Alternative Method of Coverage. Some instructors prefer to cover stress and strain transformations first, before discussing specific applications of axial load, torsion, bending, and shear. One possible method for doing this would be first to cover stress and its transformation, Chapter 1 and Chapter 9, followed by strain and its transformation, Chapter 2 and the first part of Chapter 10. The discussion and example problems in these later chapters have been styled so that this is possible. Also, the problem sets have been subdivided so that this material can be covered without prior knowledge of the intervening chapters. Chapters 3 through 8 can then be covered with no loss in continuity.

Special Features

Organization and Approach. In order to aid both the instructor and the student, the contents of each chapter are organized into welldefined sections. Selected groups of sections contain an explanation of specific topics, followed by illustrative example problems and a set of homework problems. The topics within each section are often placed in subgroups denoted by boldface titles. The purpose of this is to present a structured method for introducing each new definition or concept and to make the book convenient for later reference and review. Furthermore, important terms in the chapter have been highlighted in boldface to provide a convenient means for review.

Chapter Contents. Each chapter begins with a photo to illustrate a broad range application of the material within the chapter. The "chapter objectives" are then provided to give a general overview of the material that will be covered.

Procedures for Analysis. Found in many sections of the book, this unique feature provides the student with a logical and orderly method to follow when applying the theory. The example problems are then solved using this outlined method in order to clarify its numerical application. It is to be understood, however, that once the relevant principles have been mastered and enough confidence and judgment have been acquired, the student can then develop his or her own procedures for solving problems.

Important Points. This feature provides a review or summary of the most important concepts in a section and highlights the most significant points that should be realized when applying the theory to solve problems.

Conceptual Understanding. Through the use of photographs placed throughout the book, examples of the theory are provided in order to illustrate some of its more important conceptual features and instill the physical meaning of many of the terms used in the equations.

Example Problems. All the example problems are presented in a concise manner and in a style that is easy to understand. New examples have been added throughout the text, and some from the previous edition have been shortened.

Homework Problems. Numerous problems in the book depict realistic situations encountered in engineering practice. It is hoped that this realism will both stimulate the student's interest in the subject and provide a means for developing the skill to reduce any such problem from its physical description to a model or symbolic representation to which the principles may be applied.

Throughout the book there is an approximate balance of problems using either SI or FPS units. Furthermore, in any set, an attempt has been made to arrange the problems in order of increasing difficulty. The answers to all but every fourth problem are listed in the back of the book. To alert the user to a problem without a reported answer, an asterisk (*) is placed before the problem number. Answers are reported to three significant figures, even though the data for material properties may be known with less accuracy. Although this might appear to be poor practice, it is done simply to be consistent and to allow the student a better chance to validate his or her solution. All the problems and their solutions have been independently checked for accuracy. A solid square (•) is used to identify problems that require a numerical analysis or computer application.

Appendices. The appendices of the book provide a source for review and a listing of tabular data. Appendix A provides information on the centroid and the moment of inertia of an area. Appendices B and C list tabular data for structural shapes, and the deflection and slopes of various types of beams and shafts. Appendix D, which is titled "Review for the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam," contains typical problems, along with their partial solutions, that are commonly used on FE exams. These problems may also be used for review and practice in preparing for class examinations.

Acknowledgments

Over the years, this text has been shaped by the suggestions and comments of many of my colleagues in the teaching profession. Their encouragement and willingness to provide constructive criticism are very much appreciated and it is hoped that they will accept this anonymous recognition.

A particular note of thanks is given to Kai Beng Yap and Professor Will Liddel, Jr., Auburn University at Montgomery, for specific help and support, to Susan Sibille for her help with the artwork and the layout of the book, and to Joey Ponds and Joseph Sonnier for their help with the photographs. I would also like to thank all my students who have used the previous edition and have made comments to improve its contents. Lastly, I should like to acknowledge the assistance of my wife, Cornelie (Conny), during the year it has taken to prepare the manuscript for publication.

I would greatly appreciate hearing from you if at any time you have any comments or suggestions regarding the contents of this edition.

RUSSELL CHARLES HIBBELER
hibbeler@bellsouth.net

Table of Contents

1. Stress

Chapter Objectives

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Equilibrium of a Deformable Body

1.3 Stress

1.4 Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar

1.5 Average Shear Stress

1.6 Allowable Stress Design

1.7 Limit State Design

2. Strain

Chapter Objectives

2.1 Deformation

2.2 Strain

3. Mechanical Properties of Materials

Chapter Objectives

3.1 The Tension and Compression Test

3.2 The Stress—Strain Diagram

3.3 Stress—Strain Behavior of Ductile and Brittle Materials

3.4 Strain Energy

3.5 Poisson’s Ratio

3.6 The Shear Stress—Strain Diagram

*3.7 Failure of Materials Due to Creep and Fatigue

4. Axial Load

Chapter Objectives

4.1 Saint-Venant’s Principle

4.2 Elastic Deformation of an Axially Loaded Member

4.3 Principle of Superposition

4.4 Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members

4.5 The Force Method of Analysis for Axially Loaded Members

4.6 Thermal Stress

4.7 Stress Concentrations

*4.8 Inelastic Axial Deformation

*4.9 Residual Stress

5. Torsion

Chapter Objectives

5.1 Torsional Deformation of a Circular Shaft

5.2 The Torsion Formula

5.3 Power Transmission

5.4 Angle of Twist

5.5 Statically Indeterminate Torque-Loaded Members

*5.6 Solid Noncircular Shafts

*5.7 Thin-Walled Tubes Having Closed Cross Sections

5.8 Stress Concentration

*5.9 Inelastic Torsion

*5.10 Residual Stress

6. Bending

Chapter Objectives

6.1 Shear and Moment Diagrams

6.2 Graphical Method for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams

6.3 Bending Deformation of a Straight Member

6.4 The Flexure Formula

6.5 Unsymmetric Bending

*6.6 Composite Beams

*6.7 Reinforced Concrete Beams

*6.8 Curved Beams

6.9 Stress Concentrations

*6.10 Inelastic Bending

7. Transverse Shear

Chapter Objectives

7.1 Shear in Straight Members

7.2 The Shear Formula

7.3 Shear Flow in Built-Up Members

7.4 Shear Flow in Thin-Walled Members

*7.5 Shear Center for Open Thin-Walled Members

8. Combined Loadings

Chapter Objectives

8.1 Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

8.2 State of Stress Caused by Combined Loadings

9. Stress Transformation

Chapter Objectives

9.1 Plane-Stress Transformation

9.2 General Equations of Plane-Stress Transformation

9.3 Principal Stresses and Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress

9.4 Mohr’s Circle–Plane Stress

9.5 Absolute Maximum Shear Stress

10. Strain Transformation

Chapter Objectives

10.1 Plane Strain

10.2 General Equations of Plane-Strain Transformation

*10.3 Mohr’s Circle–Plane Strain

*10.4 Absolute Maximum Shear Strain

10.5 Strain Rosettes

10.6 Material Property Relationships

*10.7 Theories of Failure

11. Design of Beams and Shafts

Chapter Objectives

11.1 Basis for Beam Design

11.2 Prismatic Beam Design

*11.3 Fully Stressed Beams

*11.4 Shaft Design

12. Deflection of Beams and Shafts

Chapter Objectives

12.1 The Elastic Curve

12.2 Slope and Displacement by Integration

*12.3 Discontinuity Functions

*12.4 Slope and Displacement by the Moment-Area Method

12.5 Method of Superposition

12.6 Statically Indeterminate Beams and Shafts

12.7 Statically Indeterminate Beams and Shafts–Method of Integration

*12.8 Statically Indeterminate Beams and Shafts–Moment-Area Method

12.9 Statically Indeterminate Beams and Shafts–Method of Superposition

13. Buckling of Columns

Chapter Objectives

13.1 Critical Load

13.2 Ideal Column with Pin Supports

13.3 Columns Having Various Types of Supports

*13.4 The Secant Formula

*13.5 Inelastic Buckling

*13.6 Design of Columns for Concentric Loading

*13.7 Design of Columns for Eccentric Loading

14. Energy Methods

Chapter Objectives

14.1 External Work and Strain Energy

14.2 Elastic Strain Energy for Various Types of Loading

14.3 Conservation of Energy

14.4 Impact Loading

*14.5 Principle of Virtual Work

*14.6 Method of Virtual Forces Applied to Trusses

*14.7 Method of Virtual Forces Applied to Beams

*14.8 Castigliano’s Theorem

*14.9 Castigliano’s Theorem Applied to Trusses

*14.10 Castigliano’s Theorem Applied to Beams

Appendix

A Geometric Properties of an Area

B Geometric Properties of Structural Shapes

C Slopes and Deflections of Beams

Solutions and Answers for Preliminary Problems

Fundamental Problems Partial Solutions and Answers

Selected Answers

Index

Sections of the book that contain more advanced material are indicated by a star (*).

Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

This book is intended to provide the student with a clear and thorough presentation of both the theory and application of the fundamental principles of mechanics of materials. Understanding is based on the explanation of the physical behavior of materials under load and then modeling this behavior to develop the theory. Emphasis is placed on the importance of satisfying equilibrium, compatibility of deformation, and material behavior requirements.

New Features

Several changes have been made in preparing this, the fourth edition. The following is a list of some of the more important ones.

  • Improved Pedagogy. The "procedure for analysis" sections, along with a new feature, "important points," are presented using a bulleted list format in order to aid in problem solving and review. Also, clarity throughout n the text has been improved, and new examples have been provided.
  • Photographs. Many new photographs are used throughout the book to explain how the principles of mechanics of materials apply to real-world situations. In some sections they show how materials deform or fail under load in order to provide a better understanding of the terms and concepts.
  • Problems. Many new problems have been added throughout the book, providing a better balance between easy, medium, and difficult applications. In addition, some problems require solution by computer. More than ever before, extra care has been taken in the presentation and solution of the problems, and all the problem sets have been reviewed and the solutions checked and rechecked to ensure both their clarity andnumericalaccuracy.
  • Revison of Material. Some rewriting was done throughout the book to further refine the explanation of the concepts and, in some cases, broaden their scope. In particular, the material in Chapter 9 now contains a better development of sress transformation, and it includes two new sections involving combined stresses, which can be included under the alternative coverage scheme described below.

Contents

The subject matter is organized into 14 chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a review of the important concepts of statics, followed by a formal definition of both normal and shear stress, and a discussion of normal stress in axially loaded members and average shear stress caused by direct shear. In Chapter 2 normal and shear strain are defined, and in Chapter 3 a discussion of some of the important mechanical properties of materials is given. Separate treatments of axial load, torsion, and bending are presented in Chapters 4, 5, and 6, respectively. In each of these chapters, both linear-elastic and plastic behavior of the material are considered. Also, topics related to stress concentrations and residual stress are included. Transverse shear is discussed in Chapter 7, along with a discussion of thin-walled tubes, shear flow, and the shear center. Chapter 8 provides a partial review of the material covered in the previous chapters, in which the state of stress resulting from combined loadings is discussed. In Chapter 9 the concepts for transforming multiaxial states of stress are presented. In a similar manner, Chapter 10 discusses the methods for strain transformation, including the application of various theories of failure. Chapter 11 provides a means for a further summary and review of previous material by covering design applications of beams and shafts. In Chapter 12 various methods for computing deflections of beams and shafts are covered. Also included is a discussion for finding the reactions on these members if they are statically indeterminate. Chapter 13 provides a discussion of column buckling, and lastly, in Chapter 14 the problem of impact and the application of various energy methods for computing deflections are considered.

Sections of the book that contain more advanced material are indicated by a star (*). Time permitting, some of these topics may be included in the course. Furthermore, this material provides a suitable reference for basic principles when it is covered in other courses, and it can be used as a basis for assigning special projects.

Alternative Method of Coverage. Some instructors prefer to cover stress and strain transformations first, before discussing specific applications of axial load, torsion, bending, and shear. One possible method for doing this would be first to cover stress and its transformation, Chapter 1 and Chapter 9, followed by strain and its transformation, Chapter 2 and the first part of Chapter 10. The discussion and example problems in these later chapters have been styled so that this is possible. Also, the problem sets have been subdivided so that this material can be covered without prior knowledge of the intervening chapters. Chapters 3 through 8 can then be covered with no loss in continuity.

Special Features

Organization and Approach. In order to aid both the instructor and the student, the contents of each chapter are organized into welldefined sections. Selected groups of sections contain an explanation of specific topics, followed by illustrative example problems and a set of homework problems. The topics within each section are often placed in subgroups denoted by boldface titles. The purpose of this is to present a structured method for introducing each new definition or concept and to make the book convenient for later reference and review. Furthermore, important terms in the chapter have been highlighted in boldface to provide a convenient means for review.

Chapter Contents. Each chapter begins with a photo to illustrate a broad range application of the material within the chapter. The "chapter objectives" are then provided to give a general overview of the material that will be covered.

Procedures for Analysis. Found in many sections of the book, this unique feature provides the student with a logical and orderly method to follow when applying the theory. The example problems are then solved using this outlined method in order to clarify its numerical application. It is to be understood, however, that once the relevant principles have been mastered and enough confidence and judgment have been acquired, the student can then develop his or her own procedures for solving problems.

Important Points. This feature provides a review or summary of the most important concepts in a section and highlights the most significant points that should be realized when applying the theory to solve problems.

Conceptual Understanding. Through the use of photographs placed throughout the book, examples of the theory are provided in order to illustrate some of its more important conceptual features and instill the physical meaning of many of the terms used in the equations.

Example Problems. All the example problems are presented in a concise manner and in a style that is easy to understand. New examples have been added throughout the text, and some from the previous edition have been shortened.

Homework Problems. Numerous problems in the book depict realistic situations encountered in engineering practice. It is hoped that this realism will both stimulate the student's interest in the subject and provide a means for developing the skill to reduce any such problem from its physical description to a model or symbolic representation to which the principles may be applied.

Throughout the book there is an approximate balance of problems using either SI or FPS units. Furthermore, in any set, an attempt has been made to arrange the problems in order of increasing difficulty. The answers to all but every fourth problem are listed in the back of the book. To alert the user to a problem without a reported answer, an asterisk (*) is placed before the problem number. Answers are reported to three significant figures, even though the data for material properties may be known with less accuracy. Although this might appear to be poor practice, it is done simply to be consistent and to allow the student a better chance to validate his or her solution. All the problems and their solutions have been independently checked for accuracy. A solid square (•) is used to identify problems that require a numerical analysis or computer application.

Appendices. The appendices of the book provide a source for review and a listing of tabular data. Appendix A provides information on the centroid and the moment of inertia of an area. Appendices B and C list tabular data for structural shapes, and the deflection and slopes of various types of beams and shafts. Appendix D, which is titled "Review for the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam," contains typical problems, along with their partial solutions, that are commonly used on FE exams. These problems may also be used for review and practice in preparing for class examinations.

Acknowledgments

Over the years, this text has been shaped by the suggestions and comments of many of my colleagues in the teaching profession. Their encouragement and willingness to provide constructive criticism are very much appreciated and it is hoped that they will accept this anonymous recognition.

A particular note of thanks is given to Kai Beng Yap and Professor Will Liddel, Jr., Auburn University at Montgomery, for specific help and support, to Susan Sibille for her help with the artwork and the layout of the book, and to Joey Ponds and Joseph Sonnier for their help with the photographs. I would also like to thank all my students who have used the previous edition and have made comments to improve its contents. Lastly, I should like to acknowledge the assistance of my wife, Cornelie (Conny), during the year it has taken to prepare the manuscript for publication.

I would greatly appreciate hearing from you if at any time you have any comments or suggestions regarding the contents of this edition.

RUSSELL CHARLES HIBBELER
hibbeler@bellsouth.net

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