Methodological and Statistical Advances in the Study of Individual Differences

Methodological and Statistical Advances in the Study of Individual Differences


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Differential psychology, or the psychology of individual differences as it is better known, is perhaps the single most important basic psychological science that underlies professional practice in psychology. The recent age of behaviorism all but ignored individual differences, but in this decade the study has emerged from relative dormancy with a new vitality, fueled by new concepts, technologies, statistics, and new viewpoints on old ideas that are moving us forward. This work is intended to be a review of as well as a primer on many of these advances and new approaches to the study of individual differences. The venerable, interesting, and often controversial Eysenck opens the volume with a review of recent results and new techniques for unlocking the physiological basis of what is commonly understood to be intelligence. Eysenck and his students, in his London laboratory, have been fostering advances in this field for more than four decades. Their latest work could be the most exciting of Eysenck's illustrious, scholarly career. Eysenck's eye-opening, innovative work on the relationship between evoked potentials and performance on traditional psychometric measures, presented with a new slant, is certain to attract much attention in coming years. Eysenck and Barrett's chapter is followed by a closely related work by Arthur Jensen, who gives us a revitalizing look at the concepts of Sir Francis Galton, the founder of the psychology of individual differences.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468449426
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 02/26/2012
Series: Perspectives on Individual Differences
Edition description: 1985
Pages: 492
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1 Psychophysiology and the Measurement of Intelligence.- The Two Paradigms of Intelligence.- The Electroencephalogram and the Average Evoked Potential as Biological Correlates of IQ.- AEPs and Intelligence: Early Paradigms.- AEPs and Intelligence: Recent Paradigms.- The Hendrickson Paradigm.- The Robinson Paradigm.- The Schafer Paradigm.- Theory and Measurement.- References.- 2 Methodological and Statistical Techniques for the Chronometric Study of Mental Abilities.- Categories of Reaction Time.- Differences between Psychometric and Chronometric Data.- Basis of Correlation between Chronometric and Psychometric Indices of Individual Differences.- Most Relevant References in the Reaction Time Literature.- Types and Terminology of Reaction Time.- Definitions of Reaction Time.- Classical Reaction Time Paradigms.- Analysis of Elementary Cognitive Processes.- The Subtraction Method.- The Additive Factor Method.- Elaborations of Classical Reaction Time Paradigms.- Procedural Variables that Affect Reaction Time.- Preparatory Factors.- Stimulus Factors.- Response Factors.- Extrinsic Organismic Factors.- Intrinsic Organismic Factors.- Chronometric Apparatus and Techniques.- Apparatus.- Procedures.- Individual Difference Variables Derived from Chronometric Paradigms.- Speed-Accuracy Trade-off.- Central Tendency of Reaction Time and Movement Time.- Intercept and Slope of Reaction Time.- Intraindividual Variability in Reaction Time and Movement Time.- Statistical Treatment of Chronometrie Data.- Reliability and Stability.- Relationship of Chronometrie Variables to Psychometric Variables.- Factor Analysis of Chronometrie and Psychometric Data.- Chronometrie Variables Correlated with Psychometric Intelligence.- References.- 3 Neuropsychological Approaches to the Study of Individual Differences.- Differences between Groups.- Handedness Differences.- Sex Differences.- Age Differences.- Differences among Individuals.- Structural Differences.- Physiological Differences.- Differences in Left- and Right-Hemisphere Utilization.- Concluding Comments.- References.- 4 Applications of the Kaufman Assessment Battery For Children to the Study of Individual Differences.- Overview of the K-ABC.- Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.- Ethnic Group Differences in Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.- Sex Differences in Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.- Developmental Differences in Sequential and Simultaneous Processing.- Research on Exceptional Samples.- Relationship of the K-ABC Mental Processing Scales to Other Tests.- Conclusions.- References.- 5 Applying Componential Theory to the Study of Individual Differences in Cognitive Skills.- Overview of Componential Analysis.- Selecting or Generating a Theory of Relevant Cognition.- Selecting One or More Tasks for Analysis.- Decomposing Task Performance.- Qualification of Componential Model.- Model Testing: Internal Validation.- Model Testing: External Validation.- Reformulation of the Componential Model.- Generalization of the Componential Model.- Individual and Group Differences in Strategy.- Conclusions.- References.- 6 New Directions in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research.- Research Status.- Anxiety-Instructional Intervention Interaction: An Examplar of Traditional Studies of Aptitude-Treatment Interaction.- Reasons for the Lack of Aptitude-Treatment Interactions.- Aptitude-Treatment Interaction versus Treatment-Aptitude Interaction.- The Need for Further Rapprochement between Psychology and Education.- Lack of a Scientific Basis for Understanding Complex School-Related Skills.- Need for Prescriptive Theories of Learning.- More Focus on a Broader Spectrum of Educational Outcomes.- Toward a Taxonomy of Student Performance in School Subjects.- Teacher Behavior and its Effects.- Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research in the 1980s.- Conceptualizing Aptitude-Treatment Interaction: Some Additional Perspectives.- Classroom/Teacher Effects.- The Need for “Interactive” Conceptions of Classroom Variables.- A “Correlates” versus a “Components” Approach to the Study of Aptitudes.- Problems of Measuring Individual Differences.- The Psychological Status of Individual Differences.- The Effects of Subjects? Propensities.- Nonlinear Relationships among Aptitude and Instructional Variables.- Instability of Aptitude-Learning Relations Over Time.- The Aptitude-Treatment Concept and Tests of Significance.- Extending the Interactional Viewpoint.- Toward the Integration of Aptitude-Interaction and Educational Practice.- Is Optimal Matching Feasible?.- The Utility of Aptitude-Treatment Interactions in Placement Decisions.- Strategies for Adapting to Individual Differences.- Concluding Comment.- References.- 7 Analysis of Interactions in Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research.- Models.- Linear Models.- Tests of Significance.- Nonsimultaneous Regions of Significance.- Example of a Nonsimultaneous Region-of-Significance Calculation.- Nonparallelism of Slopes.- Simultaneous Regions of Significance.- Examples of Simultaneous Regions of Significance.- Two Aptitudes.- Design Considerations.- Error Rates for the Johnson-Neyman Techniques.- Errors of Measurement.- Alternative Approaches.- Generalizability Theory and Aptitude-Treatment Interaction.- Uses of Johnson-Neyman Techniques.- Topics not Covered.- New Areas for Investigation.- Summary.- References.- 8 General Linear Models of Individual Differences.- Time as a Variable.- Tools for the Study of Individual Differences.- ANOVA versus Regression Analysis.- Fitting with General Linear Models.- Individual Differences Classified.- Individual Differences Based on a Single Variables.- Individual Differences Based on a Time-Dependent Variable.- Individual Differences Based on Two or More Independent Variables.- An Example of Longitudinal Data.- An Example of Cross-Sectional Data.- Final Remarks on General Linear Models.- References.- 9 Research Methods from Applied Behavior Analysis.- Behavior Analysis and Individual Differences.- Conceptual/Measurement Issues.- Methodological Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis.- Further Considerations and Examples.- Assessment within Applied Behavior Analysis.- General Methods of Behavioral Assessment.- Direct Observational Systems.- Behavior Analysis Research Designs.- Types of Behavior Analysis Designs.- Special Design Issues.- Strategies for Assessing Generalization.- Application of Between-Group Designs in Applied Behavior Analysis Research.- Replication.- Direct Replication.- Systematic Replication.- Dimensions of Systematic Replication.- Methods of Systematic Replication.- Withdrawal Designs.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 10 Criterion-Referenced Assessment of Individual Differences.- Definitions and Uses of Criterion-Referenced Tests.- Norm-Referenced Testing versus Criterion-Referenced Testing.- Content Specifications.- Test Development.- Assessment of Item and Content Validity.- Item-Analysis Techniques.- Standard-Setting.- Psychometric Characteristics of Criterion-Referenced Test Scores.- Reliability Issues and Methods.- Validity Issues and Methods.- Summary.- References.- 11 Path-Referenced Assessment of Individual Differences.- Origins of Path-Referenced Assessment.- The Influence of Criterion-Referenced Assessment.- The Impact of Cognitive Psychology.- The Contribution of Advances in Statistics.- Path-Referenced Assessment Technology.- A General Domain Structure Model for Path-Referenced Assessment.- Domain Structure Analysis.- Item Construction Technology.- Psychometrics for Path-Referenced Tests.- Applications of Path-Referenced Assessment.- A Psychometric Example.- Path-Referenced Approach to the Management of Individual Differences.- Future Directions for Path-Referenced Assessment.- References.

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