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About the Author
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How a Schlub Like Me Gets Mixed Up in a Stunt Like This
For one year, my wife, baby daughter, and I, while residing in the middle of New York City, attempted to live without making any net impact on the environment. Ultimately, this meant we did our best to create no trash (so no take-out food), cause no carbon dioxide emissions (so no driving or flying), pour no toxins in the water (so no laundry detergent), buy no produce from distant lands (so no New Zealand fruit). Not to mention: no elevators, no subway, no products in packaging, no plastics, no air conditioning, no TV, no buying anything new
But before we get into all that, I should explain what drove me to become No Impact Man. To start, I'm going to tell a story that is more a confession, a pre- changing-of-my-ways stocktaking, a prodigal-son, mea-culpa sort of thing.
The story starts with a deal I made with my wife, Michelle.
By way of background: Michelle grew up all Daddy's gold Amex and taxi company charge account and huge boats and three country clubs and pledge allegiance to the flag. I, on the other hand, grew up all long hair to my shoulders, designer labels are silly, wish I was old enough to be a draft dodger and take LSD, alternative schooling, short on cash, save the whales, and we don't want to be rich anyway because we hate materialism.
Once, during a visit to my mother's house in Westport, Massachusetts, Michelle lay on the bed in my former bedroom and stared up at the ugly foam ceiling tiles. "You know, I grew up with much nicerceilings than you did," she said. That, her facial expression seemed to say, explained everything.
My best friend, Tanner, meanwhile, once called me to tell me that his therapist had said that he "despairs of Michelle and Colin's differences." Why Tanner's therapist analyzed my marriage was a question best left for Tanner to explore in his next session, but the point was that Michelle and I had a lot to negotiate. And the story I'm telling here has to do with one of our negotiations.
For my part, I agreed to put up with the cacophony that comes with Michelle watching back-to-back episodes of Bridezilla, The Bachelor, and all the other trash-talk TV. I hate reality shows. Michelle conceded, on her shopping sprees, not to purchase anything made of or even trimmed with fur. That was the compromise.
Michelle liked a little fur. Not long fur coats per se, but fur hats and fur linings and stuff like that. Michelle was a Daily Candy girl, a Marc Jacobs white Stella handbag girl, a kind of Sex and the City's Carrie Bradshaw grows up, gets married, and has a baby girl.
On the other hand, call me a pussy, but I felt bad every time I saw one of those raccoons or possums with their guts spilled out on the Palisades Parkway. I also felt bad for little animals getting killed for nothing but their skins.
Yet I managed to exempt, back then, my leather shoes from my concern that humanity puts vanity before kindness to animals. In the cold glare of my own I Want To Buy, my disdain for designer labels and all things consumerist became a little, shall we say, mushy. I was the type of guy who shopped for the fifty-two-inch television, then thought he was a rebel against consumerism because he bought the discounted floor model.
I don't mean to imply that I was a total do-nothing liberal. I did go to Pennsylvania to canvass voters in the 2000 and 2004 elections. I made get-out- the-vote phone calls for MoveOn.org when they asked me to. I tried to adopt some sort of an attitude of service in my daily encounters and to generally avoid doing harm. I volunteered at the World Trade Center site after 9/11. I even prayed for George Bush, on the premise that hating him just created a hateful world.
The question was, given the state of world affairs, whether I shouldn't have been asking more of myself.
A few months after our TV-fur negotiation, Michelle got offered a brand-new, thousand-dollar, white-fox shawl by a friend whose father is a furrier in Michelle's hometown, Minneapolis.
It's free and the fox is already dead, went Michelle's reasoning.
It's not one fox, it's ten, went mine. I've already suffered your free-basing bad television, and we have a deal about this, I said.
But those are your standards, replied Michelle. Then came her trump card: I want to discuss it at couple's therapy.
Not that what we actually went to was couple's therapy. What really happened was, I would drop by sometimes during one of Michelle's sessions with her own therapist. Anyway, I trundled along to the Upper East Side office, and Michelle explained the situation. Free fox shawl, on the one hand. No fur, on the other — which is Colin's standard. Why, Michelle asked, should I have to adhere to his ethic?
When the therapist turned to me and said, "Colin?" I surprised both of them by saying that Michelle could buy all the fur she wants. Except, I said, there's one condition to my releasing her from our deal — and here's the part where I look like a jerk — namely, that Michelle read out loud certain passages of a PETA brochure about the fur trade that I'd highlighted in green.
"I can read them when I get home," Michelle said.
"Nope," I said. "The deal is, if you want to renege on our fur deal, you read it out loud, here."
Sport that she is, Michelle grabbed the papers, cleared her throat, and began to read. Two results came of all this: First, Michelle decided that she didn't want to buy fur anymore because she actually has the biggest heart known to humankind and because we are nowhere near so different on the inside as we seem on the outside. Second — and here's the point of the story — I showed myself to be a smug little jerk. I had mobilized my intellectual and persuasive resources to get someone else to change her behavior, and remained, I saw, utterly complacent about my own.
It's true that I had occasionally tried to make a difference in the world, but I was coming to think my political views had too often been about changing other people, like Michelle, and too seldom about changing myself.
I made the mistake of thinking that condemning other people's misdeeds somehow made me virtuous. I'd become, I realized, a member of that class of liberals who allowed themselves to glide by on way too few political gestures and lifestyle concessions and then spent the rest of their energy feeling superior to other people who supposedly don't do as much.
A year or so later, news about global warming started coming out. I mean, it's been out for twenty years, but somehow it hadn't entered my liberal consciousness. We can't maintain this way of life, the scientists said, the world can't sustain it. The ice caps will melt, the sea levels will rise, there will be droughts — or, in short, the planet will be done for and millions of people will suffer.
The countries of the world had negotiated the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change, assigning mandatory targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases to signatory nations. But the United States, a signatory to the protocol, as well as the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases, refused to ratify it.
What had I done in light of our country's deaf ear to environmental concerns? Well, if it rained torrentially, I would say gloomily to whoever was listening, "I blame George Bush for this strange weather." If in conversation someone said global warming was just a theory, I'd say, "Actually, the scientists say it's a fact," and I'd also get a really angry look on my face to show just how adamant I was. And if it was so hot out that I felt the need to turn on both air conditioners, I'd sometimes even feel despondent for a moment or two about the fact that I was contributing to the problem.
Cut to 2006. At the age of forty-two, I have a little girl, Isabella, who is nearly one. We live on lower Fifth Avenue in Greenwich Village. It is January but seventy degrees outside. The middle of winter, and joggers run past in shorts. Young women from the nearby NYU dorm saunter by my building in tank tops.
I'm on the street. I'm walking our dog, Frankie. People around me are happy but I am not. Instead, I'm worried. I put the key in the front door of my building. I walk through the granite-floored lobby. I step into the elevator. The operator, Tommy, an older gray-haired man from Greece, says, "It's too warm, no?"
"Yeah, well, imagine how warm it would be if there was such a thing as global warming," I say.
I was being sarcastic, of course. People back then still argued about whether global warming existed. Not me. This was around the time when I had begun to feel really ill at ease. What I read in the news only confirmed, I believed, what I could already feel in my bones.
Summer seemed to toggle straight into winter, and then back to summer — the long fall and spring seasons of my childhood had disappeared. I'd witnessed, that December, a winter storm in which thunder clapped violently and lightning flashed the white blanket of snow into eerie green. Never in my recollection of northeastern winters had there ever been thunder and lightning in a snowstorm.
Tommy chuckled at my sarcastic remark. He threw the lever forward and the elevator lurched upward. After all, what could we do?
For the last few months I had traveled around, discussing a book I wrote about a secret Allied operation in France during World War II. For the last few months, in other words, I'd spent my time talking about sixty years' worth of yesterdays when I was really scared to death of what was happening today.
Here's what was on my mind when I rode the elevator that day:
I'd read that the Arctic ice was melting so fast that polar bears were drowning as they tried to swim what had become hundreds of miles between ice floes in search of food. Researchers knew this because they found their limp white bodies bobbing on the waves in the middle of the sea.
Worse: sometimes, too, desperate in their starvation, the polar bears cannibalized each other's young. We burn too many fossil fuels, the sky gets blanketed with carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the planet warms up, the ice caps melt, the polar bears can't get to their food, they eat each other's babies.
You've heard it all before. But back then, in 2006, this was news, at least to me.
What really filled me with despair, though, was that I didn't believe that the way of life that was steadily wrecking the planet even made us happy. It would be one thing if we woke up the morning after a big blowout party, saw that we'd trashed our home, but could at least say we had had a rip-roaring good time. But if I had to generalize, I would say that, on average, the 6.5 billion people who share this globe are nowhere near as happy as they could be.
Leaving aside the people who have severely limited access to food and clean drinking water, so many people I knew, both in New York and elsewhere in the world's go-fast consumer culture, were dissatisfied with the lives they had worked to get — the lives they were supposed to want.
Many of us work so hard that we don't get to spend enough time with the people we love, and so we feel isolated. We don't really believe in our work, and so we feel prostituted. The boss has no need of our most creative talents, and so we feel unfulfilled. We have too little connection with something bigger, and so we have no sense of meaning.
Those of us lucky enough to be well compensated for these sacrifices get to distract ourselves with expensive toys and adventures — big cars and boats and plasma TVs and world travel in airplanes. But while the consolation prizes temporarily divert us from our dissatisfaction, they never actually take it away.
And, to top it all off, I thought in the elevator on that unseasonably warm day, not only have so many of us discovered that we've been working our years away to maintain a way of life that we don't really like, but we are waking up to the fact — I hope — that this same way of life is killing the planet. Thanks to global warming, we hear, the planet is facing, among other things, plagues of malaria, monsoons and hurricanes with unprecedented power and frequency, and a rise in sea level that will cause widespread destruction of people's homelands.
What things to have to think about.
Back on that summery day in the middle of winter, I seemed to be hitting bottom. At first I thought it was about the state of the world. Yet I had an inkling, as I rode in the elevator, that that wasn't it.
I'd been complaining to anyone who would listen, telling people that we lived in an emergency. Yet, as much as I complained, I lived and acted as though everything was normal. I just led my usual workaday life. Wake up, take my daughter, Isabella, to the babysitter, spend the day writing, pick her up, watch TV, start all over. I didn't feel I could do anything about world problems. After all, if the government wasn't doing anything, what could I do? Write another history book?
But is that what I wanted from myself? Is that what I was willing to accept? That I could be in a state of despair and do absolutely nothing about it? Was I really hitting bottom with the state of the world? Or was I hitting bottom with my state of self-imposed helplessness?
For some reason, that warm winter day in the elevator, I suddenly realized that my problem might not actually be the state of the world. My problem was my inaction. I was worried sick about something and doing nothing about it. I wasn't sick of the world. I was sick of myself. I was sick of my comfortable and easy pretension of helplessness.
Tommy brought the elevator to a stop at the ninth floor, where I live. It was just an elevator ride. It was just a couple of seconds. It was just a day when it is seventy degrees when it should be thirty. But I suddenly had these questions: Am I really helpless? Is it true that a guy like me can't make a difference? Or am I just too lazy or frightened to try?
Winter leapfrogged into summer — another missing spring — and I had lunch with my literary agent, Eric Simonoff. We went to Beacon in midtown Manhattan, where lots of publishing types meet. Glasses clinked. Colleagues nodded. We were there to discuss my next book project.
"I can't write history anymore," I tell him.
"Don't tell me you want to write novels," he says.
Eric is accustomed to helping people like me to eke out a living from our writing.
"No, I don't want to write novels," I say, and then I launch into my dinner- party rant about global warming.
I inform poor Eric, who was simply trying to enjoy his lunch, that while reports pour in exclaiming the urgency of our environmental problems, government and big business move only at a snail's pace, if at all. We need, say the urgent reports, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent at the very least by 2050 in order to prevent global warming from spiraling out of control. Instead of acting, companies like Exxon use stealth PR tactics to discredit the organizations that try to warn us. Meanwhile, politicians try to "reposition global warming as a theory, rather than fact."
I doubted, back then, that a Democrat in the White House would move a whole hell of a lot faster on the environment. In the voting booth, whether you pull the red handle or the blue handle, you always pull a big-business handle. And big business wasn't exactly filling the politicians' war chests with millions of do- something-about-global-warming dollars.
"What are we doing to our planet, Eric?" I cried, and continued my rant.
A sailboat ride west from Hawaii would soon have you crashing through a gigantic patch of floating plastic garbage, twice the size of the continental United States, that swirls around itself in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Or you could go fishing and come up emptyhanded in one of 14,000 Canadian lakes that no longer support marine life, thanks to acid rain. Or try going for a walk in the forest, hoping to see some birds but instead coming face-to-face with a big yellow bulldozer in the 32 million acres of woodland we chop down around the world every year to make toilet paper and disposable coffee cups.
Then there's what we're doing to ourselves. Here in New York City, for example, one in four kids who live in the South Bronx suffers from asthma, resulting largely from the exhaust fumes of trucks that haul away New Yorkers' trash. Meanwhile, experts find that an array of health problems, including lung disease, infertility, Parkinson's disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and childhood autism, to name just a few, are related to the unwholesome amounts of toxic chemicals we spew into our air, water, and soil.
Excerpted from "No Impact Man"
Copyright © 2009 Colin Beavan.
Excerpted by permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Table of Contents
1 How a Schlub Like Me Gets Mixed Up in a Stunt Like This 3
2 Day One and the Whole Thing Is a Big Mistake 19
3 What You Think When You Find Your Life in the Trash 35
4 If Only Pizza Didn't Come on Paper Plates 51
5 How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint and Anger Your Mom at the Same Time 73
6 The Cabbage Diet Saves the World 107
7 Conspicuous Nonconsumption 141
8 Click and the Lights Go Out 163
9 Trying to Do Enough Good to Outweigh the Harm 193
Epilogue: Life After the Year Without Toilet Paper 211
No Impact Project 225
Note on Production 229
Appendix: You Can Make a Difference! 231
Reading Group Guide
TreeHugger's Official Discussion and Resource Guide
What would your life look like if you made a commitment to have zero impact on the environment? Self-proclaimed guilty liberal Colin Beavan tackled this question in his own life, embarking on a yearlong experiment that affected his wife, their toddler, and even the family dog. They nixed takeout food to avoid reams of wasteful packaging; walked or rode bicycles; used no electricity in their apartmentno TV, no home Internet access, no air-conditioning, no refrigerator, no brightly lit living room late at night; bought seasonal, local groceries that carried the smallest possible carbon footprint; switched to cloth diapers; and otherwise reinvented twentiethcentury living. By turns poignant and provocative, No Impact Man reports on the surprising results of this journey, with inspiring words for anyone who has ever wondered what difference "just one person" can make.
Whether you read the book with friends, with a community-action group, or on your own, this guide is designed to get the conversation started about how we can become more eco-effective as a society. Just as Beavan's experiment has led to the launch of the No Impact Project, this guide is filled with hands-on ways you can help. We hope it will enrich your experience of No Impact Man and the eye-opening questions it raises.
1. At the beginning of the No Impact experiment, Colin Beavan asks, "Is it true that a guy like me can't make a difference? Or am I just too lazy or frightened to try?" What answers to these questions did he come up with by the end of the book? Which of the family's actions made the most significant impact?
2. Beavan's experiment took green living to an extreme. If you were to choose just a few of his actions to implement in your own life, what would they be? Which conveniences or behaviors should society change in order to reduce our collective environmental impact?
3. Is there such a thing as a lifestyle that makes no impact on the environment? How much impact is too much? How much personal obligation do we each have in reducing our individual carbon footprints? For great ideas on ways to leave a smaller carbon footprint, visit 1Sky at www.1sky.org and Carbon Shredders at www.carbonshredders.org.
4. Beavan traces much of our wasteful culture back to consumerism and the "hedonic treadmill," the notion that there is always something better out there than what was just purchased. Can you identify purchases or habits in your own life that fit this psychological profile? What consumer products truly improve your life? What are the true necessities? What could you do without altogether? To learn more about the relationship between consuming responsibly and enhancing overall quality of life, visit the Center for a New American Dream (http://newdream.org) and take a look at Buy Nothing Day (www.buynothingday.org) and the Alternative Gift Registry (www.alternativegiftregistry.org).
5. Food plays a major role in this story. How much of the food you eat is locally grown? Organic? Processed? Did No Impact Man inspire you to change your eating and drinking habits? Learn more about food health and safety issues at Food and Water Watch (http://fwwatch.org).
6. Beavan runs into many situations in No Impact Man regarding the profusion of packaging waste: paper or plastic at the grocery store, paper plates at the pizza joint, delivery in Styrofoam clamshells. How much packaging waste do you accumulate? How does your community manage landfills and recycling programs? Should it be up to individuals, businesses, or governments to reduce waste? One way to help is to take the Pledge to Break the Bottled Water Habit, organized by the Center for a New American Dream (http://water.newdream.org).
7. At first, Beavan's wife, Michelle, is a reluctant partner in the No Impact experiment. Discuss her transformation. Why do her attitudes change over the course of the year? How would the project have been different if Beavan had tried it solo?
8. Did Isabelle have a harder or easier time than her parents in adjusting to the No Impact lifestyle? Did the perspective of a child make the project more challenging, or less? Would you consider transporting your child by bike or on foot? What would the world be like for Isabelle's generation if all parents set the No Impact example?
9. The Beavan family spends a lot of time considering where all their stuffespecially packaging and anything disposablecomes from and goes to during manufacturing and after it gets tossed away. How much do you know about the origins of your stuff? Has this knowledge caused you to change your buying habits?
10. Colin and Michelle run into friction with their respective families for proposing that flying for twice-yearly visits is too carbon intense. Colin's sister is especially rankled to learn that her brother won't be at her baby shower. Are they right to be mad? Have your own actions and principles, environmental or otherwise, ever gotten you in trouble with people you care about? How have family expectations changed since the rise of interstate highways and the airline industry?
11. For most people, giving up a car would be a complicated life change. No Impact Man aspires to give up all fossil-fuel transportation. What would be your biggest adjustments if you sold your car, gave up taxis, buses, trains, and planes, and commuted entirely by bike or on foot? What would spur you to do this? What would the drawbacks be? The Alliance for Biking and Walking (www.peoplepoweredmovement.org) has great tips for making this change, including how to create communities that are practical and safe for bicyclists and pedestrians.
12. Happiness forms a theme in No Impact Man. Would you be happier if you slowed down, dispensed with the instant conveniences, and did more things the old-fashioned way? What are your options for slowing down? What holds you back?
13. Colin Beavan's experiment is similar to Henry David Thoreau's sojourn to Walden Pond in the mid-nineteenth century. Is it human nature to want a simpler life (Thoreau craved it before the Industrial Revolution), or is it natural to want to be a consumer? What difference did it make when Thoreau decided to remove himself from society, while Beavan consciously remained an active part of his community? How would the No Impact experiment look in a rural location? What were the challenges and benefits of performing the experiment in New York City?
14. Who has the greater responsibility in addressing climate change and pollution: the government or individuals? How can individuals most effectively help usher in change, locally and at the federal level? What does No Impact Man teach us about persuading naysayers?
15. Although Beavan's previous books have nothing to do with saving the planet, there is a common thread in all his work: it showcases extensive research. Browse the notes at the back of No Impact Man. What do they indicate about the amount of information currently available on the importance of environmentalism? Does the Information Age make it easier or harder to learn the facts and promote the cause?
For more information, check out the dozens of resources listed in the book's appendix, and visit Colin Beavan's blog at http://noimpactman.typepad.com/blog. Other resources include TreeHugger's articles on Henry David Thoreau, found at www.treehugger.com/files/2008/10/thoreau-notes-from-1851-used-to-track-plant-species-loss-climate-change.php; the basics of carbon footprints (www.treehugger.com/files/2008/02/carbon-footprint-green-basics.php); and biking infrastructures (www.treehugger.com/files/2009/01/5-improvements-to-bike-infrastructure.php). Planet Green offers tips for green child-rearing (http://planetgreen.discovery.com/go-green/green-baby/index.html) as well as effective, easy ways to reduce your personal carbon footprint (http://planetgreen.discovery.com/home-garden/reduce-carbon-footprint-threesteps.html) and avoid packaging waste (http://planetgreen.discovery.com/tech-transport/mysterious-carbon-footprint-packaging.html). Books of particular interest include Thomas L. Friedman's Hot, Flat, and Crowded and Bill McKibben's Deep Economy.