This book launches a new continuing series in developmental biology. Any new publishing venture in science can only be justified if it satisfies a need and fulfills that need in an exemplary way. I believe that there is an acute need for comprehensive treatises on specialized topics in developmental biology-especially because this is a very diverse field that receives con tributions from a wide variety of disciplines. It is difficult to remain abreast of progress in multifaceted topics and to understand how the various aspects of a topic interrelate. The volumes that will comprise this series are designed to facilitate those processes. Each volume of this series will attempt to convey the current status of research and thought on a specific topic in development, place current research within historical perspective, and lay the intellectual groundwork for future research. These volumes are intended to provide an in-depth background on these topics for advanced undergraduates, graduate stu dents, and senior scientists. An investigator considering research in one of these areas will get an overview of the field as well as discover the status of recent research in the area.
Table of ContentsI. Physiological and Morphological Aspects.- 1 • Local Control Mechanisms During Oogenesis and Folliculogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Choice of Animals.- 3. Folliculogenesis.- 4. Follicle (Granulosa) Cells and Oogenesis.- 5. Role of Steroids and Hormone Interactions in Follicular and Oocyte Differentiation.- 6. Intercellular Transfer of Hormonal Signals of Differentiation.- 7. Spontaneous Cellular Differentiation: The Dilemma of Regulation.- 8. Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Meiotic Progression.- 9. Coordination of Ovulation and Oocyte Maturation.- 10. Postovarian Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization Mechanisms.- 11. Oocyte Maturation and the Block to Polypermy.- 12. Cytoplasmic Control of Sperm Nuclear Differentiation.- 13. Oocyte Maturation and Cytoplasmic Clocks.- 14. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 • Vitellogenesis in Insects.- 1. Strategies for Provisioning the Egg.- 2. How Insects Make Eggs.- 3. Regulation of Vitellogenin Synthesis and Secretion.- 4. Regulation of Vitellogenin Sequestration.- 5. The Role of Yolk in Development.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 3 • Vitellogenesis and Oocyte Growth in Nonmammalian Vertebrates.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Vitellogenin and Vitellogenin Genes.- 3. Liver-Related Events.- 4. Blood-Related Events: Kinetics of Vitellogenin and VLDL Turnover.- 5. Ovary-Related Events.- 6. Vitellogenesis and Oocyte Growth In Vitro.- 7. Epilogue.- References.- 4 • Annulate Lamellae (Porous Cytomembranes): With Particular Emphasis on Their Possible Role in Differentiation of the Female Gamete.- 1. Introduction/Background.- 2. Distribution in Oocytes.- 3. Ooplasmic Position and Variability.- 4. Comparative Features of Nuclear Envelope/Annulate Lamellae.- 5. Origin and Morphogenesis of Annulate Lamellae and Associations with Other Organelles.- 6. Morphogenesis of Pores.- 7. Experimental Alteration.- 8. Proposed Functions.- 9. Intranuclear Annulate Lamellae.- 10. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 5 • Egg Envelopes in Vertebrates.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Teleosts.- 3. Lampreys.- 4. Chondrichthyes.- 5. Primitive Osteichthyes.- 6. Amphibians.- 7. Reptiles.- 8. Birds.- 9. Monotremes.- 10. Marsupials.- 11. Placental Mammals.- 12. Summary.- References.- 6 • Oocyte Maturation in Amphibians.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Interrelations of Calcium and Cyclic AMP.- 3. The Maturation-Promoting Factor.- 4. Summary.- References.- 7 • Oocyte-Somatic Cell Interactions During Oocyte Growth and Maturation in the Mammal.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Metabolic Cooperativity.- 3. Occurrence of Gap Junctions During Oogenesis.- 4. Role of Cell-to-Cell Communication During Oocyte Growth...- 5. Oocyte Maturation in Mammals.- 6. Hormonal Control of Cumulus Cell Function.- 7. Role of Somatic Cell-Oocyte Interactions in Ovarian Teratocarcinogenesis and Parthenogenetic Development.- References.- II. Gene Expression: Regulation and Consequences for Oogenesis and Early Development.- 8 • RNA Synthesis and Storage During Insect Oogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Organization of Ovarian Follicles.- 3. Autoradiographic Studies of Ovarian RNA Synthesis.- 4. Biochemical Analysis of Oocyte RNA.- 5. Transport of RNA and RNP from Trophic Cells to Ooplasm.- 6. Activation of Transcription of the Embryonic Genome.- 7. RNA in Insect MorphogenesisAn Alternate Model of “Determination”.- References.- 9 • Functional Organization of the Amphibian Oocyte Nucleus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Lampbrush Chromosomes.- 3. Amplified Nucleoli.- 4. The Nuclear Envelope.- 5. The Nucleoplasm.- 6. Storage at Two Different Levels: Proteins and Maternal mRNA.- 7. Microinjection of DNA into Oocyte Nuclei.- 8. Injection of Antibodies into the Oocyte Nucleus: A Means of Interfering with Gene Expression in the Living Cell.- References.- 10 • 5 S Ribosomal Gene Transcription During Xenopus Oogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Isolation and Structural Organization of 5 S rRNA Genes of Xenopus.- 3. 5 S rRNA Synthesis During Oogenesis.- 4. Transcription of 5 S rRNA Genes.- 5. The Role of a Positive Transcription Factor (TFIIIA) in the Transcription of 5 S rRNA Genes.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 11 • Gene Expression During Oogenesis and Oocyte Development in Mammals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Description of Oogenesis and Oocyte Development in Mammals.- 3. RNA Synthesis.- 4. Chromosomal Structure.- 5. Accumulation of Stable RNA During Oocyte Growth; RNA Content of the Full-Grown Oocyte and Ovulated Egg.- 6. Protein Synthesis.- 7. Role of Accumulated Products in Embryogenesis.- 8. Summary.- References.- 12 • Informational Content of the Echinoderm Egg.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Oogenesis in Sea Urchins.- 3. Stored Maternal Messenger RNA in Sea Urchin Eggs.- 4. Characteristics of Maternal RNA Stored in Eggs.- 5. Functional Significance of Maternal RNA Molecules Resembling Nuclear Precursors of Messenger RNA.- 6. Mass of Maternal Messenger RNA Stored in the Egg.- 7. Activation of Translation of Maternal Messenger RNA.- 8. Stability of Maternal Messenger RNA.- 9. Distribution of Maternal RNA Sequences in Eggs and Embryos.- 10. Synthesis and Accumulation of RNA During Oogenesis.- 11. Metabolism of Egg Proteins During Embryonic Development.- 12. Speculations on the Roles of Stored Maternal RNA.- 13. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 13 • Genetic Analysis of Oogenesis and the Role of Maternal Gene Expression in Early Development.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Female Sterile Mutations.- 3. Maternal Effect Mutations.- 4. Conclusions.- References.