Social Stratification: Class, Race, And Gender In Sociological Perspective

Social Stratification: Class, Race, And Gender In Sociological Perspective

by David B Grusky, EDITOR * (Editor)

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The field of stratification is being transformed and reshaped by advances in theory and quantitative modeling as well as by new approaches to the analysis of economic, racial, and gender inequality. Although these developments are revolutionary in their implications, until now there has been no comprehensive effort to bring together the classic articles that have defined and redefined the contours of the field.In this up-to-date anthology, the history of stratification research unfolds in systematic fashion, with the introductory articles in each section providing examples of the major research traditions in the field and the concluding essays (commissioned from leading scholars) providing broader programmatic statements that identify current controversies and unresolved issues. The resulting collection of articles both celebrates the diversity of theoretical approaches and reveals the cumulative nature of ongoing research.This comprehensive reader is designed as a primary text for introductory courses on social stratification and as a supplementary text for advanced courses on social classes, occupations, labor markets, or social mobility. The following types of questions and debates are addressed in the six sections of the reader:1. Is stratification inevitable? Do the recent “experiments with destratification in Eastern Europe and elsewhere provide new insights into the functionalist theory of inequality? 2. Can we identify a set of organized and cohesive “social classes” in advanced industrial societies? Does it make sense to refer to a ruling class, a “political class,” or a “power elite” in these societies? 3. Are the basic contours of occupational mobility the same within all advanced industrial societies? Have the “new structuralists” led us astray in our attempts to understand the sources and causes of occupational attainment? 4. Are there fundamental differences across social classes in styles of life, patterns of consumption, and attitudes toward work? Are these “class-specific cultures” attenuating as we move into advanced industrialism? 5. Is there an emerging underclass in America? What are the principal sources of racial, ethnic, and gender inequality? 6. Can we identify a “teleological dynamic” driving the development of stratification systems? Are new forms of stratification and inequality emerging as Eastern Europe enters its postsocialist stage? The volume offers essential reading for undergraduates who need an introduction to the field, for graduate students who wish to broaden their understanding of stratification research, and for advanced scholars who seek a basic reference guide. Although most of the selections are middle-range theoretical pieces suitable for introductory courses, the anthology also includes advanced contributions on the cutting edge of research. The editor outlines a modified study plan for undergraduate students requiring a basic introduction to the field.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780813310657
Publisher: Avalon Publishing
Publication date: 08/28/1994
Series: Social Inequality Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 768
Product dimensions: 7.29(w) x 9.24(h) x 2.03(d)
Lexile: 1530L (what's this?)

About the Author

David B. Grusky is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality at Stanford University . His recent books include Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, and Gender (Westview Press); Occupational Ghettos: The Worldwide Segregation of Women and Men ; Mobility and Inequality: Frontiers of Research in Sociology and Economics ; Poverty and Inequality ; and The Declining Significance of Gender?

Table of Contents

Study Guidex
Preface and Acknowledgmentsxi
Part IIntroduction
The Past, Present, and Future of Social Inequality1
Part IIForms and Sources of Stratification
The Functions of Stratification
Some Principles of Stratification55
The Dysfunctions of Stratification
Some Principles of Stratification: A Critical Analysis65
Inequality by Design73
Concluding Commentary to Part Two
New Light on Old Issues: The Relevance of "Really Existing Socialist Societies" for Stratification Theory77
Part IIIThe Structure of Contemporary Stratification
Theories of Class
Marx and Post-Marxists
Alienation and Social Classes87
Classes in Capitalism and Pre-Capitalism91
Ideology and Class101
Value and Surplus Value103
Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society105
Varieties of Marxist Conceptions of Class Structure112
A General Framework for the Analysis of Class Structure116
Class Conflict in the Capitalist World Economy129
Weber and Post-Weberians
Class, Status, Party132
Status Groups and Classes142
Open and Closed Relationships146
The Rationalization of Education and Training150
The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies152
Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique162
Durkheim and Post-Durkheimians
The Division of Labor in Society178
Are There Big Social Classes?183
The Ruling Class and Elites
Classic Statements
The Ruling Class195
The Power Elite202
Elites and Power212
Contemporary Elites in "Mass Society," Capitalism, and Post-Capitalism
The Political Class in the Age of Mass Society: Collectivistic Liberalism and Social Democracy216
The Inner Circle223
Post-Communist Managerialism233
Gradational Status Groupings
Reputation, Deference, and Prestige
Social Class in America240
Occupational Hierarchies
Classic Statements
Measuring the Status of Occupations255
Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective260
Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige264
Prestige or Socioeconomic Scales in the Study of Occupational Achievement?271
Are Socioeconomic Scales Obselete?
The Measurement of Occupational Status273
Socioeconomic Indexes for Occupations: A Review, Update, and Critique281
Concluding Commentary to Part Three
The Basic Concepts of Stratification Research: Class, Status, and Power287
Part IVGenerating Inequality
Social Mobility
Classical Viewpoints
Social and Cultural Mobility303
Social Mobility in Industrial Society309
Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System319
Modern Analyses of Class Mobility
A Refined Model of Occupational Mobility325
Comparative Social Mobility Revisited: Models of Convergence and Divergence in 16 Countries336
Trends in Class Mobility: The Post-War European Experience344
Modern Analyses of Income Mobility and Poverty Spells
Inequality, Income Growth, and Mobility: The Basic Facts373
The Dynamics and Intergenerational Transmission of Poverty and Welfare Participation378
Status and Income Attainment
Basic Models
The Process of Stratification390
Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America403
Social Psychological Models
The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process410
Ain't No Makin's It: Leveled Aspirations in a Low-income Neighborhood421
The "New Structuralism"
The Dual Labor Market: Theory and Implications435
An Outline of a Theory of the Matching of Persons to Jobs438
Social Capital, Networks, and Attainment
The Strength of Weak Ties447
Social Networks and Status Attainment451
Structural Holes454
Rational Action Approaches to Mobility and Attainment
Explaining Educational Differentials: Towards a Formal Rational Action Theory459
Rational Choice and the TSL Model of Occupational Opportunity471
Concluding Commentary to Part Four
Observations on the Study of Social Mobility and Inequality477
Part VThe Consequences of Stratification
Lifestyles and Consumption Patterns
The Theory of the Leisure Class491
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste499
Interests, Attitudes, and Personalities
The Realignment of U.S. Presidential Voting, 1952-1992526
Job Complexity and Adult Personality532
Concluding Commentary to Part Five
Social Stratification, Life-Style, Social Cognition, and Social Participation542
Part VIAscriptive Processes
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Modes of Incorporation
Classic Modes
A Theory of Ethnic Antagonism: The Split Labor Market555
The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples568
A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880580
New Modes
Still the Promised City? African-Americans and New Immigrants in Postindustrial New York592
The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants597
Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities608
Are Racial and Ethnic Distinctions Declining in Significance?
The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions611
The State of the American Dream: Race and Ethnic Socioeconomic Inequality in the United States, 1970-1990623
Black Wealth / White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality636
The Possibility of a New Racial Hierarchy in the Twenty-first-century United States642
The Underclass and the Ghetto
Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation in the Inner-City Ghetto651
American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass660
Gender Stratification
Gender and Class
The Dialectic of Sex671
The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union673
The "Woman Problem" in Stratification Theory and Research681
Sex Segregation
The Structure of Sex Segregation
Is There a Worldwide Sex Segregation Regime?689
The Sources of Sex Segregation
The Structure and Process of Sex Segregation703
Revolving Doors: Sex Segregation and Women's Careers714
Labor Markets as Queues: A Structural Approach to Changing Occupational Sex Composition719
The Gender Gap in Wages
The Within-Job Gender Wage Gap734
The Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry743
Is There an Empirical Case for Comparable Worth?
Returns to Skill, Compensating Differentials, and Gender Bias: Effects of Occupational Characteristics on the Wages of White Women and Men761
Why Do Female Occupations Pay Less?776
Concluding Commentary to Part Six
Understanding Ascriptive Stratification: Some Issues and Principles781
Part VIIThe Future of Stratification
Theories of Industrialism and Modernity
Industrialism and Industrial Man793
Theories of Post-Industrialism, Post-Socialism, and Post-Modernity
Post-Industrialism and the New Class
The Coming of Post-Industrial Society805
The Future of Intellectuals and the Rise of the New Class817
Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies830
Postsocialist Stratification846
Making Capitalism without Capitalists852
The Meaning of New Times859
The Death of Class866
Trends in Income Inequality
Inequality in Earnings: Trends and Implications875
Concluding Commentary to Part Seven
The Evolution of Modern Stratification Systems881
Supplementary Information on Sources and Excerpting897
About the Book and Editor911

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