The advent of microelectromechanic system (MEMS) technologies and nanotechnologieshas resulted in a multitude of structures and devices with ultra compact dimensions and with vastly enhanced or even completely novel properties. In the field of photonics it resulted in the appearance of new paradigms, including photonic crystals that exhibit photonic bandgap and represent an optical analog of semiconductors and metamaterials that have subwavelength features and may have almost arbitrary values of effective refractive index, including those below zero. In addition to that, a whole new field of plasmonics appeared, dedicated to the manipulation with evanescent, surface-bound electromagnetic waves and offering an opportunity to merge nanoelectronics with all-optical circuitry. In the field of infrared technologies MEMS and nanotechnologies ensured the appearance of a new generation of silicon-based thermal detectors with properties vastly surpassing the conventional thermal devices. However, another family of infrared detectors, photonic devices based on narrow-bandgap semiconductors, has traditionally been superior to thermal detectors. Literature about their micro and nanophotonic enhancement has been scarce and scattered through journals. This book offers the first systematic approach to numerous different MEMS and nanotechnology-based methods available for the improvement of photonic infrared detectors and points out to a path towards uncooled operation with the performance of cryogenically cooled devices. It is shown that a vast area for enhancement does exists and that photonic devices can readily keep their leading position in infrared detection. The various methods and approaches described in the book are also directly applicable to different other types of photodetectors like solar cells, often with little or no modification.
|Publisher:||Springer International Publishing|
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2014|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)|
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Table of ContentsPart I Introduction- A Path to an Ideal Photonic Detector.- Infrared Detector Performance and Main Figures of Merit.- “Ideal” IR Detectors.- Classification of IR Detectors.- On Specific Detectivity of Photonic Infrared Detectors.- Recombination Mechanisms in Direct Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors.- Noise in Semiconductor IR Detectors.- Optimizing D*f* product.- Part II Photon Management.- Nonimaging Optical Concentrators.- Refractive Concentrators.- Reflective Nonimaging Concentrators,- Antireflection Structures.- Plasmonic Field Concentrators.- Radiative Lifetime Increase.- Part III Thermal Noise Management.- Nonequilibrium Suppression of Auger Generation-Recombination.- Limits of Nonequilibrium Detector Operation.- General Model of Nonequilibrium Photodetectors with Auger Suppression.- Contact Phenomena and Calvanic Suppression of Auger Processes.- Exclusion photoconductors.- Extraction Photodiodes.- Galvanomagnetic Methods: Magnetoconcentration Photodetector.- Hybrid Methods.- On Application of Nonequilibrium Detectors: LWIR Free-Spec Optics.- Negative Luminescence Shields.