Nano-Safety: What We Need to Know to Protect Workers

Nano-Safety: What We Need to Know to Protect Workers

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110373752
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 09/25/2017
Series: De Gruyter Textbook Series
Pages: 213
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.45(h) x (d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

D. Fazarro, University of Texas and Tyler, USA. W. Trybula, Austin, USA. J. Tate and C. Hanks, Texas State University, USA.

Table of Contents

Foreword v

Preface vii

About the Editors xiv

List of Contributing Authors xvi

1 The World of Nanotechnology Barbara Foster 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 What Is Nanotechnology? 2

1.3 The Growing World of Nanomaterials 3

1.3.1 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 3

1.3.2 Colloidal-Based Nanomaterials 5

1.3.3 Quantum Dots 5

1.3.4 Biologically Based Nanomaterials 8

1.4 Instrumentation for Investigating Nanotechnology 8

1.5 Where Is Nanotechnology Today? 10

1.6 Applications 11

1.7 The Role of the Government in Promoting Nanotechnology 14

1.8 The Nanotechnology Market 16

1.8.1 Is There Really a "Nanotechnology Market"? 16

1.8.2 What Is the Size of the Nanotechnology Market? 19

1.8.3 Nanotechnology Market Sectors 21

1.8.4 Report Synopses and Excerpts 23

1.9 The Challenge of Nanotechnology Safety 28

1.10 The Crucial Need for Education and Certification 29

1.11 The Future 32

1.11.1 Nanotechnology Signature Initiatives 32

1.11.2 Future Research Projects 33

1.12 Questions for Contemplation 36

1.13 Bibliography 36

2 The World of Engineering Nanomaterials Eylem Asmatulu 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.1.1 How Did Engineering Nanomaterials Evolve? 41

2.2 Stabilization of Nanomaterial Shape 43

2.2.1 Surfactants 43

2.2.2 Nanomaterial Shape and Stabilization 43

2.3 Classification and Labeling of Nanomaterials 46

2.3.1 What Are Nanomaterials? 46

2.3.2 Types of Nanoparticles 46

2.3.3 Labeling of Nanomaterials 49

2.4 Toxicity of Nanomaterials 51

2.4.1 Particle Size 51

2.4.2 Surface Chemistry 51

2.4.3 Surface Charges 51

2.4.4 Surface Area 52

2.5 Exposure Assessment 52

2.5.1 Exposure Limit for Nanoparticles 52

2.5.2 Exposure Monitoring 56

2.6 Conclusions 57

2.7 Bibliography 57

3 The Importance of Safety for Manufacturing Nanomaterials W. S. Khan R. Asmatulu 61

3.1 Rapid Growth of Nanotechnology 61

3.2 Nanotechnology Involvement 62

3.2.1 Scope of Nanotechnology 62

3.2.2 Nanotechnology Education and Research Programs 64

3.3 Nanostructured Materials 66

3.3.1 Nanoparticles 67

3.4 Toxicity of Nanomaterials 70

3.4.1 Toxicity of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 71

3.4.2 Toxicity of Metal-Based Nanomaterials 73

3.5 In Vitro Assessments of Nanomaterial Toxicity 75

3.5.1 Detection of Surface Contamination 75

3.5.2 Particle Sizing and Aggregation 76

3.6 Nano-safety 79

3.6.1 Potential Safety Issues 80

3.6.2 Exposure Assessment and Characterization 80

3.6.3 Precautionary Measures 80

3.7 Conclusions 82

3.8 Bibliography 82

4 Safety Approaches to Handling Engineered Nanomaterials Jitendra S. Tate Roger A. Hernandez 85

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Potential Health Concerns 85

4.3 Proactive Measures to Examine Precautions 86

4.4 Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials 87

4.4.1 Hazard Assessment 87

4.4.2 Hazardous Communication 88

4.4.3 Exposure Assessment 88

4.5 Characterization of Engineered Nanomaterials 90

4.5.1 Fullerenes 90

4.5.2 Carbon Nanotubes 90

4.5.3 Carbon Black 91

4.5.4 Quantum Dots 91

4.5.5 Metals and Metal Oxides 91

4.6 Control Preferences 92

4.6.1 Elimination 93

4.6.2 Substitution 93

4.6.3 Isolation 93

4.6.4 Engineering Controls 93

4.6.5 Administrative Controls 94

4.6.6 Personal Protective Equipment 96

4.7 Management of Engineered Nanomaterials 96

4.7.1 Waste Disposal 97

4.7.2 Management of Spills 97

4.8 Overview of National and International Associations that Adopted the Handling and Use of Nanomaterials 98

4.8.1 British Standards Institution 98

4.8.2 Health and Safety Executive 98

4.8.3 International Organization for Standardization 99

4.8.4 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 100

4.8.5 US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 101

4.8.6 Safe Work Australia 102

4.9 Concluding Remarks 103

4.10 Questions for Contemplation 104

4.11 Bibliography 105

5 Certification: Validating Workers Competence in Nano-safety Christie M. Sayes 108

5.1 Introduction 108

5.2 Definition of Nanotechnology for Training and Certification 109

5.3 Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety Management 109

5.4 Anticipating Hazards in Nanotechnology 112

5.5 Recognizing Hazards in Nanotechnology 113

5.6 Evaluating Hazards in Nanotechnology 115

5.7 Controlling Hazards in Nanotechnology 115

5.8 Confirming Hazards in Nanotechnology 117

5.9 Conclusions 118

5.10 Questions for Contemplation 118

5.11 Bibliography 119

6 Understanding the Implications of Nanomaterial Unknowns Walt Trybula Deb Newberry 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Background on Nanotechnology Safety Programs 122

6.3 What are Nanomaterial Unknowns? 125

6.4 Impact on the public 127

6.5 Risk Avoidance 130

6.6 Ethics 131

6.7 Government Pressure to Create Facts 133

6.8 There Is No Place for Politics or Opinions 134

6.9 Summary 137

6.10 Questions for Contemplation 137

6.11 Bibliography 137

7 What Is Considered Reliable Information? Evelyn H. Hirt Walt Trybula 139

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Background on the Use of "nano" 140

7.3 Information "Fact and Fiction" - the Dangers 142

7.3.1 Questionable Correlations in Chinese Workers' Deaths 143

7.3.2 Questionable Identification of "nano" Specific Dangers 143

7.3.3 Questionable Correlation of Carbon Nanotubes to Asbestos 144

7.3.4 Issues with Nanosilver Particles 144

7.3.5 Overgeneralization of Human Contact with Nanomaterials 145

7.3.6 Impacts of Litigation on Fact Finding and Misleading Correlations 146

7.3.7 Sources with Conflicting Information 146

7.3.8 Separating 'Fact and Fiction' 147

7.4 Validity and Availability of Information Sources 147

7.4.1 Professional Societies: Resources and Publications 148

7.4.2 Government-Sponsored Publications and Resources 150

7.4.3 Other Information Resources 150

7.5 Summary and Observations 151

7.6 Questions for Contemplation 151

7.7 Bibliography 152

8 Ethics and Communication: The Essence of Human Behavior J. Craig Hanks Emily Kay Hanks 153

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 The Challenge of Ethics for Emerging Technologies 154

8.3 What Does It Take to Be a Good Professional? 155

8.4 Technical and Procedural Knowledge and Skill Are Necessary, but not Enough 156

8.5 Guidance from Rules Is Necessary, but Compliance Is not Enough 157

8.6 Considering Ethical Frameworks 160

8.6.1 Deontology and Kant: Autonomy and Respect for Persons 160

8.6.2 The Pursuit of Happiness: Utilitarian Ethics 163

8.6.3 Virtue: Character and Practice 165

8.7 Communication and Ethics 168

8.8 Final Remarks 170

8.9 Questions for Contemplation 171

8.10 Bibliography 171

9 Behavior-Based Worker Safety for Engineered Nanomaterials Christie M. Sayes Patrick Van Burkleo Grace V. Aquino 177

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Traditional Behavior-Based Worker Safety 178

9.3 The ABC Model as applied to Nanotechnology in the Workplace 179

9.4 Exposure Scenarios Along the Nanomaterial Value Chain 180

9.4.1 Stage 1: Production and Manufacturing 182

9.4.2 Stage 2: Distribution and Transportation 183

9.4.3 Stage 3: Formulators and Users 184

9.4.4 Stage 4: Disposal, Recycle, and Reuse 185

9.5 The Role of the Employer 186

9.6 Questions for Contemplation 187

9.7 Bibliography 187

10 The Future of Nanotechnology Safety Dominick Fazarro 191

10.1 Bibliography 192

Index 193

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