Project Unthinkable: A Doctor's Gamble to Save Millions of Lives
Project Unthinkable: A Doctor's Gamble to Save Millions of Lives

Project Unthinkable: A Doctor's Gamble to Save Millions of Lives

by Derek Yach MD

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781988025285
Publisher: Barlow Publishing
Publication date: 11/10/2018
Pages: 216
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.00(d)

Read an Excerpt

Sitting on a runway at John F. Kennedy International Airport: I am on an evening flight from New York to Geneva, a journey I have made often over the last decade but never in this capacity. From my seat in business class, from behind my glasses, I surreptitiously glance up to scrutinize the faces of the passengers around me. Do I know them from somewhere? Do they know me? I recognize no one. Relief floods through my body, and I sink further down into the comfortable seat, headphones on, hoping to lose myself in a movie. But I can’t concentrate. Instead, my mind is racing ahead to my arrival at Geneva International Airport, which is like a second home for people I used to work with as they fly to and return from meetings around the world.

Just like I am.

Only a few years ago, Geneva was my second home, too, part of a high-flying job I had at the World Health Organization. What if I run into an old friend or former colleague when I get there? I have no idea what I will say. Silently, I test out different responses to see how they would go over.

“I’m here to do some touring.”

No. I’m hardly a tourist, having lived here for nearly 10 years.

Or, “There’s a swimming competition I’m going to on Lake Geneva. You remember that I love to swim?”

I may be an avid swimmer but somehow, traveling to Switzerland in the fall to participate in a competition beggars belief.

Or, more simply, “I am visiting old friends.”

I reject that one, too. The friends my wife, Yasmin and I had in the region—doctors, scientists and peers--are the very ones I would be making excuses to, because I can’t tell them the truth in the first place.

The fact is, I am going to a meeting at Philip Morris International Inc.

There, I’ve said it to myself. There is no getting around it. If it was anyone else, that might sound reasonable or at least acceptable; but for me, it encompasses the impossible--the unthinkable. I, an epidemiologist and public health expert, the first-ever director of the World Health Organization’s Tobacco Free Initiative and an architect of the international treaty known as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which was conceived to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure toits deadly smoke, am en route to a meeting in nearby Lausanne at the headquarters of the second largest cigarette manufacturer in the world.

I have spent my entire adult life fighting tobacco companies and the lies they have told. I helped enact a set of universal standards and provisions that include rules to govern the production, sale, distribution, advertising and taxation of tobacco products, which in turn have led to a 2.5 per cent reduction in global smoking rates. That may not sound like much but when you consider that about 1.1 billion people, or one in three adults, smoke around the world, that percentage is huge. And yet, here I am, on my way to a date with PMI’s chief executive officer, André Calantzopoulos.

Don’t panic. Breathe. Pace yourself. It’s just a meeting.

Is it any wonder I’m nervous? If I do encounter someone I know at the airport, I shall have to be purposefully vague about the visit, mumbling that I am in Switzerland for an unspecified business meeting and hoping I’m not pressed further. Or I will pull up the collar of my woollen trench coat, duck my head to hide my face and hurry by, a scurrying figure man in rumpled clothes he has slept in on the plane.

Truth be told, I still can’t quite believe I’m here, high above the Atlantic, eating a meal, reclining my seat, putting on an eye mask to sleep for a few hours. as the plane hurtles me towards a place of business I have spent the whole of my professional life trying to destroy.

The statistics run through my mind in an endless loop: cigarettes kill about six million people a year around the world right now and are projected to kill up to one billion in this century. Tobacco use means disease and death, period. And yet here I am, traveling to a factory in the business of death, one of the five big players in an industry that for years bribed government officials and academics to take their side; an industry that prevaricated, obfuscated and lied outright when presented with incontrovertible facts, with scientific research and statistics about the link between cigarettes and cancer; an industry that balked every step of the way as we worked towards the signing of the international treaty, even setting paid spies in our midst.

I know I risk censure and ostracism from my scientific colleagues who, given Big Tobacco’s dismal track record, dismiss any claims by the companies that they’re trying to do the right thing. For much of the public health community, the only way to diminish tobacco’s influence is through education, hardline legislation, higher excise taxes, helping addicts to go cold turkey or, in the best and most unlikely idea of all, shutting the companies down.

They will say I have been bought.

They will say I am doing the unthinkable.

To the first charge, I can respond with a definitive “No.” As to the second, that I am doing the unthinkable, they are absolutely right. Ever since I was a child, I’ve had a stubborn streak, always insisting on looking at every side of every problem, turning it upside down and inside out. And when a new, previously unthinkable angle comes up that has the potential to change the way we approach that problem, something in me needs to see it through to the end, no matter the price I may have to pay. I shall have to be strong, stronger than I have had to be before.

Maybe I’m naïve but I like to believe that people, and even whole industries, can change their opinions and approach. Or at the very least, they can shift their priorities, which may be change enough in itself. Maybe I just like to keep an open mind.

On the plane, I carry no notes because I very deliberately didn’t write anything down. I didn’t want to take a chance that anyone would see them. Instead, I review the conditions and questions I have in my head, the studies and statistics I have been poring over so that I can call upon them without a moment’s hesitation. In one of his books, Henry Kissinger once wrote that whenever he sees people in meetings or other settings, he knows that even if he simply smiles and says ‘hello,’ that will lead to something else and he has to be prepared to handle what comes next, and next and next.

I know I’m on my way to a meeting that could change the course of my life and the future of people’s health. So, I will channel Henry Kissinger. I will force myself to be calm and my mantra shall be Listen, respond, be prepared for what comes and do not judge.

The pilot announces our descent into Geneva. There is no going back. Then, a sudden wave of panic: What if, oh my God, what if the driver from Philip Morris is waiting for me with a sign that says ‘PMI – Derek Yach’?

For a moment, the image is my nightmare come to life. I’d have nowhere to hide. Maybe people I know have already seen the sign (if it exists) and have already charged, tried and convicted me without my having a say in the matter.

Don’t be silly, I chide myself. Like it or not, hide it or not, I am about to do the unthinkable - again. The plane taxis to a standstill at the gate. I stand up to shrug on my coat.

Table of Contents







AB







Adhanom, Tedros, 203
AIA Asia, 153
American Civil Liberties Union,

75, 76

American Journal of Law and Medicine, 54, 67

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 162

American Journal of Public Health, 26, 99, 135

American Medical Association, 152 Amorim, Celso Luiz Nunes, 74 Antezana, Fernando, 50 antitobacco campaigns, 32, 53–54 Association of Hemp Growers, 73 Australia

sale of e-cigarettes in, 212–13 and tobacco advertising, 54




Barak, Ehud, 119
Bargaining with the Devil (Mnookin),

224
Beaglehole, Robert, 112
Bell, John, 104
Berwick, Dr. Don, 154
Bettcher, Dr. Douglas, 50, 67, 202 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation,

111, 112, 127
BMJ, 135, 222
Boddewyn, Dr. Jean, 42
Botha, Dr. Hannes, 22, 24, 28, 215 Botha, P.W., 120
Boyse, Dr. Sharon, 42
Breaux, John, 90
Brink, Dr. Andries, 25–26, 27–28, 37 British American Tobacco (BAT), 42,

45, 69–70, 72, 73, 75, 170, 172, 180

239







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240 DR. DEREK YACH

British Medical Journal. See BMJ Britton, John, 196
Broughton, Martin, 70, 75 Brownell, Dr. Kelly, 106, 107, 108,

118, 120, 215
Brundtland, Dr. Gro Harlem

announces departure from WHO, 92, 93

antitobacco campaign, 57–58, 66–68, 71, 74–75, 77–78, 219–20

background, 56
birthday, 79
and commission on environment

and development, 56 diet and chronic diseases

initiative, 81–82, 85, 86, 89, 90,

94, 123
DY’s thanks to, 215
lays out vision for WHO, 55, 56 nominated as WHO director-

general, 55
political skills, 57
skills, 100, 206
successor, 94, 95
tobacco companies’ concerns

about, 61–63 Buffett, Warren, 111

C

Calantzopoulos, André, 3–4, 178, 179–82, 184, 185–86, 188, 207–8, 215

Carr, Allen, 162–63
Carter, Jimmy, 41
Center for Epidemiological

Research in South Africa

(CERSA), 28
Charlewood, Carole, 39 Chen, Dr. Chunming, 104 Chibonga, Dyborn, 211 Chollat-Traquet, Dr. Claire, 50




Christiansen, Niels, 83, 84–85, 86, 87, 92, 104, 132

cigarettes. See smoking
Ciresi, Michael, 59, 60
Clarke, Ken, 75
Cleveland, Harlan, 157, 207 Clinton, Bill, 119, 215
Clinton Global Initiative, 114–15,

215
Coca-Cola, 90, 94, 140 Colagiuri, Ruth, 104 constructive ambiguity, 157, 210 Craig, Larry, 90

D

da Costa e Silva, Dr. Vera, 192 Davies, David, 73
Davies, Robert, 82–83
de Klerk, F.W., 38, 39
Dentzer, Susan, 156
Discovery Limited, 145, 147–48 Dlamini-Zuma, Dr. Nkosazana, 40

E

The Easy Way to Stop Smoking (Carr), 162

e-cigarettes, 166, 167–68, 169, 176, 177, 184, 192, 194, 195–99, 212–13, 214

Ehrlich, Ginny, 156

F

Feldman, Zoe, 211
Fisher, Dr. Irving, 150–51, 154 Fong, Dr. Geoffrey, 198
food industry

boycott of Nestlé, 83 compared to tobacco industry,

85–86, 134
criticism of, 106–7 DY’s opinion of, 84–85







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nancial aspects, 146
junk food, 85–86, 129, 134, 150 and life insurance industry,

147–48
marketing in, 133–34, 137
and noncommunicable diseases,

82
and nutrition, 131, 132, 141 obesity, 86
producers of healthy food,

91–92
and WHO dietary guidelines

initiative, 88–95
working with public sector, 135,

141
Foundation for a Smoke-Free

World, 187, 201–2, 204, 206–8,

210–14, 217, 221, 223–24 Framework Convention on Tobacco

Control, 2–3, 58, 65, 114, 218–19.

See also tobacco control treaty Frankel, Lee, 151–52
Freeman, Becky, 212–13
Frenk, Dr. Julio, 130

G

Gable, Lisa, 211
Gandhi, Rajiv, 68
Gates, Frederick Taylor, 109 Gates Foundation. See Bill &

Melinda Gates Foundation Glantz, Dr. Stanton, 192, 213
Global Burden of Disease (Lopez and

Murray), 66
Global Landscapes Initiative,

160–61
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 221
Gore, Adrian, 147, 149, 152, 160, 215 Gottlieb, Scott, 199
Graham, David, 169
Grawemeyer, H. Charles, 56




PROJECT UNTHINKABLE 241 Grawemeyer Award, 56–57

Greenpeace, 90

H

Halban, Dr. Philippe, 104 Hamman, Chris Hugo, 33 Harvard Business Review, 136, 148,

191
Harvard University, 56, 110, 135,

136, 148, 159, 223 Hawkes, Corinna, 97, 99 health. See also public health

and aging, 161–62
and AMA, 152
cardiovascular death rates, 100 and communicable diseases, 70 cost of research on tobacco use,

208–9
and e-cigarettes, 167–68 epidemiological research on,

28–29
and food industry, 86, 133–34 government’s role, 146
and harm reduction, 72 improvement of, 150–52 incentives to promote, 147–49 and life insurance industry,

147–48, 151–52
and noncommunicable diseases,

50–51, 52, 57, 81–82, 98–101 prevention of disease, 154–56,

158
private sector and, 154, 158, 159 promotion of, 154–56
and smoking, 34, 195, 197, 198,

201
in South Africa, 34 and violence, 26

health care
and preventive innovations, 155,

159–60







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242 DR. DEREK YACH

primary, launch of movement, 20

in U.S., 155, 158
Health for All, 50
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation,

40
Horton, Richard, 217–18
How to Live—Rules for Healthful

Living Based on Modern Science

(Fisher), 151 Huf ngton, Arianna, 153

I

Institute for Health Metrics, 159–60 insurance industry, 147–53, 155,

158–59, 160, 161, 162–63 International Bean Alliance, 92 International Food and Beverage

Alliance, 140
International Sugar Association, 90 IQOS, 174, 180, 184, 186, 192, 194,

195, 201, 208

J

Jacobs, Dr. Marian, 22, 35, 210–11 James, Phil, 91
Japan Tobacco Inc., 61
John Hancock Financial Services,

153
Johns Hopkins University, 24, 60 Johnson & Johnson, 169, 183
The Journal of Cell Biology, 210 Journal of Public Health Policy, 85 Journal of the American Medical

Association, 101, 135

K

Karp, Erika, 137
Keillor, Garrison, 124 Kennedy, Ted, 102 Kessler, Dr. David, 63 Kissinger, Henry, 119, 120




Koeberg Alert, 20
Koop, Dr. C. Everett, 157 Kraft, 140
Kramer, Mark, 148–49, 186

L

The Lancet, 124, 217, 218, 224
The Lancet Oncology, 165
Leach, Brock, 118–19
Lee Jong-wook, 94–95, 98, 101, 106 Life Extension Institute, 151, 154 life insurance. See also insurance

industry
and health, 147–48
Lopez, Alan, 66
Ludwig, David, 135
lung cancer, 31–32, 37, 38, 52, 53–54,

163, 189

M

Makhubo, Mbuyisa, 18
malaria, 57, 206
Mandela, Nelson, 25, 39, 40, 43, 103 Mann, Dr. Jonathan, 52
Manulife, 153
Marlboro Man, 53–54
Martiny, Anke, 63
Mauerberger, Morris, 12, 13 Mauerberger Foundation Fund, 12 McLaren, Wayne, 53–54
Meiring, Kobus, 39
Mencha, Dr. Raúl, 52
Merck & Company, 101, 102, 103,

115, 207
Merson, Dr. Michael, 105, 109 mesothelioma, 24, 34
MetLife, 151–52, 157
Mnookin, Robert, 224
Morabia, Dr. Alfredo, 99 Morrison, Fran, 72 Mouchly-Weiss, Harriet, 82, 83, 84







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Mugabe, Robert, 178 Murray, Christopher, 66 Myers, Matthew, 192

N




PROJECT UNTHINKABLE 243

P

Pearson, Clarence, 156–57 PepsiCo. See also Nooyi, Indra

compared to Vitality, 150 concerns about DY job with, 131 con icted assessment of, 176 DY accepts job with, 125–26
DY attends meeting at, 117
DY Prague meeting with,

118–19
ends DY project, 142–43 proposed change in business

model, 136–40
reaction to DY job with, 128–29,

130, 175
reluctance to change, 133–34 support for sugar industry,

90–91
and trans fat elimination, 123–24

Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier, 56
Peto, Sir Richard, 66
P zer Inc., 107
Philip Morris Files, 204–5
Philip Morris International (PMI)

and ACLU, 76
approach to DY, 172–74, 178–83 DY joins, 187
DY prepares for meeting with,

3–6
DY’s concern about, 175
efforts to weaken tobacco control

treaty, 204
and farmers’ concerns, 206 and Foundation for a Smoke-

Free World, 201–2, 204, 206–8,

210–14, 223–24
gathers information on Brundt-

land, 61–63
and lobbying accusations, 204–5 and marketing, 205







Nakajima, Dr. Hiroshi, 51–52, 55 National Institutes of Health (NIH),

154, 158
Nature, 118, 210
Nestlé, 86, 87
Nestle, Dr. Marion, 106, 128, 129,

135, 139
Nestlé S.A., 83 Nicorette Gum, 169, 225 NJOY, 169, 176
Nooyi, Indra

calls DY, 115, 116
changing focus of PepsiCo,

125, 129, 131, 133, 136–37,

149, 181
desire to engage WHO, 121,

139–40, 142–43
DY accepts offer, 132
DY thanks to, 215
lunch with and offer to DY, 117,

118–22
Norum, Dr. Kaare R., 129, 131–32 Novartis, 183, 208
Novo Nordisk, 102, 103, 149 Nutrico, 139

O

Obama, Barack, 154
Obama, Michelle, 211
obesity, 86, 88, 91, 106, 107–8, 134,

135, 155
Opukah, Shabanji, 45, 46 Ornish, Dr. Dean, 119, 123 Ovations, 117, 124
Oxford Vision 2020, 103–4







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244 DR. DEREK YACH

and new business model, 170, 181–83, 185–86, 187–88, 191, 193, 194–95, 201–2

and research on health and tobacco use, 208–10

and tobacco reduction hearings, 73 Physic Ventures, 156
Pieterson, Hector, 18
Porter, Dr. Michael, 148, 186

Porter, Michael, 136
A Prairie Home Companion, 124–25 Pramming, Dr. Stig, 102, 104 Prince of Wales International Busi-

ness Leaders Forum, 82
Proctor, Dr. Chris, 72
public health, 87–88. See also health

challenges of, 157–58 research and policies, 159 supporters of, 102–4

Public Health Nutrition, 131 Puska, Dr. Pekka, 130

Q

Quam, Lois, 117, 124, 125, 128

R

RAND Corporation, 160
Reagan, Ronald, 221
Reinemund, Steve, 119, 125–26, 127 Rembrandt Tobacco Corporation,

32–34, 36, 38–39, 46–47, 69 The Republic of Tea, 156
river blindness, 101–2 Rockefeller, John D. Jr., 109 Rockefeller, John D. Sr., 109 Rockefeller Foundation, 109–14,

115, 125, 127, 129
Rodin, Judith, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114 Roemer, Dr. Ruth, 42, 43, 54, 55, 67 Rolling Stone, 199
Roosevelt, Theodore, 150–51




Rosenzweig, Will, 156
Rothmans International, 32
Rudd, Leslie, 107–8
Rupert, Anton, 32, 33–34, 35, 38–39,

40, 46, 65, 69
Rupert, Johann, 46–47, 65

S

Sagner, Michael, 211
Sanders, Dr. Hannah-Reeve, 21 Schluger, Dr. Neil, 166 Scruton, Roger, 61
Simon, Michele, 118, 129 Sithole, Antoinette, 18
Smith, Richard, 222–23 smoking

banning of, 38
cessation aids, 194, 197–98 challenge to insurance industry,

162–63
death rates of smokers, 166 DY’s hatred of, 31 e-cigarettes, 166, 167–68, 176,

177, 184, 192, 194, 195–99,

212–13, 214
economic impact of, 71
and harm reduction, 72
and health, 4, 34, 37, 38, 195, 197,

198, 201
importance of statistics and

harm, 35
and lung cancer, 31–32
paper on economic aspects, 36 rate in Sweden, 164, 165
rates in young people, 193–94 reasons for, 193
reducing, 167
reduction in rates, 3
ritual of, 10
stopping, 162–69, 189

snus, 164–65







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Snyder, Tom, 205
Sørenson, Lars Rebien, 102–3 South Africa

anti-Semitism in, 11 apartheid in, 15–16
changes in apartheid policies,

27–28
compared to Switzerland, 49 Discovery Limited in, 147–48 DY’s love for, 21–22 government connection with

Rembrandt, 33
importance of tobacco industry

to, 36 Nazis in, 11

nuclear power in, 20 Soweto protest, 17–18 violence in, 25

South African Medical Journal, 36, 37, 38

South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), 22, 24, 25, 26, 35–36, 37, 39, 40, 43, 61, 101

The Spectator, 164, 166, 168–69, 175, 176, 183, 195

Stamps, Timothy, 40–41, 178 Steiger, William (Bill), 95, 106 Støre, Jonas Gahr, 62 Stuckler, Dr. David, 118 Sturm, Roland, 160 Subramaniam, Chitra, 68–69 sugar

consumption, 89, 91
daily limit, 91, 94
industry, 89, 90–91, 126 lowering in foods, 139, 145

T

Taylor, Allyn, 54, 67
T.H. Chan School of Public Health,

223




PROJECT UNTHINKABLE 245

Thompson, Tommy, 79, 90 Thomson, Hilary, 45–46 tobacco

Brundtland project about, 57–58 conference on control of, 40–43, 55 farmers’ fears about loss of, 71 harm reduction, 164–69

snus, 164–65

treaty to control, 72–79 tobacco companies

compared to food industry, 85–86 controversial methods of, 59–60,

61, 63, 64, 69–70
criticism of, 176
distrust of, 168
lawsuits against, 53–54, 59–60 legislation against, 54 presentations to regulation

committee, 72–73 self-justi cation, 68–69 surveillance of Brundtland,

61–63
surveillance of DY, 45–46, 61,

62–63
tobacco control treaty

aftermath of for DY, 81
desire for, 67
difference from nutrition issues,

85
DY’s involvement in, 50, 108,

164, 169, 172, 188, 202, 212 and Pearson, 157
PMI’s efforts to weaken, 204 and Rockefeller Foundation, 111 success of WHO, 99

Tobacco Free Initiative, 58, 65–71, 81, 88, 123

tobacco industry. See also tobacco companies

compared to food industry, 134 critics of, 166







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246 DR. DEREK YACH

Tobacco Regulation Committee, 72 Truven Health Analytics, 159–60 Turner, Ted, 59
Tutu, Desmond, 17

type 2 diabetes, 29, 81, 88, 134, 155

U

Uauy, Dr. Ricardo, 130–31, 132 UCT Anti-Tobacco Campaign, 35 Unilever, 86, 91, 140 UnitedHealth Group, 117
United States Cattlemen’s

Association, 89
United Tobacco Company Ltd.,

42, 46

Vagelos, Dr. P., 101–2, 103 Venter, Rina, 39 Verwoerd, Hendrik, 14 Vitality Group

changing business model, 147–49 DY joins, 145–46
DY leaves, 187, 188
DY paper on tobacco treaty, 219 and DY’s PMI meeting, 175, 185 early years, 149–50

and e-cigarette trial, 169
focus on health, 148, 152–54 paper on health and insurance

companies, 191–92 partnerships, 159–60
roundtable meetings and report,

158–59
and Spectator article, 164 support for seniors, 161–62

Vitality Institute, 150
von Schirnding, Kurt, 120 von Schirnding, Yasmin

as activist, 19
advice to DY, 123, 124




attends Prague meeting, 119, 120 birth of son, 79, 81
career, 49, 106
concerns for DY, 70

DY concern for, 105, 125 DY’s thanks to, 225 marries DY, 24–25 moves to Switzerland, 46 move to Échenevex, 93 move to U.S., 105, 106

in Nyon, 172
pregnancy, 77
support for DY, 44, 98, 177

Voûte, Janet, 99

W

Wagstaff, Lucy, 28
Walburn, Roberta, 60–61 Wellcome Trust, 172
West, Robert, 167
Winslow, Dr. Charles-Edward

Amory, 87–88, 105
World Bank, 51, 63, 99, 219
World Economic Forum, 70, 75, 161 World Health Organization

appoints Brundtland, 55 bureaucracy of, 51
and changes in food industry,

140
and chronic disease, 57
dietary guidelines undertaking,

82–87, 88–95
DY informs of PMI ties, 202–4 DY’s rst project at, 50
DY’s interest in, 37, 43–44 and Foundation for a Smoke-

Free World, 212, 213–14 inquiry into, 63–64
job offer from, 44
lack of action on tobacco control,

52–53, 55







V







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and no-tobacco day, 36–37 sidelining of DY, 95, 97–98
and tobacco control treaty, 72–79 Tobacco Free Initiative, 2
and tobacco policies, 219

World No Tobacco Day, 36, 39

Y

Yach, Aaron, 9 Yach, Derek

antitobacco initiatives, 58–59 antitobacco stance, 32 approached by PMI, 172–74,

178–83
choose medical specialization, 22 controversy over PepsiCo

employment, 135 dismissed from Rockefeller

Foundation, 113
early years, 7–9, 14–15 education, 16, 17, 24 experience in Angolan war,

22–24
family background, 9–13
health and violence study, 25–27 joins PepsiCo, 125
joins PMI, 187




PROJECT UNTHINKABLE 247

joins Rockefeller Foundation, 111 joins Vitality, 150
leaves PepsiCo, 142–43
leaves Yale, 111

marries, 25, 44–45
as medical intern, 21 meeting with Rupert, 33–34 PepsiCo offer, 122
and research on health and

urbanization, 28–29 swimming abilities, 7–9 tobacco company surveillance

of, 45–46, 61
and university protests, 19 Yale invitation, 105

Yach, Dianna, 13, 224–25
Yach, Estelle Mauerberger, 10 Yach, Jonathan, 225
Yach, Julian, 98, 105, 225
Yach, Theodore, 225
Yale University, 105–6, 107, 108–9,

129

Z

Zeller, Mitch, 198–99, 220–21 Zeltner, Thomas, 63 Zimbabwe, 40–41, 42




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