Modern Methods of Geochemical Analysis

Modern Methods of Geochemical Analysis

by Richard Wainerdi (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468418323
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 12/12/2012
Series: Monographs in Geoscience
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1971
Pages: 398
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1. Classical Definition of Geochemistry.- 2. The Role of Geochemical Analysis.- 2.1. Geology.- 2.2. Geochemistry.- 2.3. Mineralogy.- 2.4. Petrology.- 2.5. Exploration.- 2.6. Mining.- 2.7. Ore Dressing.- 2.8. Chemical Processing.- 3. Summary.- 2 Statistics.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Nature and Scope of Statistics.- 1.2. The Importance of a Statistical Approach in Analytical Chemistry.- 2. Basic Concepts.- 2.1. Variation.- 2.2. Populations and Samples: Parameters and Statistics.- 2.3. Types of Population and Variable.- 2.4. Probability and Random Selection.- 3. Measures of Location and Dispersion.- 3.1. Average: Arithmetic Mean.- 3.2. Variability: Standard Deviation and Variance.- 3.3. Degrees of Freedom.- 3.4. Calculation of the Standard Deviation.- 3.5. Coefficient of Variation.- 4. Frequency Distributions.- 4.1. Normal Distribution.- 4.2. Equation and Properties of the Normal Distribution.- 4.3. Justification for the Assumption of Normality in Practice.- 4.4. Binomial and Poisson Distributions.- 5. Standard Error.- 5.1. Sampling Distributions.- 5.2. Standard Error.- 5.3. Theoretical Derivations.- 5.4. The t Distribution.- 6. Tests of Significance.- 6.1. Introductory Note.- 6.2. Normal Deviate Test.- 6.3. t Test.- 6.4. Variance Ratio (F) Test.- 7. Regression.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Method of Least Squares.- 7.3. Variance about Regression.- 7.4. Error of Estimation of X from Regression Line.- 8. Analysis of Variance.- 9. Sampling Methods.- 9.1. General Comments.- 9.2. Remarks on Analytical Procedure.- 9.3. Computation of Error Distribution.- 10. Statistical Tables.- 10.1. Values of t.- 10.2. Values of F (P’ = 0.05).- 11. Applications to Analytical Methods.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Reduction in Operational Time.- 11.3. Sampling Errors.- 11.4. Calibration.- 11.5. Blank Variation.- 11.6. Multicomponent Methods of Analysis.- 11.7. Particle Counting.- References.- 3 Chemical Analysis and Sample Preparation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Sample Preparation.- 2.1. Sampling Procedures.- 2.2. Sample Dividing.- 2.3. Homogenizing.- 2.4. Sample Storage.- 3. Dissolution of Geologic Samples.- 3.1. Acid Digestion.- 3.2. Sample Fusions.- 4. Methods of Separation.- 4.1. Precipitation Methods.- 4.2. Electrolytic Separations.- 4.3. Solvent Extraction.- 5. Methods of Determination.- 5.1. Gravimetric Analysis.- 5.2. Fire Assay.- 5.3. Volumetric Analysis.- 6. Advantages, Disadvantages, and Limitations of Wet Chemical Analyses.- 6.1. General Considerations.- 6.2. Standardization.- References.- 4 Ion-Exchange Chromatography.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ion-Exchanging Materials.- 2.1. Ion-Exchange Resins.- 2.2. Inorganic Exchangers.- 2.3. Ion Exchangers Based on Cellulose.- 3. Ion-Exchange Selectivity.- 3.1. Inherent Selectivity.- 3.2. Complex Ion Formation.- 4. Anion-Exchange Separations of Metals.- 5. Mixed Solvents in Ion-Exchange Separations.- 6. Special Ion-Exchange Techniques.- 6.1. Ligand Exchange.- 6.2. Isotopic Ion Exchange.- 6.3. Precipitation Ion Exchange.- 6.4. Difference Chromatography.- 6.5. Ion-Exchange Papers.- 7. Applications to Geochemical Analysis.- 7.1. Concentration of Traces of Metals.- 7.2. Removal of Interfering Ions.- 7.3. Systematic Analysis of Silicate Rocks.- 7.4. Individual Elements in Silicate Rocks.- References.- 5 Colorimetry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Considerations.- 2.1. Measurement of Light Absorption.- 2.2. Colorimetric Techniques.- 3. Instrumentation.- 3.1. Filter Photometers.- 3.2. Spectrophotometers.- 3.3. Instrument Selection.- 4. Sample Preparation.- 4.1. Range of Optimum Concentration.- 4.2. Preparation of the Colored System.- 5. Photometric Measurements.- 5.1. Accuracy and Precision.- 5.2. Advantages.- 5.3. Limitations.- 6. Applications.- 6.1. Determination of Metals.- 6.2. Determination of Nonmetals.- References.- 6 Infrared Spectrometry.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical.- 1.2. Theory.- 1.3. Instrumentation.- 2. Techniques of Sample Presentation.- 2.1. Absorption.- 2.2. Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR).- 2.3. Reflection.- 2.4. Emission Spectroscopy.- 3. Quantitative Applications in Geochemistry.- 4. Mineral Identification with Infrared.- 4.1. Minerals Containing H2O, OH-, and Hydrogen Bond.- 4.2. Carbonate Minerals.- 4.3. Nitrate Minerals.- 4.4. Borate Minerals.- 4.5. The Sulfate Group Minerals.- 4.6. The Silicate Minerals.- 4.7. Phosphates, Vanadates, and Arsenates.- 4.8. Molybdates and Tungstates.- 4.9. Oxide Minerals.- 5. Crystal-Chemistry Studies.- 5.1. Solid-Solution Series.- 5.2. Polymorphous Series.- 5.3. Leaching Studies.- 5.4. Firing Studies.- 5.5. Alteration Studies.- References.- 7 Optical Emission Spectroscopy.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. History.- 1.2. Principles.- 1.3. Relation to Other Techniques.- 2. Equipment and Facilities.- 2.1. Components and Functions.- 2.2. Laboratory Facilities.- 2.3. Field Facilities.- 2.4. Special-Purpose Equipment.- 3. Techniques.- 3.1. Qualitative Analyses.- 3.2. Semiquantitative Analyses.- 3.3. Quantitative Analyses.- 4. Geochemical Applications.- 4.1. Element Abundance and Distribution.- 4.2. Environmental Studies.- 4.3. Mineral Exploration.- 5. Literature.- 6. Evaluation of the Method.- 7. Future Developments.- References.- 8 Atomic Absorption.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Principles of Atomic Absorption.- 3. Apparatus.- 3.1. Source.- 3.2. Absorption Flame.- 3.3. Spectrometer.- 3.4. Detector.- 3.5. Amplifier and Measuring System.- 4. Sensitivity, Accuracy, and Interferences.- 4.1. Sensitivity.- 4.2. Accuracy.- 4.3. Interferences.- 5. Analysis of Geologic Samples by Atomic Absorption.- 5.1. Major Elements.- 5.2. Minor and Trace Elements.- 5.3. Microtrace Elements after Chemical Enrichment.- 5.4. Water Analysis.- 6. Geochemical Prospecting.- 7. Recent and Future Developments.- References.- 9 X-Ray Techniques.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Theoretical Considerations.- 2.1. Nature and Excitation of X Rays.- 2.2. Interaction of X Rays with Matter.- 2.3. X Rays and Atomic Structure.- 3. Instrumentation.- 3.1. Analytical Systems.- 3.2. Measurement of X-Ray Intensities.- 4. X-Ray Diffraction.- 4.1. Description.- 4.2. Applications.- 5. X-Ray Absorptiometry.- 6. X-Ray-Emission Spectrography.- 6.1. Discussion.- 6.2. Applications.- 6.3. Electron Microprobe.- 6.4. Portable X-Ray-Emission Spectrograph.- References.- 10 Radiometric Technique.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Fundamentals.- 2.1. Nuclear Data of Natural Radioisotopes.- 2.2. Background Radiation.- 2.3. Interaction of Radiation with Matter.- 3. Radiation Detectors.- 3.1. Beta and Gamma Measurement.- 3.2. Alpha Measurement.- 3.3. Scaler and Ratemeter Circuits for Integral Counting, Pulse-Height Analysis.- 3.4. Autoradiographic Methods.- 3.5. Background Reduction for Laboratory Measurements.- 4. Radiometric Prospecting.- 4.1. Airborne Radiometric Survey.- 4.2. Carborne Prospection.- 4.3. Prospecting on Foot.- 5. Quantitative Determination of Natural Radioelements.- 5.1. Sample Preparation.- 5.2. Integral Counting for U and K Determinations.- 5.3. Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Simultaneous U, Th, and K Determinations.- 5.4. Beta-Gamma Counting for Equilibrium Studies.- 5.5. Alpha Counting, Alpha Spectrometry.- 5.6. Fission Track Counting.- 6. Radiometric Age Determinations.- References.- 11 Nuclear Activation Analysis.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Irradiation.- 1.2. Measurement of Induced Radioactivity.- 1.3. Gamma-Ray Interactions.- 1.4. Data Interpretation.- 1.5. Automated Nuclear Activation-Analysis Systems.- 2. Reactor-Thermal-Neutron Activation Analysis.- 3. 14-MeV Neutron Activation Analysis.- 3.1. Cyclic Activation Analysis.- 4. Charged-Particle and Photon Activation Analyses.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Photon Activation Analysis.- 4.3. Charged-Particle Activation Analysis.- 4.4. Analytical Applications.- 5. Activation Analysis in the Geosciences.- 5.1. Mineral Prospecting.- 5.2. Logging Techniques.- 5.3. Ore Sorting.- References.- 12 Mass Spectrometry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Stable Carbon-and Oxygen-Isotope Mass Spectrometry.- 2.1. Principles Underlying the Construction of an Isotope Ratio Recording Mass Spectrometer.- 2.2. Reporting of Carbon-and Oxygen-Isotope Data.- 2.3. Sample-Preparation Procedures.- 2.4. Geochemical Applications.- 2.5. Future Developments of Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry.- 3. Trace-Element-Concentration Determination by Spark-Source Mass Spectrometry.- 3.1. The Radiofrequency Spark-Source Mass Spectrograph.- 3.2. Analytical Procedure.- 3.3. Sample-Handling Techniques.- 3.4. Detection Limit, Precision, and Accuracy.- 3.5. Geochemical Applications.- References.

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