School Violence: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition: A Reference Handbook

School Violence: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition: A Reference Handbook

by Laura L. Finley

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781610696241
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 09/26/2014
Series: Contemporary World Issues
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 357
File size: 1 MB

About the Author

Laura Finley, PhD, is assistant professor of sociology and criminology at Barry University.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xix

1 Background and History 3

Types of School Violence 4

Measuring School Violence 12

Brief History of School Violence Incidents 18

Legislation and Court Decisions 37

Supreme Court Cases 40

Conclusion 47

Further Reading 48

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 63

Effects of School Violence 63

Biological Theories 66

Psychological Theories 70

Rational Choice Theory 72

Social Strain Theories 74

Social Learning Theories 79

Social Control Theories 81

Labeling Theories 82

Conflict Theories 83

Integrated Theories 85

Feminist Theories 86

Risk Factors 87

Individual 87

Family 94

School 97

Community 99

Protective Factors 100

Individual 100

Family 100

School 101

Community 105

Interventions 105

Anonymous Tip Lines 105

Profiling 106

Dress Codes and Uniforms 107

Metal Detectors 108

Video Cameras 110

Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation 110

Peaceable Schools 111

Restorative Justice 112

School Police Officers 112

Canine Searches 114

Zero Tolerance Laws 115

Other Laws 116

Conclusion 121

Further Reading 121

3 Perspective 133

A Student's Perspective on the Dangers of Bullying: Lashanti Jupp 133

Reflections on Mean Girls: Lauren Lorance 136

Sticks and Stones Can Break My Bones, but Names Will Never Hurt Me? Approaches to Language Mis(uses) in Schooling: Kelly Concannon 138

The People's Court in a South Bronx Elementary School: Evelyn Jackson 142

Creating and Sustaining Positive School Climates: De Palazzo 145

Being Out 152

Confidentiality and LGBT Students: It's the Law 154

Our Gender-Nonconforming Youth and Transgender Youth 156

Creating a Safe Space for All: Policies, Programs, and Practices 156

Federal Law 158

State Law 159

Local Policies and Acts 159

Other Key Ways to Show Allyship to LGBTQ Youth 159

Resources 163

Is There More School Violence Today? A Veteran Educator Says No: Sarah Raitter 164

Reflections on Peacejam and School Violence in the United Kingdom: Larenda Twigg 166

Preventing School Violence: Barbara J. Wien 176

Violence as a Continuum 176

Shifting U.S. Culture 177

Ending War and Violence 179

Cultivating Caring Communities 183

How to Build Community 184

Best Practices in Reducing School Violence 187

Working for a Higher Purpose 190

The Circle Model 190

Organizing for Peace in Your Community: Six Steps for Success 192

References 199

Activism against Domestic and Dating Violence: Stephanie Wong 200

Turning the Personal into Progress: Robert Spencer Knotts 204

4 Profiles 211

Part I 212

Bath, Michigan, School Bombing 212

Columbine Massacre 215

Laurie Dann 219

Kip Kinkel 222

Adam Lanza 226

Barry Loukaitis 228

Patrick Purdy 229

Evan Ramsey 232

Charles Carl Roberts IV 234

Steubenville High School Rape Case 236

Jeff Weiss 239

Phoebe Prince, Bullycide 240

Amanda Todd, Bullycide 241

Part II 242

Break the Cycle 242

Geoffrey Canada 243

Riane Eisler, JD 246

Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network (GLSEN) 247

Jackson Katz 249

Paul Kivel 251

Hank Nuwer 252

StopBullying.gov 253

Students Against Violence Everywhere (SAVE) 255

Further Reading 257

5 Data and Documents 265

Data 265

Figure 5.1 Trends in school-associated violent deaths, 1992-2010 266

Figure 5.2 Percentage of students in grades 9-12 who reported being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property at least one time during the previous 12 months, by grade: Various years, 1993-2009 266

Figure 5.3 Percentage of public and private school teachers who reported that they were threatened with injury or that they were physically attacked by a student from school during the previous 12 months, by locale and instructional level: School year 2007-2008 267

Figure 5.4 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported criminal victimization at school during the previous six months, by type of victimization: Various years, 1995-2009 268

Figure 5.5 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported that gangs were present at school during the school year, by urbanicity: 2007 and 2009 269

Figure 5.6 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported being targets of hate-related words and seeing hate-related graffiti at school during the school year, by selected student and school characteristics: 2009 270

Figure 5.7 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported being bullied at school during the school year, by selected bullying problems and sex: 2009 271

Figure 5.8 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported cyberbullying problems anywhere during the school year, by selected bullying problems and sex: 2009 272

Figure 5.9 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported avoiding school activities or one or more places in school because of tear of attack or harm during the school year: 2009 273

Figure 5.10 Percentage of students ages 12-18 who reported selected security measures at school: Various years, 1999-2009 274

Documents 275

Sandy Hook Elementary School Violence Reduction Act 275

Safe Schools Improvement Act of 2013 276

Barack Obama's Statement on the School Shooting in Newtown, Connecticut 281

The Myths about Bullying: Secretary Arne Duncan's Remarks at the Bullying Prevention Summit 283

6 Resources for Further Research 295

Books 295

School Violence 295

Bullying 298

Specific Cases 299

Hazing 300

Civil Liberties 300

Gender 301

Dating and Sexual Violence 302

Suicide, Eating Disorders, and Self-Harm 302

Theories and Explanations 302

Responses 303

Media 305

Recommended Journals 305

Journal Articles, 2010-Present 307

Websites and Organizations 309

Films 316

7 Chronology 323

Glossary 339

Index 351

About the Author 359

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